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Daniels, Wilfried, Hughes, Danny, Ammar, Mahmoud, Crispo, Bruno, Matthys, Nelson, Joosen, Wouter.  2017.  SΜV - the Security Microvisor: A Virtualisation-based Security Middleware for the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 18th ACM/IFIP/USENIX Middleware Conference: Industrial Track. :36–42.
The Internet of Things (IoT) creates value by connecting digital processes to the physical world using embedded sensors, actuators and wireless networks. The IoT is increasingly intertwined with critical industrial processes, yet contemporary IoT devices offer limited security features, creating a large new attack surface and inhibiting the adoption of IoT technologies. Hardware security modules address this problem, however, their use increases the cost of embedded IoT devices. Furthermore, millions of IoT devices are already deployed without hardware security support. This paper addresses this problem by introducing a Security MicroVisor (SμV) middleware, which provides memory isolation and custom security operations using software virtualisation and assembly-level code verification. We showcase SμV by implementing a key security feature: remote attestation. Evaluation shows extremely low overhead in terms of memory, performance and battery lifetime for a representative IoT device.
Danilchenko, Victor, Theobald, Matthew, Cohen, Daniel.  2019.  Bootstrapping Security Configuration for IoT Devices on Networks with TLS Inspection. 2019 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—7.

In the modern security-conscious world, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) proxies are increasingly often used on industrial and enterprise networks to perform TLS unwrapping on all outbound connections. However, enabling TLS unwrapping requires local devices to have the DPI proxy Certificate Authority certificates installed. While for conventional computing devices this is addressed via enterprise management, it's a difficult problem for Internet of Things ("IoT") devices which are generally not under enterprise management, and may not even be capable of it due to their resource-constrained nature. Thus, for typical IoT devices, being installed on a network with DPI requires either manual device configuration or custom DPI proxy configuration, both of which solutions have significant shortcomings. This poses a serious challenge to the deployment of IoT devices on DPI-enabled intranets. The authors propose a solution to this problem: a method of installing on IoT devices the CA certificates for DPI proxy CAs, as well as other security configuration ("security bootstrapping"). The proposed solution respects the DPI policies, while allowing the commissioning of IoT and IIoT devices without the need for additional manual configuration either at device scope or at network scope. This is accomplished by performing the bootstrap operation over unsecured connection, and downloading certificates using TLS validation at application level. The resulting solution is light-weight and secure, yet does not require validation of the DPI proxy's CA certificates in order to perform the security bootstrapping, thus avoiding the chicken-and-egg problem inherent in using TLS on DPI-enabled intranets.

Danilova, A., Naiakshina, A., Smith, M..  2020.  One Size Does Not Fit All: A Grounded Theory and Online Survey Study of Developer Preferences for Security Warning Types. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :136–148.
A wide range of tools exist to assist developers in creating secure software. Many of these tools, such as static analysis engines or security checkers included in compilers, use warnings to communicate security issues to developers. The effectiveness of these tools relies on developers heeding these warnings, and there are many ways in which these warnings could be displayed. Johnson et al. [46] conducted qualitative research and found that warning presentation and integration are main issues. We built on Johnson et al.'s work and examined what developers want from security warnings, including what form they should take and how they should integrate into their workflow and work context. To this end, we conducted a Grounded Theory study with 14 professional software developers and 12 computer science students as well as a focus group with 7 academic researchers to gather qualitative insights. To back up the theory developed from the qualitative research, we ran a quantitative survey with 50 professional software developers. Our results show that there is significant heterogeneity amongst developers and that no one warning type is preferred over all others. The context in which the warnings are shown is also highly relevant, indicating that it is likely to be beneficial if IDEs and other development tools become more flexible in their warning interactions with developers. Based on our findings, we provide concrete recommendations for both future research as well as how IDEs and other security tools can improve their interaction with developers.
Danyk, Y., Shestakov, V..  2018.  The detection of hybrid vulnerabilities and effects on the basis of analyzing the information activity in cyberspace. 2018 14th International Conference on Advanced Trends in Radioelecrtronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering (TCSET). :574–577.

The report presents the results of the investigations into the effects of the information hybrid threats through cyberspace on social, technical, socio and technical systems. The composition of the system of early efficient detection of the above hybrids is suggested. The results of the structural and parametric synthesis of the system are described. The recommendations related to the system implementation are given.

