Visible to the public Biblio

Found 15762 results

2023-01-20
Yu, Yue, Yao, Jiming, Wang, Wei, Qiu, Lanxin, Xu, Yangzhou.  2022.  A Lightweight Identity-Based Secondary Authentication Method in Smart Grid. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:2190—2195.
5G network slicing plays a key role in the smart grid business. The existing authentication schemes for 5G slicing in smart grids require high computing costs, so they are time-consuming and do not fully consider the security of authentication. Aiming at the application scenario of 5G smart grid, this paper proposes an identity-based lightweight secondary authentication scheme. Compared with other well-known methods, in the protocol interaction of this paper, both the user Ui and the grid server can authenticate each other's identities, thereby preventing illegal users from pretending to be identities. The grid user Ui and the grid server can complete the authentication process without resorting to complex bilinear mapping calculations, so the computational overhead is small. The grid user and grid server can complete the authentication process without transmitting the original identification. Therefore, this scheme has the feature of anonymous authentication. In this solution, the authentication process does not require infrastructure such as PKI, so the deployment is simple. Experimental results show that the protocol is feasible in practical applications
Liang, Xiao, An, Ningyu, Li, Da, Zhang, Qiang, Wang, Ruimiao.  2022.  A Blockchain and ABAC Based Data Access Control Scheme in Smart Grid. 2022 International Conference on Blockchain Technology and Information Security (ICBCTIS). :52—55.
In the smart grid, the sharing of power data among various energy entities can make the data play a higher value. However, there may be unauthorized access while sharing data, which makes many entities unwilling to share their data to prevent data leakage. Based on blockchain and ABAC (Attribute-based Access Control) technology, this paper proposes an access control scheme, so that users can achieve fine-grained access control of their data when sharing them. The solution uses smart contract to achieve automated and reliable policy evaluation. IPFS (Interplanetary File System) is used for off-chain distributed storage to share the storage pressure of blockchain and guarantee the reliable storage of data. At the same time, all processes in the system are stored in the blockchain, ensuring the accountability of the system. Finally, the experiment proves the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Frantti, Tapio, Korkiakoski, Markku.  2022.  Security Controls for Smart Buildings with Shared Space. 2022 6th International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :156—165.
In this paper we consider cyber security requirements of the smart buildings. We identify cyber risks, threats, attack scenarios, security objectives and related security controls. The work was done as a part of a smart building design and construction work. From the controls identified w e concluded security practices for engineering-in smart buildings security. The paper provides an idea toward which system security engineers can strive in the basic design and implementation of the most critical components of the smart buildings. The intent of the concept is to help practitioners to avoid ad hoc approaches in the development of security mechanisms for smart buildings with shared space.
Rashed, Muhammad, Kamruzzaman, Joarder, Gondal, Iqbal, Islam, Syed.  2022.  Vulnerability Assessment framework for a Smart Grid. 2022 4th Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM). :449—454.
The increasing demand for the interconnected IoT based smart grid is facing threats from cyber-attacks due to inherent vulnerability in the smart grid network. There is a pressing need to evaluate and model these vulnerabilities in the network to avoid cascading failures in power systems. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a vulnerability assessment framework based on attack probability for the protection and security of a smart grid. Several factors were taken into consideration such as the probability of attack, propagation of attack from a parent node to child nodes, effectiveness of basic metering system, Kalman estimation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The IEEE-300 bus smart grid was simulated using MATPOWER to study the effectiveness of the proposed framework by injecting false data injection attacks (FDIA); and studying their propagation. Our results show that the use of severity assessment standards such as Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), AMI measurements and Kalman estimates were very effective for evaluating the vulnerability assessment of smart grid in the presence of FDIA attack scenarios.
Mohammed, Amira, George, Gibin.  2022.  Vulnerabilities and Strategies of Cybersecurity in Smart Grid - Evaluation and Review. 2022 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE). :1—6.
Smart grid (SG) is considered the next generation of the traditional power grid. It is mainly divided into three main infrastructures: power system, information and communication infrastructures. Cybersecurity is imperative for information infrastructure and the secure, reliable, and efficient operation of the smart grid. Cybersecurity or a lack of proper implementation thereof poses a considerable challenge to the deployment of SG. Therefore, in this paper, A comprehensive survey of cyber security is presented in the smart grid context. Cybersecurity-related information infrastructure is clarified. The impact of adopting cybersecurity on control and management systems has been discussed. Also, the paper highlights the cybersecurity issues and challenges associated with the control decisions in the smart grid.
