Visible to the public Biblio

Found 12055 results

2015-04-30
Cepheli, O., Buyukcorak, S., Kurt, G.K..  2014.  User behaviour modelling based DDoS attack detection. Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2014 22nd. :2186-2189.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most important threads in network systems. Due to the distributed nature, DDoS attacks are very hard to detect, while they also have the destructive potential of classical denial of service attacks. In this study, a novel 2-step system is proposed for the detection of DDoS attacks. In the first step an anomaly detection is performed on the destination IP traffic. If an anomaly is detected on the network, the system proceeds into the second step where a decision on every user is made due to the behaviour models. Hence, it is possible to detect attacks in the network that diverges from users' behavior model.

Anwar, Z., Malik, A.W..  2014.  Can a DDoS Attack Meltdown My Data Center? A Simulation Study and Defense Strategies Communications Letters, IEEE. 18:1175-1178.

The goal of this letter is to explore the extent to which the vulnerabilities plaguing the Internet, particularly susceptibility to distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, impact the Cloud. DDoS has been known to disrupt Cloud services, but could it do worse by permanently damaging server and switch hardware? Services are hosted in data centers with thousands of servers generating large amounts of heat. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems prevent server downtime due to overheating. These are remotely managed using network management protocols that are susceptible to network attacks. Recently, Cloud providers have experienced outages due to HVAC malfunctions. Our contributions include a network simulation to study the feasibility of such an attack motivated by our experiences of such a security incident in a real data center. It demonstrates how a network simulator can study the interplay of the communication and thermal properties of a network and help prevent the Cloud provider's worst nightmare: meltdown of the data center as a result of a DDoS attack.

Jingtang Luo, Xiaolong Yang, Jin Wang, Jie Xu, Jian Sun, Keping Long.  2014.  On a Mathematical Model for Low-Rate Shrew DDoS. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 9:1069-1083.

The shrew distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is very detrimental for many applications, since it can throttle TCP flows to a small fraction of their ideal rate at very low attack cost. Earlier works mainly focused on empirical studies of defending against the shrew DDoS, and very few of them provided analytic results about the attack itself. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for estimating attack effect of this stealthy type of DDoS. By originally capturing the adjustment behaviors of victim TCPs congestion window, our model can comprehensively evaluate the combined impact of attack pattern (i.e., how the attack is configured) and network environment on attack effect (the existing models failed to consider the impact of network environment). Henceforth, our model has higher accuracy over a wider range of network environments. The relative error of our model remains around 10% for most attack patterns and network environments, whereas the relative error of the benchmark model in previous works has a mean value of 69.57%, and it could be more than 180% in some cases. More importantly, our model reveals some novel properties of the shrew attack from the interaction between attack pattern and network environment, such as the minimum cost formula to launch a successful attack, and the maximum effect formula of a shrew attack. With them, we are able to find out how to adaptively tune the attack parameters (e.g., the DoS burst length) to improve its attack effect in a given network environment, and how to reconfigure the network resource (e.g., the bottleneck buffer size) to mitigate the shrew DDoS with a given attack pattern. Finally, based on our theoretical results, we put forward a simple strategy to defend the shrew attack. The simulation results indicate that this strategy can remarkably increase TCP throughput by nearly half of the bottleneck bandwidth (and can be higher) for general attack patterns.

Geva, M., Herzberg, A., Gev, Y..  2014.  Bandwidth Distributed Denial of Service: Attacks and Defenses. Security Privacy, IEEE. 12:54-61.

The Internet is vulnerable to bandwidth distributed denial-of-service (BW-DDoS) attacks, wherein many hosts send a huge number of packets to cause congestion and disrupt legitimate traffic. So far, BW-DDoS attacks have employed relatively crude, inefficient, brute force mechanisms; future attacks might be significantly more effective and harmful. To meet the increasing threats, we must deploy more advanced defenses.

