Visible to the public Remanence enhancement melt-spun Nitroquench Sm2Fe17N3. M.

TitleRemanence enhancement melt-spun Nitroquench Sm2Fe17N3. M.
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsCoey, M., Stamenov, P. S., Venkatesan, M., Porter, S. B., Iriyama, T.
Conference Name2018 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG)
Keywordscoercive force, coercivity, compositionality, Conferences, corrosion resistance, crystal microstructure, Curie temperature, cyber physical systems, dense sintered magnets, EDX microprobe analysis, hard magnetism, hysteresis loops, Internet of Things, interstitials, intrinsic magnetic properties, iron compounds, low-temperature gas-phase interstitial modification process, Magnetic anisotropy, magnetic hysteresis, Magnetic Remanence, Magnetics, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, melt spinning, melt-spun material, microstructure, Mossbauer effect, Mössbauer spectra, nanocrystallite size, nanostructured materials, nitroquench powder, Permanent magnets, polymer-bonded magnets, Polymers, Powders, pubcrawl, remanence, Resiliency, samarium compounds, sintering, Sm2Fe17N3, spark sintering, spontaneous magnetization, Thermal stability, X-ray chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray reflections
AbstractThe discovery of the interstitial rare earth nitride Sm2Fe17N3 came about seven years after the discovery of the rare earth iron boride Nd2Fe [1],[2], and the nitride initially seemed to offer intrinsic magnetic properties that were superior (Curie temperature TC, magnetocrystalline anisotropy K1 or comparable (spontaneous magnetization Ms to those of its illustrious predecessor. However, the promise of the new material to seriously challenge Nd2Fe14B was not realized. The 2:17 nitride powder, prepared by a low-temperature gas-phase interstitial modification process proved difficult to orient and worse still, it lost its nitrogen at the temperatures needed to process dense sintered magnets [3]. Attempts at explosive compaction [4] or spark sintering [5] failed to yield material with good enough coercivity. Nevertheless, work continued in Japan and China to develop a coercive powder that could be used for bonded magnets. An early realization was zinc-bonded Sm2Fe17N3 [6] with an energy product of 84 kJm3 but a rather low coercivity of 480 kAm-1, less than 5 % of the anisotropy field (Ha = 2K1/Ms 11 MAm-1). The anisotropy field of Nd2Fe14B is significantly less (6 MAm-1) yet several decades of intensive development have led to higher values and continuous improvements of the coercivity, even in unsubstituted material. Historical experience with permanent magnets shows that a long period of materials development is needed to arrive at the best composition and processing conditions for a microstructure that allows the hard magnetism to be optimized. Coercivities of about 25% of the anisotropy field are ultimately achieved. Here we compare the magnetic properties of melt-spun material. Our Nitroquench powder, produced by Daido Steel, was in the form of flakes 10 mm thick and up to 100 mm in diameter. A crystal-lite size of approximately 15 nm deduced from Scherrer broadening of the X-ray reflections. Composition was checked by EDX microprobe analysis. Hysteresis loops have been measured in applied fields of up to 14 T, at room temperature and at 4 K.The material exhibits a room-temperature coercivity of 690 kAm-1 after saturation in 14 T, with a remanence of 700 kAm-1 in zero applied field and an extrapolated saturation magnetization of 1230 kAm-1. The remanence ratio Mr/Ms of 63% when the remanence is corrected to zero internal field, is reflected in a preferred orientation seen in the X-ray powder diffraction patterns and in 57Fe Mossbauer spectra of magnetized powder. Spectra obtained after saturation of an immobilized powder absorber either in-plane or perpendicular to the sample plane exhibit distinctly different relative intensities of the DM=0 absorption lines. The maximum energy product for the powder, assuming full density, is 162 kJm-3. The remanence enhancement is attributed to fact that the nanocrystallite size is not much greater than the exchange length. Melt-spun Sm-Fe-N powder has superior corrosion resistance and thermal stability compared to melt-spun Nd-Fe-B. The Nitroquench powder may be used to produce polymer-bonded magnets with an energy product in excess of 100 kJm-3.
Citation Keycoey_remanence_2018