Feng, Guocong, Huang, Qingshui, Deng, Zijie, Zou, Hong, Zhang, Jiafa.  2022.  Research on cloud security construction of power grid in smart era. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Computer Application (ICDSCA). :976—980.
With the gradual construction and implementation of cloud computing, the information security problem of the smart grid has surfaced. Therefore, in the construction of the smart grid cloud computing platform, information security needs to be considered in planning, infrastructure, and management at the same time, and it is imminent to build an information network that is secure from terminal to the platform to data. This paper introduces the concept of cloud security technology and the latest development of cloud security technology and discusses the main strategies of cloud security construction in electric power enterprises.
Fan, Jinqiang, Xu, Yonggang, Ma, Jing.  2022.  Research on Security Classification and Classification Method of Power Grid Data. 2022 6th International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :72—76.
In order to solve the problem of untargeted data security grading methods in the process of power grid data governance, this paper analyzes the mainstream data security grading standards at home and abroad, investigates and sorts out the characteristics of power grid data security grading requirements, and proposes a method that considers national, social, and A grid data security classification scheme for the security impact of four dimensions of individuals and enterprises. The plan determines the principle of power grid data security classification. Based on the basic idea of “who will be affected to what extent and to what extent when the power grid data security is damaged”, it defines three classification factors that need to be considered: the degree of impact, the scope of influence, and the objects of influence, and the power grid data is divided into five security levels. In the operation stage of power grid data security grading, this paper sorts out the experience and gives the recommended grading process. This scheme basically conforms to the status quo of power grid data classification, and lays the foundation for power grid data governance.
Li, Guang-ye, Zhang, Jia-xin, Wen, Xin, Xu, Lang-Ming, Yuan, Ying.  2022.  Construction of Power Forecasting and Environmental Protection Data Platform Based on Smart Grid Big Data. 2022 International Conference on Applied Artificial Intelligence and Computing (ICAAIC). :801—804.
In today's era, the smart grid is the carrier of the new energy technology revolution and a very critical development stage for grid intelligence. In the process of smart grid operation, maintenance and maintenance, many heterogeneous and polymorphic data can be formed, that is to say big data. This paper analyzes the power big data prediction technology for smart grid applications, and proposes practical application strategies In this paper, an in-depth analysis of the relationship between cloud computing and big data key technologies and smart grid is carried out, and an overview of the key technologies of electric power big data is carried out.
Yao, Jiming, Wu, Peng, Chen, Duanyun, Wang, Wei, Fang, Youxu.  2022.  A security scheme for network slicing selection based on Pohlig-Hellman algorithm in smart grid. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:906—910.
5G has significantly facilitated the development of attractive applications such as autonomous driving and telemedicine due to its lower latency, higher data rates, and enormous connectivity. However, there are still some security and privacy issues in 5G, such as network slicing privacy and flexibility and efficiency of network slicing selection. In the smart grid scenario, this paper proposes a 5G slice selection security scheme based on the Pohlig-Hellman algorithm, which realizes the protection of slice selection privacy data between User i(Ui) and Access and Mobility Management function (AMF), so that the data will not be exposed to third-party attackers. Compared with other schemes, the scheme proposed in this paper is simple in deployment, low in computational overhead, and simple in process, and does not require the help of PKI system. The security analysis also verifies that the scheme can accurately protect the slice selection privacy data between Ui and AMF.
Joshi, Sanskruti, Li, Ruixiao, Bhattacharjee, Shameek, Das, Sajal K., Yamana, Hayato.  2022.  Privacy-Preserving Data Falsification Detection in Smart Grids using Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Homomorphic Encryption. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :229—234.
In an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), the electric utility collects power consumption data from smart meters to improve energy optimization and provides detailed information on power consumption to electric utility customers. However, AMI is vulnerable to data falsification attacks, which organized adversaries can launch. Such attacks can be detected by analyzing customers' fine-grained power consumption data; however, analyzing customers' private data violates the customers' privacy. Although homomorphic encryption-based schemes have been proposed to tackle the problem, the disadvantage is a long execution time. This paper proposes a new privacy-preserving data falsification detection scheme to shorten the execution time. We adopt elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based on homomorphic encryption (HE) without revealing customer power consumption data. HE is a form of encryption that permits users to perform computations on the encrypted data without decryption. Through ECC, we can achieve light computation. Our experimental evaluation showed that our proposed scheme successfully achieved 18 times faster than the CKKS scheme, a common HE scheme.
