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Dijkhuis, Sander, van Wijk, Remco, Dorhout, Hidde, Bharosa, Nitesh.  2018.  When Willeke Can Get Rid of Paperwork: A Lean Infrastructure for Qualified Information Exchange Based on Trusted Identities. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. :89:1-89:10.

As a frequent participant in eSociety, Willeke is often preoccupied with paperwork because there is no easy to use, affordable way to act as a qualified person in the digital world. Confidential interactions take place over insecure channels like e-mail and post. This situation poses risks and costs for service providers, civilians and governments, while goals regarding confidentiality and privacy are not always met. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an alternative architecture in which identifying persons, exchanging information, authorizing external parties and signing documents will become more user-friendly and secure. As a starting point, each person has their personal data space, provided by a qualified trust service provider that also issues a high level of assurance electronic ID. Three main building blocks are required: (1) secure exchange between the personal data space of each person, (2) coordination functionalities provided by a token based infrastructure, and (3) governance over this infrastructure. Following the design science research approach, we developed prototypes of the building blocks that we will pilot in practice. Policy makers and practitioners that want to enable Willeke to get rid of her paperwork can find guidance throughout this paper and are welcome to join the pilots in the Netherlands.

Guan, C., Mohaisen, A., Sun, Z., Su, L., Ren, K., Yang, Y..  2017.  When Smart TV Meets CRN: Privacy-Preserving Fine-Grained Spectrum Access. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1105–1115.

Dynamic spectrum sharing techniques applied in the UHF TV band have been developed to allow secondary WiFi transmission in areas with active TV users. This technique of dynamically controlling the exclusion zone enables vastly increasing secondary spectrum re-use, compared to the "TV white space" model where TV transmitters determine the exclusion zone and only "idle" channels can be re-purposed. However, in current such dynamic spectrum sharing systems, the sensitive operation parameters of both primary TV users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs) need to be shared with the spectrum database controller (SDC) for the purpose of realizing efficient spectrum allocation. Since such SDC server is not necessarily operated by a trusted third party, those current systems might cause essential threatens to the privacy requirement from both PUs and SUs. To address this privacy issue, this paper proposes a privacy-preserving spectrum sharing system between PUs and SUs, which realizes the spectrum allocation decision process using efficient multi-party computation (MPC) technique. In this design, the SDC only performs secure computation over encrypted input from PUs and SUs such that none of the PU or SU operation parameters will be revealed to SDC. The evaluation of its performance illustrates that our proposed system based on efficient MPC techniques can perform dynamic spectrum allocation process between PUs and SUs efficiently while preserving users' privacy.

Xu, Cheng, Xu, Jianliang, Hu, Haibo, Au, Man Ho.  2018.  When Query Authentication Meets Fine-Grained Access Control: A Zero-Knowledge Approach. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Management of Data. :147-162.

Query authentication has been extensively studied to ensure the integrity of query results for outsourced databases, which are often not fully trusted. However, access control, another important security concern, is largely ignored by existing works. Notably, recent breakthroughs in cryptography have enabled fine-grained access control over outsourced data. In this paper, we take the first step toward studying the problem of authenticating relational queries with fine-grained access control. The key challenge is how to protect information confidentiality during query authentication, which is essential to many critical applications. To address this challenge, we propose a novel access-policy-preserving (APP) signature as the primitive authenticated data structure. A useful property of the APP signature is that it can be used to derive customized signatures for unauthorized users to prove the inaccessibility while achieving the zero-knowledge confidentiality. We also propose a grid-index-based tree structure that can aggregate APP signatures for efficient range and join query authentication. In addition to this, a number of optimization techniques are proposed to further improve the authentication performance. Security analysis and performance evaluation show that the proposed solutions and techniques are robust and efficient under various system settings.