Dao, Ha, Mazel, Johan, Fukuda, Kensuke.  2018.  Understanding Abusive Web Resources: Characteristics and Counter-measures of Malicious Web Resources and Cryptocurrency Mining. Proceedings of the Asian Internet Engineering Conference. :54–61.
Web security is a big concern in the current Internet; users may visit websites that automatically download malicious codes for leaking user's privacy information, or even mildly their web browser may help for someone's cryptomining. In this paper, we analyze abusive web resources (i.e. malicious resources and cryptomining) crawled from the Alexa Top 150,000 sites. We highlight the abusive web resources on Alexa ranking, TLD usage, website geolocation, and domain lifetime. Our results show that abusive resources are spread in the Alexa ranking, websites particularly generic Top Level Domain (TLD) and their recently registered domains. In addition, websites with malicious resources are mainly located in China while cryptomining is located in USA. We further evaluate possible counter-measures against abusive web resources. We observe that ad or privacy block lists are ineffective to block against malicious resources while coin-blocking lists are powerful enough to mitigate in-browser cryptomining. Our observations shed light on a little studied, yet important, aspect of abusive resources, and can help increase user awareness about the malicious resources and drive-by mining on web browsers.
Dao, Nhu-Ngoc, Vu, Duc-Nghia, Lee, Yunseong, Park, Minho, Cho, Sungrae.  2018.  MAEC-X: DDoS Prevention Leveraging Multi-Access Edge Computing. 2018 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :245-248.

The convergence of access networks in the fifth-generation (5G) evolution promises multi-tier networking infrastructures for the successes of various applications realizing the Internet-of-Everything era. However, in this context, the support of a massive number of connected devices also opens great opportunities for attackers to exploit these devices in illegal actions against their victims, especially within the distributed denial-of-services (DDoS) attacks. Nowadays, DDoS prevention still remains an open issue in term of performance improvement although there is a significant number of existing solutions have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the advances of multi-access edge computing (MAEC), which is considered as one of the most important emerging technologies in 5G networks, in order to provide an effective DDoS prevention solution (referred to be MAEC-X). The proposed MAEC-X architecture and mechanism are developed as well as proved its effectiveness against DDoS attacks through intensive security analysis.

Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2018.  Routing Aware and Runtime Detection for Infected Network-on-Chip Routers. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :775-778.

Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture is the communication heart of the processing cores in Multiprocessors System-on-Chip (MPSoC), where messages are routed from a source to a destination through intermediate nodes. Therefore, NoC has become a target to security attacks. By experiencing outsourcing design, NoC can be infected with a malicious Hardware Trojans (HTs) which potentially degrade the system performance or leave a backdoor for secret key leaking. In this paper, we propose a HT model that applies a denial of service attack by misrouting the packets, which causes deadlock and consequently degrading the NoC performance. We present a secure routing algorithm that provides a runtime HT detection and avoiding scheme. Results show that our proposed model has negligible overhead in area and power, 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively.

Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2019.  Analysis of Black Hole Router Attack in Network-on-Chip. 2019 IEEE 62nd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :69–72.

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is the communication platform of the data among the processing cores in Multiprocessors System-on-Chip (MPSoC). NoC has become a target to security attacks and by outsourcing design, it can be infected with a malicious Hardware Trojan (HT) to degrades the system performance or leaves a back door for sensitive information leaking. In this paper, we proposed a HT model that applies a denial of service attack by deliberately discarding the data packets that are passing through the infected node creating a black hole in the NoC. It is known as Black Hole Router (BHR) attack. We studied the effect of the BHR attack on the NoC. The power and area overhead of the BHR are analyzed. We studied the effect of the locations of BHRs and their distribution in the network as well. The malicious nodes has very small area and power overhead, 1.98% and 0.74% respectively, with a very strong violent attack.

Daoud, Luka.  2018.  Secure Network-on-Chip Architectures for MPSoC: Overview and Challenges. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :542—543.
Network-on-Chip (NOC) is the heart of data communication between processing cores in Multiprocessor-based Systems on Chip (MPSoC). Packets transferred via the NoC are exposed to snooping, which makes NoC-based systems vulnerable to security attacks. Additionally, Hardware Trojans (HTs) can be deployed in some of the NoC nodes to apply security threats of extracting sensitive information or degrading the system performance. In this paper, an overview of some security attacks in NoC-based systems and the countermeasure techniques giving prominence on malicious nodes are discussed. Work in progress for secure routing algorithms is also presented.
Dar, Muneer Ahmad, Nisar Bukhari, Syed, Khan, Ummer Iqbal.  2018.  Evaluation of Security and Privacy of Smartphone Users. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information, Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB). :1–4.