Feng, Guocong, Mu, Tianshi, Lyu, Huahui, Yang, Hang, Lai, Yuyang, Li, Huijuan.  2022.  A Lightweight Attribute-based Encryption Scheme for Data Access Control in Smart Grids. 2022 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering Technology (CCET). :280—284.
Smart grids are envisioned as the next-generation electricity grids. The data measured from the smart grid is very sensitive. It is thus highly necessary to adopt data access control in smart grids to guarantee the security and privacy of the measured data. Due to its flexibility and scalability, attribute-based encryption (ABE) is widely utilized to realize data access control in smart grids. However, most existing ABE solutions impose a heavy decryption overhead on their users. To this end, we propose a lightweight attribute-based encryption scheme for data access control in smart grids by adopting the idea of computation outsourcing. Under our proposed scheme, users can outsource a large amount of computation to a server during the decryption phase while still guaranteeing the security and privacy of the data. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation demonstrate that our scheme outperforms the existing schemes by achieving a very low decryption cost.
Wang, Wei, Yao, Jiming, Shao, Weiping, Xu, Yangzhou, Peng, Shaowu.  2022.  Efficient 5G Network Slicing Selection with Privacy in Smart Grid. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:916—922.
To fulfill different requirements from various services, the smart grid typically uses 5G network slicing technique for splitting the physical network into multiple virtual logical networks. By doing so, end users in smart grid can select appropriate slice that is suitable for their services. Privacy has vital significance in network slicing selection, since both the end user and the network entities are afraid that their sensitive slicing features are leaked to an adversary. At the same time, in the smart grid, there are many low-power users who are not suitable for complex security schemes. Therefore, both security and efficiency are basic requirements for 5G slicing selection schemes. Considering both security and efficiency, we propose a 5G slicing selection security scheme based on matching degree estimation, called SS-MDE. In SS-MDE, a set of random numbers is used to hide the feature information of the end user and the AMF which can provide privacy protection for exchanged slicing features. Moreover, the best matching slice is selected by calculating the Euclid distance between two slices. Since the algorithms used in SS-MDE include only several simple mathematical operations, which are quite lightweight, SS-MDE can achieve high efficiency. At the same time, since third-party attackers cannot extract the slicing information, SS-MDE can fulfill security requirements. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is feasible in real world applications.
Choudhary, Sachin, Kumar, Abhimanyu, Kumar, Krishan.  2022.  An Efficient Key Agreement Protocol for Smart Grid communication. 2022 2nd International Conference on Emerging Frontiers in Electrical and Electronic Technologies (ICEFEET). :1—5.
Integration of technology with power grid emerged Smart grid. The advancement of power grid into smart grid faces some security issues like message mod-ification attacks, message injection attacks etc. If these issues are correctly not addressed, then the performance of the smart grid is degraded. Smart grid has bidirectional communication among the smart grid entities. The flow of user energy consumption information between all smart grid entities may lead the user privacy violation. Smart grids have various components but service providers and smart meters are the main components. Smart meters have sensing and communication functionality, while service providers have control and communication functionality. There are many privacy preservation schemes proposed that ensure the cus-tomer's privacy in the smart grid. To preserve the customer's data privacy and communication, authentication and key agreement schemes are required between the smart meter and the service provider. This paper proposes an efficient key agreement protocol to handle several security challenges in smart grid. The proposed protocol is tested against the various security attributes necessary for a key establishment protocol and found safe. Further the performance of the proposed work is compared with several others existing work for smart grid application and it has been observed that the proposed protocol performs significantly better than the existing protocols available in the literature.
Li, Ruixiao, Bhattacharjee, Shameek, Das, Sajal K., Yamana, Hayato.  2022.  Look-Up Table based FHE System for Privacy Preserving Anomaly Detection in Smart Grids. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :108—115.
In advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), the customers' power consumption data is considered private but needs to be revealed to data-driven attack detection frameworks. In this paper, we present a system for privacy-preserving anomaly-based data falsification attack detection over fully homomorphic encrypted (FHE) data, which enables computations required for the attack detection over encrypted individual customer smart meter's data. Specifically, we propose a homomorphic look-up table (LUT) based FHE approach that supports privacy preserving anomaly detection between the utility, customer, and multiple partied providing security services. In the LUTs, the data pairs of input and output values for each function required by the anomaly detection framework are stored to enable arbitrary arithmetic calculations over FHE. Furthermore, we adopt a private information retrieval (PIR) approach with FHE to enable approximate search with LUTs, which reduces the execution time of the attack detection service while protecting private information. Besides, we show that by adjusting the significant digits of inputs and outputs in our LUT, we can control the detection accuracy and execution time of the attack detection, even while using FHE. Our experiments confirmed that our proposed method is able to detect the injection of false power consumption in the range of 11–17 secs of execution time, depending on detection accuracy.