Nasir, J., Norman, U., Bruno, B., Dillenbourg, P..  2020.  When Positive Perception of the Robot Has No Effect on Learning. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :313–320.
Humanoid robots, with a focus on personalised social behaviours, are increasingly being deployed in educational settings to support learning. However, crafting pedagogical HRI designs and robot interventions that have a real, positive impact on participants' learning, as well as effectively measuring such impact, is still an open challenge. As a first effort in tackling the issue, in this paper we propose a novel robot-mediated, collaborative problem solving activity for school children, called JUSThink, aiming at improving their computational thinking skills. JUSThink will serve as a baseline and reference for investigating how the robot's behaviour can influence the engagement of the children with the activity, as well as their collaboration and mutual understanding while working on it. To this end, this first iteration aims at investigating (i) participants' engagement with the activity (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory-IMI), their mutual understanding (IMIlike) and perception of the robot (Godspeed Questionnaire); (ii) participants' performance during the activity, using several performance and learning metrics. We carried out an extensive user-study in two international schools in Switzerland, in which around 100 children participated in pairs in one-hour long interactions with the activity. Surprisingly, we observe that while a teams' performance significantly affects how team members evaluate their competence, mutual understanding and task engagement, it does not affect their perception of the robot and its helpfulness, a fact which highlights the need for baseline studies and multi-dimensional evaluation metrics when assessing the impact of robots in educational activities.
Li, Mengyuan, Meng, Yan, Liu, Junyi, Zhu, Haojin, Liang, Xiaohui, Liu, Yao, Ruan, Na.  2016.  When CSI Meets Public WiFi: Inferring Your Mobile Phone Password via WiFi Signals. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1068–1079.

In this study, we present WindTalker, a novel and practical keystroke inference framework that allows an attacker to infer the sensitive keystrokes on a mobile device through WiFi-based side-channel information. WindTalker is motivated from the observation that keystrokes on mobile devices will lead to different hand coverage and the finger motions, which will introduce a unique interference to the multi-path signals and can be reflected by the channel state information (CSI). The adversary can exploit the strong correlation between the CSI fluctuation and the keystrokes to infer the user's number input. WindTalker presents a novel approach to collect the target's CSI data by deploying a public WiFi hotspot. Compared with the previous keystroke inference approach, WindTalker neither deploys external devices close to the target device nor compromises the target device. Instead, it utilizes the public WiFi to collect user's CSI data, which is easy-to-deploy and difficult-to-detect. In addition, it jointly analyzes the traffic and the CSI to launch the keystroke inference only for the sensitive period where password entering occurs. WindTalker can be launched without the requirement of visually seeing the smart phone user's input process, backside motion, or installing any malware on the tablet. We implemented Windtalker on several mobile phones and performed a detailed case study to evaluate the practicality of the password inference towards Alipay, the largest mobile payment platform in the world. The evaluation results show that the attacker can recover the key with a high successful rate.

Hong, H., Choi, H., Kim, D., Kim, H., Hong, B., Noh, J., Kim, Y..  2017.  When Cellular Networks Met IPv6: Security Problems of Middleboxes in IPv6 Cellular Networks. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :595–609.

Recently, cellular operators have started migrating to IPv6 in response to the increasing demand for IP addresses. With the introduction of IPv6, cellular middleboxes, such as firewalls for preventing malicious traffic from the Internet and stateful NAT64 boxes for providing backward compatibility with legacy IPv4 services, have become crucial to maintain stability of cellular networks. This paper presents security problems of the currently deployed IPv6 middleboxes of five major operators. To this end, we first investigate several key features of the current IPv6 deployment that can harm the safety of a cellular network as well as its customers. These features combined with the currently deployed IPv6 middlebox allow an adversary to launch six different attacks. First, firewalls in IPv6 cellular networks fail to block incoming packets properly. Thus, an adversary could fingerprint cellular devices with scanning, and further, she could launch denial-of-service or over-billing attacks. Second, vulnerabilities in the stateful NAT64 box, a middlebox that maps an IPv6 address to an IPv4 address (and vice versa), allow an adversary to launch three different attacks: 1) NAT overflow attack that allows an adversary to overflow the NAT resources, 2) NAT wiping attack that removes active NAT mappings by exploiting the lack of TCP sequence number verification of firewalls, and 3) NAT bricking attack that targets services adopting IP-based blacklisting by preventing the shared external IPv4 address from accessing the service. We confirmed the feasibility of these attacks with an empirical analysis. We also propose effective countermeasures for each attack.