Fachkha, C., Bou-Harb, E., Debbabi, M..  2014.  Fingerprinting Internet DNS Amplification DDoS Activities. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

This work proposes a novel approach to infer and characterize Internet-scale DNS amplification DDoS attacks by leveraging the darknet space. Complementary to the pioneer work on inferring Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) using darknet, this work shows that we can extract DDoS activities without relying on backscattered analysis. The aim of this work is to extract cyber security intelligence related to DNS Amplification DDoS activities such as detection period, attack duration, intensity, packet size, rate and geo- location in addition to various network-layer and flow-based insights. To achieve this task, the proposed approach exploits certain DDoS parameters to detect the attacks. We empirically evaluate the proposed approach using 720 GB of real darknet data collected from a /13 address space during a recent three months period. Our analysis reveals that the approach was successful in inferring significant DNS amplification DDoS activities including the recent prominent attack that targeted one of the largest anti-spam organizations. Moreover, the analysis disclosed the mechanism of such DNS amplification DDoS attacks. Further, the results uncover high-speed and stealthy attempts that were never previously documented. The case study of the largest DDoS attack in history lead to a better understanding of the nature and scale of this threat and can generate inferences that could contribute in detecting, preventing, assessing, mitigating and even attributing of DNS amplification DDoS activities.

Hammi, B., Khatoun, R., Doyen, G..  2014.  A Factorial Space for a System-Based Detection of Botcloud Activity. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

Today, beyond a legitimate usage, the numerous advantages of cloud computing are exploited by attackers, and Botnets supporting DDoS attacks are among the greatest beneficiaries of this malicious use. Such a phenomena is a major issue since it strongly increases the power of distributed massive attacks while involving the responsibility of cloud service providers that do not own appropriate solutions. In this paper, we present an original approach that enables a source-based de- tection of UDP-flood DDoS attacks based on a distributed system behavior analysis. Based on a principal component analysis, our contribution consists in: (1) defining the involvement of system metrics in a botcoud's behavior, (2) showing the invariability of the factorial space that defines a botcloud activity and (3) among several legitimate activities, using this factorial space to enable a botcloud detection.

Badis, H., Doyen, G., Khatoun, R..  2014.  Understanding botclouds from a system perspective: A principal component analysis. Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2014 IEEE. :1-9.

Cloud computing is gaining ground and becoming one of the fast growing segments of the IT industry. However, if its numerous advantages are mainly used to support a legitimate activity, it is now exploited for a use it was not meant for: malicious users leverage its power and fast provisioning to turn it into an attack support. Botnets supporting DDoS attacks are among the greatest beneficiaries of this malicious use since they can be setup on demand and at very large scale without requiring a long dissemination phase nor an expensive deployment costs. For cloud service providers, preventing their infrastructure from being turned into an Attack as a Service delivery model is very challenging since it requires detecting threats at the source, in a highly dynamic and heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we present the result of an experiment campaign we performed in order to understand the operational behavior of a botcloud used for a DDoS attack. The originality of our work resides in the consideration of system metrics that, while never considered for state-of-the-art botnets detection, can be leveraged in the context of a cloud to enable a source based detection. Our study considers both attacks based on TCP-flood and UDP-storm and for each of them, we provide statistical results based on a principal component analysis, that highlight the recognizable behavior of a botcloud as compared to other legitimate workloads.

Maheshwari, R., Krishna, C.R., Brahma, M.S..  2014.  Defending network system against IP spoofing based distributed DoS attacks using DPHCF-RTT packet filtering technique. Issues and Challenges in Intelligent Computing Techniques (ICICT), 2014 International Conference on. :206-209.

IP spoofing based DDoS attack that relies on multiple compromised hosts in the network to attack the victim. In IP spoofing, IP addresses can be forged easily, thus, makes it difficult to filter illegitimate packets from legitimate one out of aggregated traffic. A number of mitigation techniques have been proposed in the literature by various researchers. The conventional Hop Count Filtering or probabilistic Hop Count Filtering based research work indicates the problems related to higher computational time and low detection rate of illegitimate packets. In this paper, DPHCF-RTT technique has been implemented and analysed for variable number of hops. Goal is to improve the limitations of Conventional HCF or Probabilistic HCF techniques by maximizing the detection rate of illegitimate packets and reducing the computation time. It is based on distributed probabilistic HCF using RTT. It has been used in an intermediate system. It has the advantage for resolving the problems of network bandwidth jam and host resources exhaustion. MATLAB 7 has been used for simulations. Mitigation of DDoS attacks have been done through DPHCF-RTT technique. It has been shown a maximum detection rate up to 99% of malicious packets.