Ma, Youjie, Su, Hua, Zhou, Xuesong, Tu, Fuhou.  2022.  Research on Data Security and Privacy Protection of Smart Grid Based on Alliance Chain. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA). :157—162.
As a new generation of power grid system, smart grid and smart meter conduct two-way communication to realize the intelligent collection, monitoring and dispatching of user power data, so as to achieve a safer, stable, reliable and efficient power grid environment. With the vigorous development of power grid, there are also some security and privacy problems. This paper uses Paillier homomorphic encryption algorithm and role-based access control strategy to ensure the privacy security in the process of multi-dimensional aggregation, data transmission and sharing of power data. Applying the characteristics of blockchain technology such as decentralization, non tampering and traceability to the smart grid can effectively solve the privacy and security problems of power data transmission and sharing in the smart grid. This paper compares Paillier encryption algorithm with PPAR algorithm and SIAHE algorithm in terms of encryption mechanism, number of aggregators and computational complexity respectively. The results show that Paillier homomorphic encryption algorithm has higher data privacy and security.
Wang, Mei.  2022.  Big Data Analysis and Mining Technology of Smart Grid Based on Privacy Protection. 2022 6th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :868—871.
Aiming at the big data security and privacy protection issues in the smart grid, the current key technologies for big data security and privacy protection in smart grids are sorted out, and a privacy-protecting smart grid association rule is proposed according to the privacy-protecting smart grid big data analysis and mining technology route The mining plan specifically analyzes the risk factors in the operation of the new power grid, and discusses the information security of power grid users from the perspective of the user, focusing on the protection of privacy and security, using safe multi-party calculation of the support and confidence of the association rules. Privacy-protecting smart grid big data mining enables power companies to improve service quality to 7.5% without divulging customer private information.
Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S., Kassem, A., Saad, Ahmed A., Mohammed, Osama A..  2022.  Real-Time Wide Area Event Identification and Analysis in Power Grid Based on EWAMS. 2022 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS). :1–13.
Event detection and classification are crucial to power system stability. The Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) technology helps in enhancing wide area situational awareness by providing useful synchronized information to the grid control center in order to accurately identify various power system events. This paper demonstrates the viability of using EWAMS (Egyptian Wide Area Measurement System) data as one of the evolving technologies of smart grid to identify extreme events within the Egyptian power grid. The proposed scheme is based on online synchronized measurements of wide-area monitoring devices known as Frequency Disturbance Recorders (FDRs) deployed at selected substations within the grid. The FDR measures the voltage, voltage angle, and frequency at the substation and streams the processed results to the Helwan University Host Server (HUHS). Each FDR is associated with a timestamp reference to the Global Positioning System (GPS) base. An EWAMS-based frequency disturbance detection algorithm based on the rate of frequency deviation is developed to identify varies types of events such as generator trip and load shedding. Based on proper thresholding on the frequency and rate of change of frequency of the Egyptian grid, different types of events have been captured in many locations during the supervision and monitoring the operation of the grid. EWAMS historical data is used to analyze a wide range of data pre-event, during and post-event for future enhancement of situational awareness as well as decision making.
Sen, Ömer, Eze, Chijioke, Ulbig, Andreas, Monti, Antonello.  2022.  On Holistic Multi-Step Cyberattack Detection via a Graph-based Correlation Approach. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :380–386.
While digitization of distribution grids through information and communications technology brings numerous benefits, it also increases the grid's vulnerability to serious cyber attacks. Unlike conventional systems, attacks on many industrial control systems such as power grids often occur in multiple stages, with the attacker taking several steps at once to achieve its goal. Detection mechanisms with situational awareness are needed to detect orchestrated attack steps as part of a coherent attack campaign. To provide a foundation for detection and prevention of such attacks, this paper addresses the detection of multi-stage cyber attacks with the aid of a graph-based cyber intelligence database and alert correlation approach. Specifically, we propose an approach to detect multi-stage attacks by lever-aging heterogeneous data to form a knowledge base and employ a model-based correlation approach on the generated alerts to identify multi-stage cyber attack sequences taking place in the network. We investigate the detection quality of the proposed approach by using a case study of a multi-stage cyber attack campaign in a future-orientated power grid pilot.