Guo, Xiaolong, Zhu, Huifeng, Jin, Yier, Zhang, Xuan.  2019.  When Capacitors Attack: Formal Method Driven Design and Detection of Charge-Domain Trojans. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1727–1732.

The rapid growth and globalization of the integrated circuit (IC) industry put the threat of hardware Trojans (HTs) front and center among all security concerns in the IC supply chain. Current Trojan detection approaches always assume HTs are composed of digital circuits. However, recent demonstrations of analog attacks, such as A2 and Rowhammer, invalidate the digital assumption in previous HT detection or testing methods. At the system level, attackers can utilize the analog properties of the underlying circuits such as charge-sharing and capacitive coupling effects to create information leakage paths. These new capacitor-based vulnerabilities are rarely covered in digital testings. To address these stealthy yet harmful threats, we identify a large class of such capacitor-enabled attacks and define them as charge-domain Trojans. We are able to abstract the detailed charge-domain models for these Trojans and expose the circuit-level properties that critically contribute to their information leakage paths. Aided by the abstract models, an information flow tracking (IFT) based solution is developed to detect charge-domain leakage paths and then identify the charge-domain Trojans/vulnerabilities. Our proposed method is validated on an experimental RISC microcontroller design injected with different variants of charge-domain Trojans. We demonstrate that successful detection can be accomplished with an automatic tool which realizes the IFT-based solution.

Naves, Raphael, Jakllari, Gentian, Khalife, Hicham, Conant, Vania, Beylot, Andre-Luc.  2018.  When Analog Meets Digital: Source-Encoded Physical-Layer Network Coding. 2018 IEEE 19th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :1–9.
We revisit Physical-Layer Network Coding (PLNC) and the reasons preventing it from becoming a staple in wireless networks. We identify its strong coupling to the Two-Way Relay Channel (TWRC) as key among them due to its requiring crossing traffic flows and two-hop node coordination. We introduce SE-PLNC, a Source-Encoded PLNC scheme that is traffic pattern independent and involves coordination only among one-hop neighbors, making it significantly more practical to adopt PLNC in multi-hop wireless networks. To accomplish this, SE-PLNC introduces three innovations: it combines bit-level with physical-level network coding, it shifts most of the coding burden from the relay to the source of the PLNC scheme, and it leverages multi-path relaying opportunities available to a particular traffic flow. We evaluate SE-PLNC using theoretical analysis, proof-of-concept implementation on a Universal Software Radio Peripherals (USRP) testbed, and simulations. The theoretical analysis shows the scalability of SE-PLNC and its efficiency in large ad-hoc networks while the testbed experiments its real-life feasibility. Large-scale simulations show that TWRC PLNC barely boosts network throughput while SE-PLNC improves it by over 30%.
Manikonda, Lydia, Deotale, Aditya, Kambhampati, Subbarao.  2018.  What's Up with Privacy?: User Preferences and Privacy Concerns in Intelligent Personal Assistants Proceedings of the 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. :229–235.

The recent breakthroughs in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have allowed individuals to rely on automated systems for a variety of reasons. Some of these systems are the currently popular voice-enabled systems like Echo by Amazon and Home by Google that are also called as Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs). Though there are rising concerns about privacy and ethical implications, users of these IPAs seem to continue using these systems. We aim to investigate to what extent users are concerned about privacy and how they are handling these concerns while using the IPAs. By utilizing the reviews posted online along with the responses to a survey, this paper provides a set of insights about the detected markers related to user interests and privacy challenges. The insights suggest that users of these systems irrespective of their concerns about privacy, are generally positive in terms of utilizing IPAs in their everyday lives. However, there is a significant percentage of users who are concerned about privacy and take further actions to address related concerns. Some percentage of users expressed that they do not have any privacy concerns but when they learned about the "always listening" feature of these devices, their concern about privacy increased.