Katkar, V.D., Bhatia, D.S..  2014.  Lightweight approach for detection of denial of service attacks using numeric to binary preprocessing. Circuits, Systems, Communication and Information Technology Applications (CSCITA), 2014 International Conference on. :207-212.


Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, exhausts the resources of server/service and makes it unavailable for legitimate users. With increasing use of online services and attacks on these services, the importance of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for detection of DoS/DDoS attacks has also grown. Detection accuracy & CPU utilization of Data mining based IDS is directly proportional to the quality of training dataset used to train it. Various preprocessing methods like normalization, discretization, fuzzification are used by researchers to improve the quality of training dataset. This paper evaluates the effect of various data preprocessing methods on the detection accuracy of DoS/DDoS attack detection IDS and proves that numeric to binary preprocessing method performs better compared to other methods. Experimental results obtained using KDD 99 dataset are provided to support the efficiency of proposed combination.
 

Creech, G., Jiankun Hu.  2014.  A Semantic Approach to Host-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Using Contiguousand Discontiguous System Call Patterns. Computers, IEEE Transactions on. 63:807-819.

Host-based anomaly intrusion detection system design is very challenging due to the notoriously high false alarm rate. This paper introduces a new host-based anomaly intrusion detection methodology using discontiguous system call patterns, in an attempt to increase detection rates whilst reducing false alarm rates. The key concept is to apply a semantic structure to kernel level system calls in order to reflect intrinsic activities hidden in high-level programming languages, which can help understand program anomaly behaviour. Excellent results were demonstrated using a variety of decision engines, evaluating the KDD98 and UNM data sets, and a new, modern data set. The ADFA Linux data set was created as part of this research using a modern operating system and contemporary hacking methods, and is now publicly available. Furthermore, the new semantic method possesses an inherent resilience to mimicry attacks, and demonstrated a high level of portability between different operating system versions.

Al-Jarrah, O., Arafat, A..  2014.  Network Intrusion Detection System using attack behavior classification. Information and Communication Systems (ICICS), 2014 5th International Conference on. :1-6.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have become a necessity in computer security systems because of the increase in unauthorized accesses and attacks. Intrusion Detection is a major component in computer security systems that can be classified as Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS), which protects a certain host or system and Network-based Intrusion detection system (NIDS), which protects a network of hosts and systems. This paper addresses Probes attacks or reconnaissance attacks, which try to collect any possible relevant information in the network. Network probe attacks have two types: Host Sweep and Port Scan attacks. Host Sweep attacks determine the hosts that exist in the network, while port scan attacks determine the available services that exist in the network. This paper uses an intelligent system to maximize the recognition rate of network attacks by embedding the temporal behavior of the attacks into a TDNN neural network structure. The proposed system consists of five modules: packet capture engine, preprocessor, pattern recognition, classification, and monitoring and alert module. We have tested the system in a real environment where it has shown good capability in detecting attacks. In addition, the system has been tested using DARPA 1998 dataset with 100% recognition rate. In fact, our system can recognize attacks in a constant time.

Junho Hong, Chen-Ching Liu, Govindarasu, M..  2014.  Integrated Anomaly Detection for Cyber Security of the Substations. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on. 5:1643-1653.

Cyber intrusions to substations of a power grid are a source of vulnerability since most substations are unmanned and with limited protection of the physical security. In the worst case, simultaneous intrusions into multiple substations can lead to severe cascading events, causing catastrophic power outages. In this paper, an integrated Anomaly Detection System (ADS) is proposed which contains host- and network-based anomaly detection systems for the substations, and simultaneous anomaly detection for multiple substations. Potential scenarios of simultaneous intrusions into the substations have been simulated using a substation automation testbed. The host-based anomaly detection considers temporal anomalies in the substation facilities, e.g., user-interfaces, Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and circuit breakers. The malicious behaviors of substation automation based on multicast messages, e.g., Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) and Sampled Measured Value (SMV), are incorporated in the proposed network-based anomaly detection. The proposed simultaneous intrusion detection method is able to identify the same type of attacks at multiple substations and their locations. The result is a new integrated tool for detection and mitigation of cyber intrusions at a single substation or multiple substations of a power grid.

Nikolai, J., Yong Wang.  2014.  Hypervisor-based cloud intrusion detection system. Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2014 International Conference on. :989-993.

