Visible to the public Biblio

Found 11817 results

1953
Pulvari, Charles F..  1953.  The Snapping Dipoles of Ferroelectrics As a Memory Element for Digital Computers. Proceedings of the February 4-6, 1953, Western Computer Conference. :140–159.

A brief review is given of the memory properties of non-linear ferroelectric materials in terms of the direction of polarization. A sensitive pulse method has been developed for obtaining static remanent polarization data of ferroelectric materials. This method has been applied to study the effect of pulse duration and amplitude and decay of polarization on ferroelectric ceramic materials with fairly high crystalline orientation. These studies indicate that ferroelectric memory devices can be operated in the megacycle ranges. Attempts have been made to develop electrostatically induced memory devices using ferroelectric substances as a medium for storing information. As an illustration, a ferroelectric memory using a new type of switching matrix is presented having a selection ratio 50 or more.

1974
Lampson, Butler W..  1974.  Protection. SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev.. 8:18–24.

Abstract models are given which reflect the properties of most existing mechanisms for enforcing protection or access control, together with some possible implementations. The properties of existing systems are explicated in terms of the model and implementations.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper. The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

1976
Denning, Dorothy E..  1976.  A Lattice Model of Secure Information Flow. Commun. ACM. 19:236–243.
This paper investigates mechanisms that guarantee secure information flow in a computer system. These mechanisms are examined within a mathematical framework suitable for formulating the requirements of secure information flow among security classes. The central component of the model is a lattice structure derived from the security classes and justified by the semantics of information flow. The lattice properties permit concise formulations of the security requirements of different existing systems and facilitate the construction of mechanisms that enforce security. The model provides a unifying view of all systems that restrict information flow, enables a classification of them according to security objectives, and suggests some new approaches. It also leads to the construction of automatic program certification mechanisms for verifying the secure flow of information through a program.
Denning, Dorothy E..  1976.  A Lattice Model of Secure Information Flow. Commun. ACM. 19:236–243.

This paper investigates mechanisms that guarantee secure information flow in a computer system. These mechanisms are examined within a mathematical framework suitable for formulating the requirements of secure information flow among security classes. The central component of the model is a lattice structure derived from the security classes and justified by the semantics of information flow. The lattice properties permit concise formulations of the security requirements of different existing systems and facilitate the construction of mechanisms that enforce security. The model provides a unifying view of all systems that restrict information flow, enables a classification of them according to security objectives, and suggests some new approaches. It also leads to the construction of automatic program certification mechanisms for verifying the secure flow of information through a program.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper.

The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

Harrison, Michael A., Ruzzo, Walter L., Ullman, Jeffrey D..  1976.  Protection in Operating Systems. Commun. ACM. 19:461–471.

A model of protection mechanisms in computing systems is presented and its appropriateness is argued. The “safety” problem for protection systems under this model is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. In restricted cases, it can be shown that this problem is decidable, i.e. there is an algorithm to determine whether a system in a particular configuration is safe. In general, and under surprisingly weak assumptions, it cannot be decided if a situation is safe. Various implications of this fact are discussed.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper.

The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

1982
Robling Denning, Dorothy Elizabeth.  1982.  Cryptography and Data Security. :414.

Electronic computers have evolved from exiguous experimental enterprises in the 1940s to prolific practical data processing systems in the 1980s. As we have come to rely on these systems to process and store data, we have also come to wonder about their ability to protect valuable data.

Data security is the science and study of methods of protecting data in computer and communication systems from unauthorized disclosure and modification. The goal of this book is to introduce the mathematical principles of data security and to show how these principles apply to operating systems, database systems, and computer networks. The book is for students and professionals seeking an introduction to these principles. There are many references for those who would like to study specific topics further.

Data security has evolved rapidly since 1975. We have seen exciting developments in cryptography: public-key encryption, digital signatures, the Data Encryption Standard (DES), key safeguarding schemes, and key distribution protocols. We have developed techniques for verifying that programs do not leak confidential data, or transmit classified data to users with lower security clearances. We have found new controls for protecting data in statistical databases--and new methods of attacking these databases. We have come to a better understanding of the theoretical and practical limitations to security.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper. The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

1984
Thompson, Ken.  1984.  Reflections on Trusting Trust. Commun. ACM. 27:761–763.

To what extent should one trust a statement that a program is free of Trojan horses? Perhaps it is more important to trust the people who wrote the software.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper. The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