Angel, Sebastian, Lazar, David, Tzialla, Ioanna.  2018.  What's a Little Leakage Between Friends? Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society. :104–108.

This paper introduces a new attack on recent messaging systems that protect communication metadata. The main observation is that if an adversary manages to compromise a user's friend, it can use this compromised friend to learn information about the user's other ongoing conversations. Specifically, the adversary learns whether a user is sending other messages or not, which opens the door to existing intersection and disclosure attacks. To formalize this compromised friend attack, we present an abstract scenario called the exclusive call center problem that captures the attack's root cause, and demonstrates that it is independent of the particular design or implementation of existing metadata-private messaging systems. We then introduce a new primitive called a private answering machine that can prevent the attack. Unfortunately, building a secure and efficient instance of this primitive under only computational hardness assumptions does not appear possible. Instead, we give a construction under the assumption that users can place a bound on their maximum number of friends and are okay leaking this information.

Simon, Laurent, Chisnall, David, Anderson, Ross.  2018.  What You Get is What You C: Controlling Side Effects in Mainstream C Compilers. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1–15.
Security engineers have been fighting with C compilers for years. A careful programmer would test for null pointer dereferencing or division by zero; but the compiler would fail to understand, and optimize the test away. Modern compilers now have dedicated options to mitigate this. But when a programmer tries to control side effects of code, such as to make a cryptographic algorithm execute in constant time, the problem remains. Programmers devise complex tricks to obscure their intentions, but compiler writers find ever smarter ways to optimize code. A compiler upgrade can suddenly and without warning open a timing channel in previously secure code. This arms race is pointless and has to stop. We argue that we must stop fighting the compiler, and instead make it our ally. As a starting point, we analyze the ways in which compiler optimization breaks implicit properties of crypto code; and add guarantees for two of these properties in Clang/LLVM. Our work explores what is actually involved in controlling side effects on modern CPUs with a standard toolchain. Similar techniques can and should be applied to other security properties; achieving intentions by compiler commands or annotations makes them explicit, so we can reason about them. It is already understood that explicitness is essential for cryptographic protocol security and for compiler performance; it is essential for language security too. We therefore argue that this should be only the first step in a sustained engineering effort.
Yasin, Muhammad, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Schafer, Benjamin Carrion, Makris, Yiorgos, Sinanoglu, Ozgur, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan(JV).  2017.  What to Lock?: Functional and Parametric Locking Proceedings of the on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI 2017. :351–356.

Logic locking is an intellectual property (IP) protection technique that prevents IP piracy, reverse engineering and overbuilding attacks by the untrusted foundry or end-users. Existing logic locking techniques are all based on locking the functionality; the design/chip is nonfunctional unless the secret key has been loaded. Existing techniques are vulnerable to various attacks, such as sensitization, key-pruning, and signal skew analysis enabled removal attacks. In this paper, we propose a tenacious and traceless logic locking technique, TTlock, that locks functionality and provably withstands all known attacks, such as SAT-based, sensitization, removal, etc. TTLock protects a secret input pattern; the output of a logic cone is flipped for that pattern, where this flip is restored only when the correct key is applied. Experimental results confirm our theoretical expectations that the computational complexity of attacks launched on TTLock grows exponentially with increasing key-size, while the area, power, and delay overhead increases only linearly. In this paper, we also coin ``parametric locking," where the design/chip behaves as per its specifications (performance, power, reliability, etc.) only with the secret key in place, and an incorrect key downgrades its parametric characteristics. We discuss objectives and challenges in parametric locking.

Appana, Pranavi, Sun, Xiaoyan, Cheng, Yuan.  2019.  What To Do First: Ranking The Mission Impact Graph for Effective Mission Assurance. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :567–571.