Shared resources are an essential part of cloud computing. Virtualization and multi-tenancy provide a number of advantages for increasing resource utilization and for providing on demand elasticity. However, these cloud features also raise many security concerns related to cloud computing resources. In this paper, we propose an architecture and approach for leveraging the virtualization technology at the core of cloud computing to perform intrusion detection security using hypervisor performance metrics. Through the use of virtual machine performance metrics gathered from hypervisors, such as packets transmitted/received, block device read/write requests, and CPU utilization, we demonstrate and verify that suspicious activities can be profiled without detailed knowledge of the operating system running within the virtual machines. The proposed hypervisor-based cloud intrusion detection system does not require additional software installed in virtual machines and has many advantages compared to host-based and network based intrusion detection systems which can complement these traditional approaches to intrusion detection.

Salman, A., Elhajj, I.H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2014.  DAIDS: An Architecture for Modular Mobile IDS. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :328-333.

The popularity of mobile devices and the enormous number of third party mobile applications in the market have naturally lead to several vulnerabilities being identified and abused. This is coupled with the immaturity of intrusion detection system (IDS) technology targeting mobile devices. In this paper we propose a modular host-based IDS framework for mobile devices that uses behavior analysis to profile applications on the Android platform. Anomaly detection can then be used to categorize malicious behavior and alert users. The proposed system accommodates different detection algorithms, and is being tested at a major telecom operator in North America. This paper highlights the architecture, findings, and lessons learned.

Can, O..  2014.  Mobile agent based intrusion detection system. Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2014 22nd. :1363-1366.

An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting to break into or compromise a system. A networkbased system, or NIDS, the individual packets flowing through a network are analyzed. In a host-based system, the IDS examines at the activity on each individual computer or host. IDS techniques are divided into two categories including misuse detection and anomaly detection. In recently years, Mobile Agent based technology has been used for distributed systems with having characteristic of mobility and autonomy. In this working we aimed to combine IDS with Mobile Agent concept for more scale, effective, knowledgeable system.

Sridhar, S., Govindarasu, M..  2014.  Model-Based Attack Detection and Mitigation for Automatic Generation Control. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on. 5:580-591.

Cyber systems play a critical role in improving the efficiency and reliability of power system operation and ensuring the system remains within safe operating margins. An adversary can inflict severe damage to the underlying physical system by compromising the control and monitoring applications facilitated by the cyber layer. Protection of critical assets from electronic threats has traditionally been done through conventional cyber security measures that involve host-based and network-based security technologies. However, it has been recognized that highly skilled attacks can bypass these security mechanisms to disrupt the smooth operation of control systems. There is a growing need for cyber-attack-resilient control techniques that look beyond traditional cyber defense mechanisms to detect highly skilled attacks. In this paper, we make the following contributions. We first demonstrate the impact of data integrity attacks on Automatic Generation Control (AGC) on power system frequency and electricity market operation. We propose a general framework to the application of attack resilient control to power systems as a composition of smart attack detection and mitigation. Finally, we develop a model-based anomaly detection and attack mitigation algorithm for AGC. We evaluate the detection capability of the proposed anomaly detection algorithm through simulation studies. Our results show that the algorithm is capable of detecting scaling and ramp attacks with low false positive and negative rates. The proposed model-based mitigation algorithm is also efficient in maintaining system frequency within acceptable limits during the attack period.

Sousa, S., Dias, P., Lamas, D..  2014.  A model for Human-computer trust: A key contribution for leveraging trustful interactions. Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2014 9th Iberian Conference on. :1-6.

This article addresses trust in computer systems as a social phenomenon, which depends on the type of relationship that is established through the computer, or with other individuals. It starts by theoretically contextualizing trust, and then situates trust in the field of computer science. Then, describes the proposed model, which builds on what one perceives to be trustworthy and is influenced by a number of factors such as the history of participation and user's perceptions. It ends by situating the proposed model as a key contribution for leveraging trustful interactions and ends by proposing it used to serve as a complement to foster user's trust needs in what concerns Human-computer Iteration or Computermediated Interactions.

Kounelis, I., Baldini, G., Neisse, R., Steri, G., Tallacchini, M., Guimaraes Pereira, A..  2014.  Building Trust in the Human?Internet of Things Relationship Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE. 33:73-80.