Thompson, Ken.  1984.  Reflections on Trusting Trust. Commun. ACM. 27:761–763.
To what extent should one trust a statement that a program is free of Trojan horses? Perhaps it is more important to trust the people who wrote the software.
1994
Amoroso, E., Merritt, M..  1994.  Composing system integrity using I/O automata. Tenth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :34—43.
The I/O automata model of Lynch and Turtle (1987) is summarized and used to formalize several types of system integrity based on the control of transitions to invalid starts. Type-A integrity is exhibited by systems with no invalid initial states and that disallow transitions from valid reachable to invalid states. Type-B integrity is exhibited by systems that disallow externally-controlled transitions from valid reachable to invalid states, Type-C integrity is exhibited by systems that allow locally-controlled or externally-controlled transitions from reachable to invalid states. Strict-B integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-B but not Type-A. Strict-C integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-C but not Type-B. Basic results on the closure properties that hold under composition of systems exhibiting these types of integrity are presented in I/O automata-theoretic terms. Specifically, Type-A, Type-B, and Type-C integrity are shown to be composable, whereas Strict-B and Strict-C integrity are shown to not be generally composable. The integrity definitions and compositional results are illustrated using the familiar vending machine example specified as an I/O automaton and composed with a customer environment. The implications of the integrity definitions and compositional results on practical system design are discussed and a research plan for future work is outlined.
2000
Schneider, Fred B..  2000.  Enforceable Security Policies. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur.. 3:30–50.
A precise characterization is given for the class of security policies enforceable with mechanisms that work by monitoring system execution, and automata are introduced for specifying exactly that class of security policies. Techniques to enforce security policies specified by such automata are also discussed.
Schneider, Fred B..  2000.  Enforceable Security Policies. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur.. 3:30–50.

A precise characterization is given for the class of security policies enforceable with mechanisms that work by monitoring system execution, and automata are introduced for specifying exactly that class of security policies. Techniques to enforce security policies specified by such automata are also discussed.

This article was identified by the SoS Best Scientific Cybersecurity Paper Competition Distinguished Experts as a Science of Security Significant Paper. The Science of Security Paper Competition was developed to recognize and honor recently published papers that advance the science of cybersecurity. During the development of the competition, members of the Distinguished Experts group suggested that listing papers that made outstanding contributions, empirical or theoretical, to the science of cybersecurity in earlier years would also benefit the research community.

2002
Imai, H., Hanaoka, G., Shikata, J., Otsuka, A., Nascimento, A. C..  2002.  Cryptography with information theoretic security. Proceedings of the IEEE Information Theory Workshop. :73–.
Summary form only given. We discuss information-theoretic methods to prove the security of cryptosystems. We study what is called, unconditionally secure (or information-theoretically secure) cryptographic schemes in search for a system that can provide long-term security and that does not impose limits on the adversary's computational power.
2003
Dinur, Irit, Nissim, Kobbi.  2003.  Revealing Information While Preserving Privacy. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems. :202–210.

We examine the tradeoff between privacy and usability of statistical databases. We model a statistical database by an n-bit string d1,..,dn, with a query being a subset q ⊆ [n] to be answered by Σiεqdi. Our main result is a polynomial reconstruction algorithm of data from noisy (perturbed) subset sums. Applying this reconstruction algorithm to statistical databases we show that in order to achieve privacy one has to add perturbation of magnitude (Ω√n). That is, smaller perturbation always results in a strong violation of privacy. We show that this result is tight by exemplifying access algorithms for statistical databases that preserve privacy while adding perturbation of magnitude Õ(√n).For time-T bounded adversaries we demonstrate a privacypreserving access algorithm whose perturbation magnitude is ≈ √T.

2004
Du, Xiaojiang.  2004.  Using k-nearest neighbor method to identify poison message failure. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2004. GLOBECOM '04. 4:2113–2117Vol.4.

Poison message failure is a mechanism that has been responsible for large scale failures in both telecommunications and IP networks. The poison message failure can propagate in the network and cause an unstable network. We apply a machine learning, data mining technique in the network fault management area. We use the k-nearest neighbor method to identity the poison message failure. We also propose a "probabilistic" k-nearest neighbor method which outputs a probability distribution about the poison message. Through extensive simulations, we show that the k-nearest neighbor method is very effective in identifying the responsible message type.

Prabhakaran, Manoj, Sahai, Amit.  2004.  New Notions of Security: Achieving Universal Composability Without Trusted Setup. Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing. :242–251.