Network attacks continue to pose threats to missions in cyber space. To prevent critical missions from getting impacted or minimize the possibility of mission impact, active cyber defense is very important. Mission impact graph is a graphical model that enables mission impact assessment and shows how missions can be possibly impacted by cyber attacks. Although the mission impact graph provides valuable information, it is still very difficult for human analysts to comprehend due to its size and complexity. Especially when given limited resources, human analysts cannot easily decide which security measures to take first with respect to mission assurance. Therefore, this paper proposes to apply a ranking algorithm towards the mission impact graph so that the huge amount of information can be prioritized. The actionable conditions that can be managed by security admins are ranked with numeric values. The rank enables efficient utilization of limited resources and provides guidance for taking security countermeasures.

Geiskkovitch, D. Y., Thiessen, R., Young, J. E., Glenwright, M. R..  2019.  What? That's Not a Chair!: How Robot Informational Errors Affect Children's Trust Towards Robots 2019 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). :48—56.

Robots that interact with children are becoming more common in places such as child care and hospital environments. While such robots may mistakenly provide nonsensical information, or have mechanical malfunctions, we know little of how these robot errors are perceived by children, and how they impact trust. This is particularly important when robots provide children with information or instructions, such as in education or health care. Drawing inspiration from established psychology literature investigating how children trust entities who teach or provide them with information (informants), we designed and conducted an experiment to examine how robot errors affect how young children (3-5 years old) trust robots. Our results suggest that children utilize their understanding of people to develop their perceptions of robots, and use this to determine how to interact with robots. Specifically, we found that children developed their trust model of a robot based on the robot's previous errors, similar to how they would for a person. We however failed to replicate other prior findings with robots. Our results provide insight into how children as young as 3 years old might perceive robot errors and develop trust.

Hughes, Cameron, Hughes, Tracey.  2019.  What Metrics Should We Use to Measure Commercial AI? AI Matters. 5:41–45.

In AI Matters Volume 4, Issue 2, and Issue 4, we raised the notion of the possibility of an AI Cosmology in part in response to the "AI Hype Cycle" that we are currently experiencing. We posited that our current machine learning and big data era represents but one peak among several previous peaks in AI research in which each peak had accompanying "Hype Cycles". We associated each peak with an epoch in a possible AI Cosmology. We briefly explored the logic machines, cybernetics, and expert system epochs. One of the objectives of identifying these epochs was to help establish that we have been here before. In particular we've been in the territory where some application of AI research finds substantial commercial success which is then closely followed by AI fever and hype. The public's expectations are heightened only to end in disillusionment when the applications fall short. Whereas it is sometimes somewhat of a challenge even for AI researchers, educators, and practitioners to know where the reality ends and hype begins, the layperson is often in an impossible position and at the mercy of pop culture, marketing and advertising campaigns. We suggested that an AI Cosmology might help us identify a single standard model for AI that could be the foundation for a common shared understanding of what AI is and what it is not. A tool to help the layperson understand where AI has been, where it's going, and where it can't go. Something that could provide a basic road map to help the general public navigate the pitfalls of AI Hype.

Khokhlov, I., Reznik, L..  2020.  What is the Value of Data Value in Practical Security Applications. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

Data value (DV) is a novel concept that is introduced as one of the Big Data phenomenon features. While continuing an investigation of the DV ontology and its relationship with the data quality (DQ) on the conceptual level, this paper researches possible applications and use of the DV in the practical design of security and privacy protection systems and tools. We present a novel approach to DV evaluation that maps DQ metrics into DV value. Developed methods allow DV and DQ use in a wide range of application domains. To demonstrate DQ and DV concept employment in real tasks we present two real-life scenarios. The first use case demonstrates the DV use in crowdsensing application design. It shows up how DV can be calculated by integrating various metrics characterizing data application functionality, accuracy, and security. The second one incorporates the privacy consideration into DV calculus by exploring the relationship between privacy, DQ, and DV in the defense against web-site fingerprinting in The Onion Router (TOR) networks. These examples demonstrate how our methods of the DV and DQ evaluation may be employed in the design of real systems with security and privacy consideration.

Blair, Jean, Sobiesk, Edward, Ekstrom, Joseph J., Parrish, Allen.  2016.  What is Information Technology's Role in Cybersecurity? Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education. :46–47.