Our vision in this paper is that agency, as the individual ability to intervene and tailor the system, is a crucial element in building trust in IoT technologies. Following up on this vision, we will first address the issue of agency, namely the individual capability to adopt free decisions, as a relevant driver in building trusted human-IoT relations, and how agency should be embedded in digital systems. Then we present the main challenges posed by existing approaches to implement this vision. We show then our proposal for a model-based approach that realizes the agency concept, including a prototype implementation.

Fei Hao, Geyong Min, Man Lin, Changqing Luo, Yang, L.T..  2014.  MobiFuzzyTrust: An Efficient Fuzzy Trust Inference Mechanism in Mobile Social Networks. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 25:2944-2955.

Mobile social networks (MSNs) facilitate connections between mobile users and allow them to find other potential users who have similar interests through mobile devices, communicate with them, and benefit from their information. As MSNs are distributed public virtual social spaces, the available information may not be trustworthy to all. Therefore, mobile users are often at risk since they may not have any prior knowledge about others who are socially connected. To address this problem, trust inference plays a critical role for establishing social links between mobile users in MSNs. Taking into account the nonsemantical representation of trust between users of the existing trust models in social networks, this paper proposes a new fuzzy inference mechanism, namely MobiFuzzyTrust, for inferring trust semantically from one mobile user to another that may not be directly connected in the trust graph of MSNs. First, a mobile context including an intersection of prestige of users, location, time, and social context is constructed. Second, a mobile context aware trust model is devised to evaluate the trust value between two mobile users efficiently. Finally, the fuzzy linguistic technique is used to express the trust between two mobile users and enhance the human's understanding of trust. Real-world mobile dataset is adopted to evaluate the performance of the MobiFuzzyTrust inference mechanism. The experimental results demonstrate that MobiFuzzyTrust can efficiently infer trust with a high precision.

Dondio, P., Longo, L..  2014.  Computing Trust as a Form of Presumptive Reasoning. Web Intelligence (WI) and Intelligent Agent Technologies (IAT), 2014 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conferences on. 2:274-281.

This study describes and evaluates a novel trust model for a range of collaborative applications. The model assumes that humans routinely choose to trust their peers by relying on few recurrent presumptions, which are domain independent and which form a recognisable trust expertise. We refer to these presumptions as trust schemes, a specialised version of Walton's argumentation schemes. Evidence is provided about the efficacy of trust schemes using a detailed experiment on an online community of 80,000 members. Results show how proposed trust schemes are more effective in trust computation when they are combined together and when their plausibility in the selected context is considered.

Frauenstein, E.D., Von Solms, R..  2014.  Combatting phishing: A holistic human approach. Information Security for South Africa (ISSA), 2014. :1-10.

Phishing continues to remain a lucrative market for cyber criminals, mostly because of the vulnerable human element. Through emails and spoofed-websites, phishers exploit almost any opportunity using major events, considerable financial awards, fake warnings and the trusted reputation of established organizations, as a basis to gain their victims' trust. For many years, humans have often been referred to as the `weakest link' towards protecting information. To gain their victims' trust, phishers continue to use sophisticated looking emails and spoofed websites to trick them, and rely on their victims' lack of knowledge, lax security behavior and organizations' inadequate security measures towards protecting itself and their clients. As such, phishing security controls and vulnerabilities can arguably be classified into three main elements namely human factors (H), organizational aspects (O) and technological controls (T). All three of these elements have the common feature of human involvement and as such, security gaps are inevitable. Each element also functions as both security control and security vulnerability. A holistic framework towards combatting phishing is required whereby the human feature in all three of these elements is enhanced by means of a security education, training and awareness programme. This paper discusses the educational factors required to form part of a holistic framework, addressing the HOT elements as well as the relationships between these elements towards combatting phishing. The development of this framework uses the principles of design science to ensure that it is developed with rigor. Furthermore, this paper reports on the verification of the framework.

Ing-Ray Chen, Jia Guo.  2014.  Dynamic Hierarchical Trust Management of Mobile Groups and Its Application to Misbehaving Node Detection. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on. :49-56.