We propose a modification to the framework of Universally Composable (UC) security [3]. Our new notion involves comparing the real protocol execution with an ideal execution involving ideal functionalities (just as in UC-security), but allowing the environment and adversary access to some super-polynomial computational power. We argue the meaningfulness of the new notion, which in particular subsumes many of the traditional notions of security. We generalize the Universal Composition theorem of [3] to the new setting. Then under new computational assumptions, we realize secure multi-party computation (for static adversaries) without a common reference string or any other set-up assumptions, in the new framework. This is known to be impossible under the UC framework.

2005
Ferreira, P.M.F.M., Orvalho, J.M., Boavida, F..  2005.  Large Scale Mobile and Pervasive Augmented Reality Games. EUROCON 2005 - The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool". 2:1775—1778.
Ubiquitous or pervasive computing is a new kind of computing, where specialized elements of hardware and software will have such high level of deployment that their use will be fully integrated with the environment. Augmented reality extends reality with virtual elements but tries to place the computer in a relatively unobtrusive, assistive role. To our knowledge, there is no specialized network middleware solution for large-scale mobile and pervasive augmented reality games. We present a work that focus on the creation of such network middleware for mobile and pervasive entertainment, applied to the area of large scale augmented reality games. In, this context, mechanisms are being studied, proposed and evaluated to deal with issues such as scalability, multimedia data heterogeneity, data distribution and replication, consistency, security, geospatial location and orientation, mobility, quality of service, management of networks and services, discovery, ad-hoc networking and dynamic configuration
Katz, Jonathan, Shin, Ji Sun.  2005.  Modeling Insider Attacks on Group Key-exchange Protocols. Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :180–189.

Protocols for authenticated key exchange (AKE) allow parties within an insecure network to establish a common session key which can then be used to secure their future communication. It is fair to say that group AKE is currently less well understood than the case of two-party AKE; in particular, attacks by malicious insiders –- a concern specific to the group setting –- have so far been considered only in a relatively "ad-hoc" fashion. The main contribution of this work is to address this deficiency by providing a formal, comprehensive model and definition of security for group AKE which automatically encompasses insider attacks. We do so by defining an appropriate ideal functionality for group AKE within the universal composability (UC) framework. As a side benefit, any protocol secure with respect to our definition is secure even when run concurrently with other protocols, and the key generated by any such protocol may be used securely in any subsequent application.In addition to proposing this definition, we show that the resulting notion of security is strictly stronger than the one proposed by Bresson, et al. (termed "AKE-security"), and that our definition implies all previously-suggested notions of security against insider attacks. We also show a simple technique for converting any AKE-secure protocol into one secure with respect to our definition.

2006
Sekine, Junko, Campos-Náñnez, Enrique, Harrald, John R., Abeledo, Hernán.  2006.  A Simulation-Based Approach to Trade-off Analysis of Port Security. Proceedings of the 38th Conference on Winter Simulation. :521–528.

Motivated by the September 11 attacks, we are addressing the problem of policy analysis of supply-chain security. Considering the potential economic and operational impacts of inspection together with the inherent difficulty of assigning a reasonable cost to an inspection failure call for a policy analysis methodology in which stakeholders can understand the trade-offs between the diverse and potentially conflicting objectives. To obtain this information, we used a simulation-based methodology to characterize the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the multiple objectives represented in the decision problem. Our methodology relies on simulation and the response surface method (RSM) to model the relationships between inspection policies and relevant stakeholder objectives in order to construct a set of Pareto optimal solutions. The approach is illustrated with an application to a real-world supply chain.

2007
Yoneyama, Kazuki, Ohta, Kazuo.  2007.  Ring Signatures: Universally Composable Definitions and Constructions. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security. :374–376.

Though anonymity of ring signature schemes has been studied in many literatures for a long time, these papers showed different definitions and there is no consensus. Recently, Bender et al. proposed two new anonymity definitions of ring signature which is stronger than the traditional definition, that are called anonymity against attribution attacks/full key exposure. Also, ring signature schemes have two levels of unforgeability definitions, i.e., existential un-forgeability (eUF) and strong existential unforgeability (sUF). In this paper, we will redefine anonymity and unforgeability definitions from the standpoint of universally composable (UC) security framework. First, we will formulate new ideal functionalities of ring signature schemes for each security levels separately. Next, we will show relations between cryptographic security definitions and our UC definitions. Finally, we will give another proof of the Bender et al.'s ring signature scheme following the UC secure definition by constructing a simulator to an adversary of sUF, which can be adaptable to the case of sUF under the assumption of a standard single sUF signature scheme.

