Visible to the public Automatic Generation of Hierarchical Contracts for Resilience in Cyber-Physical Systems

TitleAutomatic Generation of Hierarchical Contracts for Resilience in Cyber-Physical Systems
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsXu, Zhiheng, Ng, Daniel Jun Xian, Easwaran, Arvind
Conference Name2019 IEEE 25th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA)
KeywordsAutomatic Contract Generation, automatic contract refinement, automatic generation, communication overhead, compositionality, Contract Synthesis, contracts, core issue, CPS Resilience, Cyber Dependencies, cyber physical systems, Cyber-physical systems, fault diagnosis, growing scale, hierarchical contract-based resilience framework, hierarchical contracts generation, human factors, large-scale CPS, lower-level contract, manufacturing domain, Metrics, Monitoring, multiobjective optimization problem, nonfunctional properties, numerous contracts, object-oriented programming, operating conditions, optimisation, power system stability, pubcrawl, rapid fault detection, resilience, Resilience Decentralized Algorithms, Resiliency, root contract, Scalability, Silicon, system design, System Level, System performance, web services

With the growing scale of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), it is challenging to maintain their stability under all operating conditions. How to reduce the downtime and locate the failures becomes a core issue in system design. In this paper, we employ a hierarchical contract-based resilience framework to guarantee the stability of CPS. In this framework, we use Assume Guarantee (A-G) contracts to monitor the non-functional properties of individual components (e.g., power and latency), and hierarchically compose such contracts to deduce information about faults at the system level. The hierarchical contracts enable rapid fault detection in large-scale CPS. However, due to the vast number of components in CPS, manually designing numerous contracts and the hierarchy becomes challenging. To address this issue, we propose a technique to automatically decompose a root contract into multiple lower-level contracts depending on I/O dependencies between components. We then formulate a multi-objective optimization problem to search the optimal parameters of each lower-level contract. This enables automatic contract refinement taking into consideration the communication overhead between components. Finally, we use a case study from the manufacturing domain to experimentally demonstrate the benefits of the proposed framework.

Citation Keyxu_automatic_2019