Latha., N, Divya, B V, Surendra, Usha, Archana, N V.  2022.  Micro grid Communication Technologies: An Overview. 2022 IEEE Industrial Electronics and Applications Conference (IEACon). :49–54.
Micro grid is a small-scale power supply network designed to provide electricity to small community with integrated renewable energy sources. A micro grid can be integrated to the utility grid. Due to lack of computerized analysis, mechanical switches causing slow response time, poor visibility and situational awareness blackouts are caused due to cascading of faults. This paper presents a brief survey on communication technologies used in smart grid and its extension to micro grid. By integration of communication network, device control, information collection and remote management an intelligent power management system can be achieved
Mohammadpourfard, Mostafa, Weng, Yang, Genc, Istemihan, Kim, Taesic.  2022.  An Accurate False Data Injection Attack (FDIA) Detection in Renewable-Rich Power Grids. 2022 10th Workshop on Modelling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1–5.
An accurate state estimation (SE) considering increased uncertainty by the high penetration of renewable energy systems (RESs) is more and more important to enhance situational awareness, and the optimal and resilient operation of the renewable-rich power grids. However, it is anticipated that adversaries who plan to manipulate the target power grid will generate attacks that inject inaccurate data to the SE using the vulnerabilities of the devices and networks. Among potential attack types, false data injection attack (FDIA) is gaining popularity since this can bypass bad data detection (BDD) methods implemented in the SE systems. Although numerous FDIA detection methods have been recently proposed, the uncertainty of system configuration that arises by the continuously increasing penetration of RESs has been been given less consideration in the FDIA algorithms. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new FDIA detection scheme that is applicable to renewable energy-rich power grids. A deep learning framework is developed in particular by synergistically constructing a Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) with modern smart grid characteristics. The developed framework is evaluated on the IEEE 14-bus system integrating several RESs by using several attack scenarios. A comparison of the numerical results shows that the proposed FDIA detection mechanism outperforms the existing deep learning-based approaches in a renewable energy-rich grid environment.
Raptis, Theofanis P., Cicconetti, Claudio, Falelakis, Manolis, Kanellos, Tassos, Lobo, Tomás Pariente.  2022.  Design Guidelines for Apache Kafka Driven Data Management and Distribution in Smart Cities. 2022 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2). :1–7.
Smart city management is going through a remarkable transition, in terms of quality and diversity of services provided to the end-users. The stakeholders that deliver pervasive applications are now able to address fundamental challenges in the big data value chain, from data acquisition, data analysis and processing, data storage and curation, and data visualisation in real scenarios. Industry 4.0 is pushing this trend forward, demanding for servitization of products and data, also for the smart cities sector where humans, sensors and devices are operating in strict collaboration. The data produced by the ubiquitous devices must be processed quickly to allow the implementation of reactive services such as situational awareness, video surveillance and geo-localization, while always ensuring the safety and privacy of involved citizens. This paper proposes a modular architecture to (i) leverage innovative technologies for data acquisition, management and distribution (such as Apache Kafka and Apache NiFi), (ii) develop a multi-layer engineering solution for revealing valuable and hidden societal knowledge in smart cities environment, and (iii) tackle the main issues in tasks involving complex data flows and provide general guidelines to solve them. We derived some guidelines from an experimental setting performed together with leading industrial technical departments to accomplish an efficient system for monitoring and servitization of smart city assets, with a scalable platform that confirms its usefulness in numerous smart city use cases with different needs.
Korkmaz, Yusuf, Huseinovic, Alvin, Bisgin, Halil, Mrdović, Saša, Uludag, Suleyman.  2022.  Using Deep Learning for Detecting Mirroring Attacks on Smart Grid PMU Networks. 2022 International Balkan Conference on Communications and Networking (BalkanCom). :84–89.