The growing use of smart phones has also given opportunity to the intruders to create malicious apps thereby the security and privacy concerns of a novice user has also grown. This research focuses on the privacy concerns of a user who unknowingly installs a malicious apps created by the programmer. In this paper we created an attack scenario and created an app capable of compromising the privacy of the users. After accepting all the permissions by the user while installing the app, the app allows us to track the live location of the Android device and continuously sends the GPS coordinates to the server. This spying app is also capable of sending the call log details of the user. This paper evaluates two leading smart phone operating systems- Android and IOS to find out the flexibility provided by the two operating systems to their programmers to create the malicious apps.

Darabseh, A., Namin, A. S..  2015.  On Accuracy of Classification-Based Keystroke Dynamics for Continuous User Authentication. 2015 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW). :321–324.

The aim of this research is to advance the user active authentication using keystroke dynamics. Through this research, we assess the performance and influence of various keystroke features on keystroke dynamics authentication systems. In particular, we investigate the performance of keystroke features on a subset of most frequently used English words. The performance of four features such as i) key duration, ii) flight time latency, iii) diagraph time latency, and iv) word total time duration are analyzed. Two machine learning techniques are employed for assessing keystroke authentications. The selected classification methods are support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor classifier (K-NN). The logged experimental data are captured for 28 users. The experimental results show that key duration time offers the best performance result among all four keystroke features, followed by word total time.

Darabseh, A., Namin, A. Siami.  2015.  On Accuracy of Keystroke Authentications Based on Commonly Used English Words. 2015 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1–8.

The aim of this research is to advance the user active authentication using keystroke dynamics. Through this research, we assess the performance and influence of various keystroke features on keystroke dynamics authentication systems. In particular, we investigate the performance of keystroke features on a subset of most frequently used English words. The performance of four features such as i) key duration, ii) flight time latency, iii) digraph time latency, and iv) word total time duration are analyzed. Experiments are performed to measure the performance of each feature individually as well as the results from the different subsets of these features. Four machine learning techniques are employed for assessing keystroke authentications. The selected classification methods are two-class support vector machine (TC) SVM, one-class support vector machine (OC) SVM, k-nearest neighbor classifier (K-NN), and Naive Bayes classifier (NB). The logged experimental data are captured for 28 users. The experimental results show that key duration time offers the best performance result among all four keystroke features, followed by word total time. Furthermore, our results show that TC SVM and KNN perform the best among the four classifiers.

das Dôres, Silvia N., Alves, Luciano, Ruiz, Duncan D., Barros, Rodrigo C..  2016.  A Meta-learning Framework for Algorithm Recommendation in Software Fault Prediction. Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :1486–1491.

Software fault prediction is a significant part of software quality assurance and it is commonly used to detect faulty software modules based on software measurement data. Several machine learning based approaches have been proposed for generating predictive models from collected data, although none has become standard given the specificities of each software project. Hence, we believe that recommending the best algorithm for each project is much more important and useful than developing a single algorithm for being used in any project. For achieving that goal, we propose in this paper a novel framework for recommending machine learning algorithms that is capable of automatically identifying the most suitable algorithm according to the software project that is being considered. Our solution, namely SFP-MLF, makes use of the meta-learning paradigm in order to learn the best learner for a particular project. Results show that the SFP-MLF framework provides both the best single algorithm recommendation and also the best ranking recommendation for the software fault prediction problem.

Das, A., Shen, M. Y., Wang, J..  2017.  Modeling User Communities for Identifying Security Risks in an Organization. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :4481–4486.

In this paper, we address the problem of peer grouping employees in an organization for identifying security risks. Our motivation for studying peer grouping is its importance for a clear understanding of user and entity behavior analytics (UEBA) that is the primary tool for identifying insider threat through detecting anomalies in network traffic. We show that using Louvain method of community detection it is possible to automate peer group creation with feature-based weight assignments. Depending on the number of employees and their features we show that it is also possible to give each group a meaningful description. We present three new algorithms: one that allows an addition of new employees to already generated peer groups, another that allows for incorporating user feedback, and lastly one that provides the user with recommended nodes to be reassigned. We use Niara's data to validate our claims. The novelty of our method is its robustness, simplicity, scalability, and ease of deployment in a production environment.

Das, A., Shen, M. Y., Shashanka, M., Wang, J..  2017.  Detection of Exfiltration and Tunneling over DNS. 2017 16th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :737–742.