This panel will discuss and debate what role(s) the information technology discipline should have in cybersecurity. Diverse viewpoints will be considered including current and potential ACM curricular recommendations, current and potential ABET and NSA accreditation criteria, the emerging cybersecurity discipline(s), consideration of government frameworks, the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to cybersecurity, and what aspects of cybersecurity should be under information technology's purview.

Durak, F. Betül, DuBuisson, Thomas M., Cash, David.  2016.  What Else is Revealed by Order-Revealing Encryption? Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1155–1166.

The security of order-revealing encryption (ORE) has been unclear since its invention. Dataset characteristics for which ORE is especially insecure have been identified, such as small message spaces and low-entropy distributions. On the other hand, properties like one-wayness on uniformly-distributed datasets have been proved for ORE constructions. This work shows that more plaintext information can be extracted from ORE ciphertexts than was previously thought. We identify two issues: First, we show that when multiple columns of correlated data are encrypted with ORE, attacks can use the encrypted columns together to reveal more information than prior attacks could extract from the columns individually. Second, we apply known attacks, and develop new attacks, to show that the leakage of concrete ORE schemes on non-uniform data leads to more accurate plaintext recovery than is suggested by the security theorems which only dealt with uniform inputs.

Jin, Zhe, Chee, Kong Yik, Xia, Xin.  2019.  What Do Developers Discuss about Biometric APIs? 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME). :348—352.
With the emergence of biometric technology in various applications, such as access control (e.g. mobile lock/unlock), financial transaction (e.g. Alibaba smile-to-pay) and time attendance, the development of biometric system attracts increasingly interest to the developers. Despite a sound biometric system gains the security assurance and great usability, it is a rather challenging task to develop an effective biometric system. For instance, many public available biometric APIs do not provide sufficient instructions / precise documentations on the usage of biometric APIs. Many developers are struggling in implementing these APIs in various tasks. Moreover, quick update on biometric-based algorithms (e.g. feature extraction and matching) may propagate to APIs, which leads to potential confusion to the system developers. Hence, we conduct an empirical study to the problems that the developers currently encountered while implementing the biometric APIs as well as the issues that need to be addressed when developing biometric systems using these APIs. We manually analyzed a total of 500 biometric API-related posts from various online media such as Stack Overflow and Neurotechnology. We reveal that 1) most of the problems encountered are related to the lack of precise documentation on the biometric APIs; 2) the incompatibility of biometric APIs cross multiple implementation environments.
Liao, Q. Vera, Davis, Matthew, Geyer, Werner, Muller, Michael, Shami, N. Sadat.  2016.  What Can You Do?: Studying Social-Agent Orientation and Agent Proactive Interactions with an Agent for Employees Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. :264–275.

Personal agent software is now in daily use in personal devices and in some organizational settings. While many advocate an agent sociality design paradigm that incorporates human-like features and social dialogues, it is unclear whether this is a good match for professionals who seek productivity instead of leisurely use. We conducted a 17-day field study of a prototype of a personal AI agent that helps employees find work-related information. Using log data, surveys, and interviews, we found individual differences in the preference for humanized social interactions (social-agent orientation), which led to different user needs and requirements for agent design. We also explored the effect of agent proactive interactions and found that they carried the risk of interruption, especially for users who were generally averse to interruptions at work. Further, we found that user differences in social-agent orientation and aversion to agent proactive interactions can be inferred from behavioral signals. Our results inform research into social agent design, proactive agent interaction, and personalization of AI agents.