Similar to any spoof detection systems, power grid monitoring systems and devices are subject to various cyberattacks by determined and well-funded adversaries. Many well-publicized real-world cyberattacks on power grid systems have been publicly reported. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) networks with Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) are the main building blocks of the overall wide area monitoring and situational awareness systems in the power grid. The data between PMUs and PDC(s) are sent through the legacy networks, which are subject to many attack scenarios under with no, or inadequate, countermeasures in protocols, such as IEEE 37.118-2. In this paper, we consider a stealthier data spoofing attack against PMU networks, called a mirroring attack, where an adversary basically injects a copy of a set of packets in reverse order immediately following their original positions, wiping out the correct values. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, we consider a more challenging attack both in terms of the strategy and the lower percentage of spoofed attacks. As part of our countermeasure detection scheme, we make use of novel framing approach to make application of a 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach which avoids the computational overhead of the classical sample-based classification algorithms. Our experimental evaluation results show promising results in terms of both high accuracy and true positive rates even under the aforementioned stealthy adversarial attack scenarios.
Alanzi, Mataz, Challa, Hari, Beleed, Hussain, Johnson, Brian K., Chakhchoukh, Yacine, Reen, Dylan, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Bell, John, Rieger, Craig, Gentle, Jake.  2022.  Synchrophasors-based Master State Awareness Estimator for Cybersecurity in Distribution Grid: Testbed Implementation & Field Demonstration. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and expansion of complex network in the distribution grid requires an advanced two-level state estimator to monitor the grid health at micro-level. The distribution state estimator will improve the situational awareness and resiliency of distributed power system. This paper implements a synchrophasors-based master state awareness (MSA) estimator to enhance the cybersecurity in distribution grid by providing a real-time estimation of system operating states to control center operators. In this paper, the implemented MSA estimator utilizes only phasor measurements, bus magnitudes and angles, from phasor measurement units (PMUs), deployed in local substations, to estimate the system states and also detects data integrity attacks, such as load tripping attack that disconnects the load. To validate the proof of concept, we implement this methodology in cyber-physical testbed environment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Electric Grid Security Testbed. Further, to address the "valley of death" and support technology commercialization, field demonstration is also performed at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC) at the INL. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting load tripping attack and providing an accurate situational awareness through an alert visualization dashboard in real-time.
Madbhavi, Rahul, Srinivasan, Babji.  2022.  Enhancing Performance of Compressive Sensing-based State Estimators using Dictionary Learning. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Power Systems Technology (POWERCON). :1–6.
Smart grids integrate computing and communication infrastructure with conventional power grids to improve situational awareness, control, and safety. Several technologies such as automatic fault detection, automated reconfiguration, and outage management require close network monitoring. Therefore, utilities utilize sensing equipment such as PMUs (phasor measurement units), smart meters, and bellwether meters to obtain grid measurements. However, the expansion in sensing equipment results in an increased strain on existing communication infrastructure. Prior works overcome this problem by exploiting the sparsity of power consumption data in the Haar, Hankel, and Toeplitz transformation bases to achieve sub-Nyquist compression. However, data-driven dictionaries enable superior compression ratios and reconstruction accuracy by learning the sparsifying basis. Therefore, this work proposes using dictionary learning to learn the sparsifying basis of smart meter data. The smart meter data sent to the data centers are compressed using a random projection matrix prior to transmission. These measurements are aggregated to obtain the compressed measurements at the primary nodes. Compressive sensing-based estimators are then utilized to estimate the system states. This approach was validated on the IEEE 33-node distribution system and showed superior reconstruction accuracy over conventional transformation bases and over-complete dictionaries. Voltage magnitude and angle estimation error less than 0.3% mean absolute percentage error and 0.04 degree mean absolute error, respectively, were achieved at compression ratios as high as eight.
Dey, Arnab, Chakraborty, Soham, Salapaka, Murti V..  2022.  An End-to-End Cyber-Physical Infrastructure for Smart Grid Control and Monitoring. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
In this article, we propose a generic cyber-physical framework, developed in our laboratory, for smart grid control and monitoring in real-time. Our framework is composed of four key elements: (1) system layer which embeds a physical or emulated power system network, (2) data analysis layer to execute real-time data-driven grid analysis algorithms, (3) backend layer with a generic data storage framework which supports multiple databases with functionally different architectures, and (4) visualization layer where multiple customized or commercially available user interfaces can be deployed concurrently for grid control and monitoring. These four layers are interlinked via bidirectional communication channels. Such a flexible and scalable framework provides a cohesive environment to enhance smart grid situational awareness. We demonstrate the utility of our proposed architecture with several case studies where we estimate a modified IEEE-33 bus distribution network topology entirely from synchrophasor measurements, without any prior knowledge of the grid network, and render the same on visualization platform. Three demonstrations are included with single and multiple system operators having complete and partial measurements.