In military operation or emergency response situations, very frequently a commander will need to assemble and dynamically manage Community of Interest (COI) mobile groups to achieve a critical mission assigned despite failure, disconnection or compromise of COI members. We combine the designs of COI hierarchical management for scalability and reconfigurability with COI dynamic trust management for survivability and intrusion tolerance to compose a scalable, reconfigurable, and survivable COI management protocol for managing COI mission-oriented mobile groups in heterogeneous mobile environments. A COI mobile group in this environment would consist of heterogeneous mobile entities such as communication-device-carried personnel/robots and aerial or ground vehicles operated by humans exhibiting not only quality of service (QoS) characters, e.g., competence and cooperativeness, but also social behaviors, e.g., connectivity, intimacy and honesty. A COI commander or a subtask leader must measure trust with both social and QoS cognition depending on mission task characteristics and/or trustee properties to ensure successful mission execution. In this paper, we present a dynamic hierarchical trust management protocol that can learn from past experiences and adapt to changing environment conditions, e.g., increasing misbehaving node population, evolving hostility and node density, etc. to enhance agility and maximize application performance. With trust-based misbehaving node detection as an application, we demonstrate how our proposed COI trust management protocol is resilient to node failure, disconnection and capture events, and can help maximize application performance in terms of minimizing false negatives and positives in the presence of mobile nodes exhibiting vastly distinct QoS and social behaviors.

Athanasiou, G., Fengou, M.-A., Beis, A., Lymberopoulos, D..  2014.  A novel trust evaluation method for Ubiquitous Healthcare based on cloud computational theory. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE. :4503-4506.

The notion of trust is considered to be the cornerstone on patient-psychiatrist relationship. Thus, a trustfully background is fundamental requirement for provision of effective Ubiquitous Healthcare (UH) service. In this paper, the issue of Trust Evaluation of UH Providers when register UH environment is addressed. For that purpose a novel trust evaluation method is proposed, based on cloud theory, exploiting User Profile attributes. This theory mimics human thinking, regarding trust evaluation and captures fuzziness and randomness of this uncertain reasoning. Two case studies are investigated through simulation in MATLAB software, in order to verify the effectiveness of this novel method.

Howser, G., McMillin, B..  2014.  A Modal Model of Stuxnet Attacks on Cyber-physical Systems: A Matter of Trust. Software Security and Reliability (SERE), 2014 Eighth International Conference on. :225-234.

Multiple Security Domains Nondeducibility, MSDND, yields results even when the attack hides important information from electronic monitors and human operators. Because MSDND is based upon modal frames, it is able to analyze the event system as it progresses rather than relying on traces of the system. Not only does it provide results as the system evolves, MSDND can point out attacks designed to be missed in other security models. This work examines information flow disruption attacks such as Stuxnet and formally explains the role that implicit trust in the cyber security of a cyber physical system (CPS) plays in the success of the attack. The fact that the attack hides behind MSDND can be used to help secure the system by modifications to break MSDND and leave the attack nowhere to hide. Modal operators are defined to allow the manipulation of belief and trust states within the model. We show how the attack hides and uses the operator's trust to remain undetected. In fact, trust in the CPS is key to the success of the attack.

Godwin, J.L., Matthews, P..  2014.  Rapid labelling of SCADA data to extract transparent rules using RIPPER. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2014 Annual. :1-7.

This paper addresses a robust methodology for developing a statistically sound, robust prognostic condition index and encapsulating this index as a series of highly accurate, transparent, human-readable rules. These rules can be used to further understand degradation phenomena and also provide transparency and trust for any underlying prognostic technique employed. A case study is presented on a wind turbine gearbox, utilising historical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data in conjunction with a physics of failure model. Training is performed without failure data, with the technique accurately identifying gearbox degradation and providing prognostic signatures up to 5 months before catastrophic failure occurred. A robust derivation of the Mahalanobis distance is employed to perform outlier analysis in the bivariate domain, enabling the rapid labelling of historical SCADA data on independent wind turbines. Following this, the RIPPER rule learner was utilised to extract transparent, human-readable rules from the labelled data. A mean classification accuracy of 95.98% of the autonomously derived condition was achieved on three independent test sets, with a mean kappa statistic of 93.96% reported. In total, 12 rules were extracted, with an independent domain expert providing critical analysis, two thirds of the rules were deemed to be intuitive in modelling fundamental degradation behaviour of the wind turbine gearbox.