Visible to the public Development of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay

TitleDevelopment of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsAmeli, Amir, Hooshyar, Ali, El-Saadany, Ehab F.
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date Publishedjan
KeywordsCircuit faults, command injection attacks, composability, computer security, coordinated attacks, Current measurement, Cyber-physical systems, cyber-resilient line current differential relay, cyber-security, cyber-security concerns, digital communication channels, false data injection attacks, false line tripping, FDIA, Global Positioning System, LCDR, LCDR's trip command, line current differential relays (LCDRs), line terminals, measured superimposed voltages, Metrics, positive-sequence, power engineering computing, power system relaying, power system security, power transmission faults, power transmission lines, power transmission protection, protected line, protection systems, pubcrawl, relay protection, Relays, remote current measurement, resilience, Resiliency, security of data, superimposed voltage, Transmission line measurements, transmission line protection, two-terminal lines, Voltage measurement
AbstractThe application of line current differential relays (LCDRs) to protect transmission lines has recently proliferated. However, the reliance of LCDRs on digital communication channels has raised growing cyber-security concerns. This paper investigates the impacts of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) on the performance of LCDRs. It also develops coordinated attacks that involve multiple components, including LCDRs, and can cause false line tripping. Additionally, this paper proposes a technique for detecting FDIAs against LCDRs and differentiating them from actual faults in two-terminal lines. In this method, when an LCDR detects a fault, instead of immediately tripping the line, it calculates and measures the superimposed voltage at its local terminal, using the proposed positive-sequence (PS) and negative-sequence (NS) submodules. To calculate this voltage, the LCDR models the protected line in detail and replaces the rest of the system with a Thevenin equivalent that produces accurate responses at the line terminals. Afterwards, remote current measurement is utilized by the PS and NS submodules to compute each sequence's superimposed voltage. A difference between the calculated and the measured superimposed voltages in any sequence reveals that the remote current measurements are not authentic. Thus, the LCDR's trip command is blocked. The effectiveness of the proposed method is corroborated using simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system. The performance of the proposed method is also tested using an OPAL real-time simulator.
Citation Keyameli_development_2019