Visible to the public Pyramid: A Layered Sharding Blockchain System

TitlePyramid: A Layered Sharding Blockchain System
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsHong, Zicong, Guo, Song, Li, Peng, Chen, Wuhui
Conference NameIEEE INFOCOM 2021 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications
Date Publishedmay
KeywordsAtomic layer deposition, Bridges, Collaboration, composability, Conferences, Cross Layer Security, Prototypes, pubcrawl, Resiliency, Scalability, Throughput
AbstractSharding can significantly improve the blockchain scalability, by dividing nodes into small groups called shards that can handle transactions in parallel. However, all existing sharding systems adopt complete sharding, i.e., shards are isolated. It raises additional overhead to guarantee the atomicity and consistency of cross-shard transactions and seriously degrades the sharding performance. In this paper, we present Pyramid, the first layered sharding blockchain system, in which some shards can store the full records of multiple shards thus the cross-shard transactions can be processed and validated in these shards internally. When committing cross-shard transactions, to achieve consistency among the related shards, a layered sharding consensus based on the collaboration among several shards is presented. Compared with complete sharding in which each cross-shard transaction is split into multiple sub-transactions and cost multiple consensus rounds to commit, the layered sharding consensus can commit cross-shard transactions in one round. Furthermore, the security, scalability, and performance of layered sharding with different sharding structures are theoretically analyzed. Finally, we implement a prototype for Pyramid and its evaluation results illustrate that compared with the state-of-the-art complete sharding systems, Pyramid can improve the transaction throughput by 2.95 times in a system with 17 shards and 3500 nodes.
Citation Keyhong_pyramid_2021