Zhang, Yaqin, Ma, Duohe, Sun, Xiaoyan, Chen, Kai, Liu, Feng.  2020.  WGT: Thwarting Web Attacks Through Web Gene Tree-based Moving Target Defense. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :364–371.
Moving target defense (MTD) suggests a game-changing way of enhancing web security by increasing uncertainty and complexity for attackers. A good number of web MTD techniques have been investigated to counter various types of web attacks. However, in most MTD techniques, only fixed attributes of the attack surface are shifted, leaving the rest exploitable by the attackers. Currently, there are few mechanisms to support the whole attack surface movement and solve the partial coverage problem, where only a fraction of the possible attributes shift in the whole attack surface. To address this issue, this paper proposes a Web Gene Tree (WGT) based MTD mechanism. The key point is to extract all potential exploitable key attributes related to vulnerabilities as web genes, and mutate them using various MTD techniques to withstand various attacks. Experimental results indicate that, by randomly shifting web genes and diversely inserting deceptive ones, the proposed WGT mechanism outperforms other existing schemes and can significantly improve the security of web applications.
Mishra, S. K., Patel, A..  2017.  Wells turbine modeling and PI control scheme for OWC plant using Xilinx system generator. 2017 4th International Conference on Power, Control Embedded Systems (ICPCES). :1–6.

This paper develops a model for Wells turbine using Xilinx system generator (XSG)toolbox of Matlab. The Wells turbine is very popular in oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters. Mostly, the turbine behavior is emulated in a controlled DC or AC motor coupled with a generator. Therefore, it is required to model the OWC and Wells turbine in real time software like XSG. It generates the OWC turbine behavior in real time. Next, a PI control scheme is suggested for controlling the DC motor so as to emulate the Wells turbine efficiently. The overall performance of the system is tested with asquirrel cage induction generator (SCIG). The Pierson-Moskowitz and JONSWAP irregular wave models have been applied to validate the OWC model. Finally, the simulation results for Wells turbine and PI controller have beendiscussed.

Gnilke, Oliver Wilhelm, Tran, Ha Thanh Nguyen, Karrila, Alex, Hollanti, Camilla.  2016.  Well-rounded lattices for reliability and security in Rayleigh fading SISO channels. :359–363.

For many wiretap channel models asymptotically optimal coding schemes are known, but less effort has been put into actual realizations of wiretap codes for practical parameters. Bounds on the mutual information and error probability when using coset coding on a Rayleigh fading channel were recently established by Oggier and Belfiore, and the results in this paper build on their work. However, instead of using their ultimate inverse norm sum approximation, a more precise expression for the eavesdropper's probability of correct decision is used in order to determine a general class of good coset codes. The code constructions are based on well-rounded lattices arising from simple geometric criteria. In addition to new coset codes and simulation results, novel number-theoretic results on well-rounded ideal lattices are presented.

Gnilke, Oliver Wilhelm, Tran, Ha Thanh Nguyen, Karrila, Alex, Hollanti, Camilla.  2016.  Well-rounded lattices for reliability and security in Rayleigh fading SISO channels. :359–363.

For many wiretap channel models asymptotically optimal coding schemes are known, but less effort has been put into actual realizations of wiretap codes for practical parameters. Bounds on the mutual information and error probability when using coset coding on a Rayleigh fading channel were recently established by Oggier and Belfiore, and the results in this paper build on their work. However, instead of using their ultimate inverse norm sum approximation, a more precise expression for the eavesdropper's probability of correct decision is used in order to determine a general class of good coset codes. The code constructions are based on well-rounded lattices arising from simple geometric criteria. In addition to new coset codes and simulation results, novel number-theoretic results on well-rounded ideal lattices are presented.

Chen, Q., Chen, D., Gong, J..  2020.  Weighted Predictive Coding Methods for Block-Based Compressive Sensing of Images. 2020 3rd International Conference on Unmanned Systems (ICUS). :587–591.
Compressive sensing (CS) is beneficial for unmanned reconnaissance systems to obtain high-quality images with limited resources. The existing prediction methods for block-based compressive sensing of images can be regarded as the particular coefficients of weighted predictive coding. To find better prediction coefficients for BCS, this paper proposes two weighted prediction methods. The first method converts the prediction model of measurements into a prediction model of image blocks. The prediction weights are obtained by training the prediction model of image blocks offline, which avoiding the influence of the sampling rates on the prediction model of measurements. Another method is to calculate the prediction coefficients adaptively based on the average energy of measurements, which can adjust the weights based on the measurements. Compared with existing methods, the proposed prediction methods for BCS of images can further improve the reconstruction image quality.