Ferreira, Pedro, Orvalho, Joao, Boavida, Fernando.  2007.  Security and privacy in a middleware for large scale mobile and pervasive augmented reality. 2007 15th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks. :1—5.
Ubiquitous or pervasive computing is a new kind of computing, where specialized elements of hardware and software will have such high level of deployment that their use will be fully integrated with the environment. Augmented reality extends reality with virtual elements but tries to place the computer in a relatively unobtrusive, assistive role. In this paper we propose, test and analyse a security and privacy architecture for a previously proposed middleware architecture for mobile and pervasive large scale augmented reality games, which is the main contribution of this paper. The results show that the security features proposed in the scope of this work do not affect the overall performance of the system.
2008
Chan, Ellick M., Carlyle, Jeffrey C., David, Francis M., Farivar, Reza, Campbell, Roy H..  2008.  BootJacker: Compromising Computers Using Forced Restarts. Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :555–564.

BootJacker is a proof-of-concept attack tool which demonstrates that authentication mechanisms employed by an operating system can be bypassed by obtaining physical access and simply forcing a restart. The key insight that enables this attack is that the contents of memory on some machines are fully preserved across a warm boot. Upon a reboot, BootJacker uses this residual memory state to revive the original host operating system environment and run malicious payloads. Using BootJacker, an attacker can break into a locked user session and gain access to open encrypted disks, web browser sessions or other secure network connections. BootJacker's non-persistent design makes it possible for an attacker to leave no traces on the victim machine.

Liu, C., Feng, Y., Fan, M., Wang, G..  2008.  PKI Mesh Trust Model Based on Trusted Computing. 2008 The 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists. :1401–1405.

Different organizations or countries maybe adopt different PKI trust model in real applications. On a large scale, all certification authorities (CA) and end entities construct a huge mesh network. PKI trust model exhibits unstructured mesh network as a whole. However, mesh trust model worsens computational complexity in certification path processing when the number of PKI domains increases. This paper proposes an enhanced mesh trust model for PKI. Keys generation and signature are fulfilled in Trusted Platform Module (TPM) for higher security level. An algorithm is suggested to improve the performance of certification path processing in this model. This trust model is less complex but more efficient and robust than the existing PKI trust models.

Phillips, B. J., Schmidt, C. D., Kelly, D. R..  2008.  Recovering Data from USB Flash Memory Sticks That Have Been Damaged or Electronically Erased. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Forensic Applications and Techniques in Telecommunications, Information, and Multimedia and Workshop. :19:1–19:6.

In this paper we consider recovering data from USB Flash memory sticks after they have been damaged or electronically erased. We describe the physical structure and theory of operation of Flash memories; review the literature of Flash memory data recovery; and report results of new experiments in which we damage USB Flash memory sticks and attempt to recover their contents. The experiments include smashing and shooting memory sticks, incinerating them in petrol and cooking them in a microwave oven.

Bloch, M., Barros, J., Rodrigues, M. R. D., McLaughlin, S. W..  2008.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 54:2515–2534.
This paper considers the transmission of confidential data over wireless channels. Based on an information-theoretic formulation of the problem, in which two legitimates partners communicate over a quasi-static fading channel and an eavesdropper observes their transmissions through a second independent quasi-static fading channel, the important role of fading is characterized in terms of average secure communication rates and outage probability. Based on the insights from this analysis, a practical secure communication protocol is developed, which uses a four-step procedure to ensure wireless information-theoretic security: (i) common randomness via opportunistic transmission, (ii) message reconciliation, (iii) common key generation via privacy amplification, and (iv) message protection with a secret key. A reconciliation procedure based on multilevel coding and optimized low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is introduced, which allows to achieve communication rates close to the fundamental security limits in several relevant instances. Finally, a set of metrics for assessing average secure key generation rates is established, and it is shown that the protocol is effective in secure key renewal-even in the presence of imperfect channel state information.
2009
Zhang, H., Ma, J., Wang, Y., Pei, Q..  2009.  An Active Defense Model and Framework of Insider Threats Detection and Sense. 2009 Fifth International Conference on Information Assurance and Security. 1:258—261.
Insider attacks is a well-known problem acknowledged as a threat as early as 1980s. The threat is attributed to legitimate users who take advantage of familiarity with the computational environment and abuse their privileges, can easily cause significant damage or losses. In this paper, we present an active defense model and framework of insider threat detection and sense. Firstly, we describe the hierarchical framework which deal with insider threat from several aspects, and subsequently, show a hierarchy-mapping based insider threats model, the kernel of the threats detection, sense and prediction. The experiments show that the model and framework could sense the insider threat in real-time effectively.