This paper proposes a method to detect two primary means of using the Domain Name System (DNS) for malicious purposes. We develop machine learning models to detect information exfiltration from compromised machines and the establishment of command & control (C&C) servers via tunneling. We validate our approach by experiments where we successfully detect a malware used in several recent Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attacks [1]. The novelty of our method is its robustness, simplicity, scalability, and ease of deployment in a production environment.

Das, Abhishek, Touba, Nur A..  2019.  A Graph Theory Approach towards IJTAG Security via Controlled Scan Chain Isolation. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1—6.

The IEEE Std. 1687 (IJTAG) was designed to provide on-chip access to the various embedded instruments (e.g. built-in self test, sensors, etc.) in complex system-on-chip designs. IJTAG facilitates access to on-chip instruments from third party intellectual property providers with hidden test-data registers. Although access to on-chip instruments provides valuable data specifically for debug and diagnosis, it can potentially expose the design to untrusted sources and instruments that can sniff and possibly manipulate the data that is being shifted through the IJTAG network. This paper provides a comprehensive protection scheme against data sniffing and data integrity attacks by selectively isolating the data flowing through the IJTAG network. The proposed scheme is modeled as a graph coloring problem to optimize the number of isolation signals required to protect the design. It is shown that combining the proposed approach with other existing schemes can also bolster the security against unauthorized user access as well. The proposed countermeasure is shown to add minimal overhead in terms of area and power consumption.

Das, Anupam, Borisov, Nikita, Caesar, Matthew.  2014.  Analyzing an Adaptive Reputation Metric for Anonymity Systems. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :11:1–11:11.

Low-latency anonymity systems such as Tor rely on intermediate relays to forward user traffic; these relays, however, are often unreliable, resulting in a degraded user experience. Worse yet, malicious relays may introduce deliberate failures in a strategic manner in order to increase their chance of compromising anonymity. In this paper we propose using a reputation metric that can profile the reliability of relays in an anonymity system based on users' past experience. The two main challenges in building a reputation-based system for an anonymity system are: first, malicious participants can strategically oscillate between good and malicious nature to evade detection, and second, an observed failure in an anonymous communication cannot be uniquely attributed to a single relay. Our proposed framework addresses the former challenge by using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller-based reputation metric that ensures malicious relays adopting time-varying strategic behavior obtain low reputation scores over time, and the latter by introducing a filtering scheme based on the evaluated reputation score to effectively discard relays mounting attacks. We collect data from the live Tor network and perform simulations to validate the proposed reputation-based filtering scheme. We show that an attacker does not gain any significant benefit by performing deliberate failures in the presence of the proposed reputation framework.

Das, Arnab, Briggs, Ian, Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh, Krishnamoorthy, Sriram, Panchekha, Pavel.  2020.  Scalable yet Rigorous Floating-Point Error Analysis. SC20: International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis. :1–14.
Automated techniques for rigorous floating-point round-off error analysis are a prerequisite to placing important activities in HPC such as precision allocation, verification, and code optimization on a formal footing. Yet existing techniques cannot provide tight bounds for expressions beyond a few dozen operators-barely enough for HPC. In this work, we offer an approach embedded in a new tool called SATIHE that scales error analysis by four orders of magnitude compared to today's best-of-class tools. We explain how three key ideas underlying SATIHE helps it attain such scale: path strength reduction, bound optimization, and abstraction. SATIHE provides tight bounds and rigorous guarantees on significantly larger expressions with well over a hundred thousand operators, covering important examples including FFT, matrix multiplication, and PDE stencils.
Das, Aveek K., Pathak, Parth H., Chuah, Chen-Nee, Mohapatra, Prasant.  2016.  Uncovering Privacy Leakage in BLE Network Traffic of Wearable Fitness Trackers. Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. :99–104.

There has been a tremendous increase in popularity and adoption of wearable fitness trackers. These fitness trackers predominantly use Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) for communicating and syncing the data with user's smartphone. This paper presents a measurement-driven study of possible privacy leakage from BLE communication between the fitness tracker and the smartphone. Using real BLE traffic traces collected in the wild and in controlled experiments, we show that majority of the fitness trackers use unchanged BLE address while advertising, making it feasible to track them. The BLE traffic of the fitness trackers is found to be correlated with the intensity of user's activity, making it possible for an eavesdropper to determine user's current activity (walking, sitting, idle or running) through BLE traffic analysis. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the BLE traffic can represent user's gait which is known to be distinct from user to user. This makes it possible to identify a person (from a small group of users) based on the BLE traffic of her fitness tracker. As BLE-based wearable fitness trackers become widely adopted, our aim is to identify important privacy implications of their usage and discuss prevention strategies.

