Visible to the public Quantum Key Distribution Secured Optical Networks: A Survey

TitleQuantum Key Distribution Secured Optical Networks: A Survey
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsSharma, Purva, Agrawal, Anuj, Bhatia, Vimal, Prakash, Shashi, Mishra, Amit Kumar
JournalIEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society
Keywordslightpath attacks, Optical fiber networks, Optical networks, Optical pulses, Photonics, Protocols, Quantum Key Distribution, quantum networks, Quantum-classical coexistence, Repeaters, Routing, security, trusted repeater nodes, wavelength and time-slot allocation
AbstractIncreasing incidents of cyber attacks and evolution of quantum computing poses challenges to secure existing information and communication technologies infrastructure. In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) is being extensively researched, and is widely accepted as a promising technology to realize secure networks. Optical fiber networks carry a huge amount of information, and are widely deployed around the world in the backbone terrestrial, submarine, metro, and access networks. Thus, instead of using separate dark fibers for quantum communication, integration of QKD with the existing classical optical networks has been proposed as a cost-efficient solution, however, this integration introduces new research challenges. In this paper, we do a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art QKD secured optical networks, which is going to shape communication networks in the coming decades. We elucidate the methods and protocols used in QKD secured optical networks, and describe the process of key establishment. Various methods proposed in the literature to address the networking challenges in QKD secured optical networks, specifically, routing, wavelength and time-slot allocation (RWTA), resiliency, trusted repeater node (TRN) placement, QKD for multicast service, and quantum key recycling are described and compared in detail. This survey begins with the introduction to QKD and its advantages over conventional encryption methods. Thereafter, an overview of QKD is given including quantum bits, basic QKD system, QKD schemes and protocol families along with the detailed description of QKD process based on the Bennett and Brassard-84 (BB84) protocol as it is the most widely used QKD protocol in the literature. QKD system are also prone to some specific types of attacks, hence, we describe the types of quantum hacking attacks on the QKD system along with the methods used to prevent them. Subsequently, the process of point-to-point mechanism of QKD over an optical fiber link is described in detail using the BB84 protocol. Different architectures of QKD secured optical networks are described next. Finally, major findings from this comprehensive survey are summarized with highlighting open issues and challenges in QKD secured optical networks.
NotesConference Name: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society
Citation Keysharma_quantum_2021