CPS: Synergy: Collaborative Research: Formal Design of Semi-Autonomous Cyber-Physical Transportation Systems
Lead PI:
Paul Green
The goal of this research is to develop fundamental theory, efficient algorithms, and realistic experiments for the analysis and design of safety-critical cyber-physical transportation systems with human operators. The research focuses on preventing crashes between automobiles at road intersections, since these account for about 40% of overall vehicle crashes. Specifically, the main objective of this work is to design provably safe driver-assist systems that understand driver's intentions and provide warnings/overrides to prevent collisions. In order to pursue this goal, hybrid automata models for the driver-vehicles-intersection system, incorporating driver behavior and performance as an integral part, are derived from human-factors experiments. A partial order of these hybrid automata models is constructed, according to confidence levels on the model parameters. The driver-assist design problem is then formulated as a set of partially ordered hybrid differential games with imperfect information, in which games are ordered according to parameter confidence levels. The resulting designs are validated experimentally in a driving simulator and in large-scale computer simulations. This research leverages the potential of embedded control and communication technologies to prevent crashes at traffic intersections, by enabling networks of smart vehicles to cooperate with each other, with the surrounding infrastructure, and with their drivers to make transportation safer, more enjoyable, and more efficient. The work is based on a collaboration among researchers in formal methods, autonomous control, and human factors who are studying realistic and provably correct warning/override algorithms that can be readily transitioned to production vehicles.
Paul Green

Dr. Paul A. Green is a research professor in UMTRI's Driver Interface Group and an adjunct professor in the University of Michigan (U-M) Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering (IOE).  He is also a past president of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) and currently a member of the HFES Executive Council and the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics Board of Directors.  He is a fellow in HFES and the Institute of Human Factors and Ergonomics.  Dr. Green teaches automotive human factors (IOE 437) and human-computer interaction (IOE 436) classes. He has also been leader of U-M's Human Factors Engineering Short Course, the flagship continuing education in the field since the 1980s.

Dr. Green leads a research team that focuses on driver distraction, driver workload and workload managers, navigation system design, and motor-vehicle controls and displays.  The research makes extensive use of instrumented cars and driving simulators.  

Dr. Green's research has been published in over 200 journal articles, proceedings papers, and technical reports.  He was the lead author of several landmark publications: the first set of U.S. DOT telematics guidelines and SAE recommended practices concerning navigation system design (SAE J2364, the 15-second rule), distraction compliance calculations (SAE J2365), and driving performance measurement and statistics (SAE J2944).

Before joining UMTRI, Dr. Green was an engineering staff member at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and a safety and health engineer for Scovill.  At U-M, he has held appointments in the Department of Psychology, the School of Art (Industrial Design), and the School of Information.  He has a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Drexel University and three degrees from U-M: an M.S.E. in IOE, an M.A. in psychology, and a joint Ph.D. in IOE and psychology.

Performance Period: 11/01/2012 - 12/31/2015
Institution: University of Michigan Ann Arbor
Sponsor: National Science Foundation
Award Number: 1238600