Das, Bablu Kumar, Garg, Ritu.  2019.  Security of Cloud Storage based on Extended Hill Cipher and Homomorphic Encryption. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :515–520.
Cloud computing is one of the emerging area in the business world that help to access resources at low expense with high privacy. Security is a standout amongst the most imperative difficulties in cloud network for cloud providers and their customers. In order to ensure security in cloud, we proposed a framework using different encryption algorithm namely Extended hill cipher and homomorphic encryption. Firstly user data/information is isolated into two parts which is static and dynamic data (critical data). Extended hill cipher encryption is applied over more important dynamic part where we are encrypting the string using matrix multiplication. While homomorphic encryption is applied over static data in which it accepts n number of strings as information, encode each string independently and lastly combine all the strings. The test results clearly manifests that the proposed model provides better information security.
Das, D., Meiser, S., Mohammadi, E., Kate, A..  2018.  Anonymity Trilemma: Strong Anonymity, Low Bandwidth Overhead, Low Latency - Choose Two. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :108–126.

This work investigates the fundamental constraints of anonymous communication (AC) protocols. We analyze the relationship between bandwidth overhead, latency overhead, and sender anonymity or recipient anonymity against the global passive (network-level) adversary. We confirm the trilemma that an AC protocol can only achieve two out of the following three properties: strong anonymity (i.e., anonymity up to a negligible chance), low bandwidth overhead, and low latency overhead. We further study anonymity against a stronger global passive adversary that can additionally passively compromise some of the AC protocol nodes. For a given number of compromised nodes, we derive necessary constraints between bandwidth and latency overhead whose violation make it impossible for an AC protocol to achieve strong anonymity. We analyze prominent AC protocols from the literature and depict to which extent those satisfy our necessary constraints. Our fundamental necessary constraints offer a guideline not only for improving existing AC systems but also for designing novel AC protocols with non-traditional bandwidth and latency overhead choices.

Das, Debasis, Kumar, Amritesh.  2017.  Algorithm for Multicast Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Software and Computer Applications. :250–255.

Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) is a promising new technique for communication with routing protocol designs being critical to the effective and efficient of these WMNs. A common approach for routing traffic in these networks is to select a minimal distance from source to destination as in wire-line networks. Opportunistic Routing(OR) makes use of the broadcasting ability of wireless network and is especially very helpful for WMN because all nodes are static. Our proposed scheme of Multicast Opportunistic Routing(MOR) in WMNs is based on the broadcast transmissions and Learning Au-tomata (LA) to expand the potential candidate nodes that can aid in the process of retransmission of the data. The receivers are required to be in sync with one another in order to avoid duplicated broadcasting of data which is generally achieved by formulating the forwarding candidates according to some LA based metric. The most adorable aspect of this protocol is that it intelligently "learns" from the past experience and improves its performance. The results obtained via this approach of MOR, shows that the proposed scheme outperforms with some existing sachems and is an improved and more effective version of opportunistic routing in mesh network.

Das, Debayan, Nath, Mayukh, Ghosh, Santosh, Sen, Shreyas.  2020.  Killing EM Side-Channel Leakage at its Source. 2020 IEEE 63rd International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :1108—1111.
Side-channel analysis (SCA) is a big threat to the security of connected embedded devices. Over the last few years, physical non-invasive SCA attacks utilizing the electromagnetic (EM) radiation (EM side-channel `leakage') from a crypto IC has gained huge momentum owing to the availability of the low-cost EM probes and development of the deep-learning (DL) based profiling attacks. In this paper, our goal is to understand the source of the EM leakage by analyzing a white-box modeling of the EM leakage from the crypto IC, leading towards a low-overhead generic countermeasure. To kill this EM leakage from its source, the solution utilizes a signature attenuation hardware (SAH) encapsulating the crypto core locally within the lower metal layers such that the critical correlated crypto current signature is significantly attenuated before it passes through the higher metal layers to connect to the external pin. The protection circuit utilizing AES256 as the crypto core is fabricated in 65nm process and shows for the first time the effects of metal routing on the EM leakage. The \textbackslashtextgreater 350× signature attenuation of the SAH together with the local lower metal routing ensured that the protected AES remains secure even after 1B measurements for both EM and power SCA, which is an 100× improvement over the state-of-the-art with comparable overheads. Overall, with the combination of the 2 techniques - signature suppression and local lower metal routing, we are able to kill the EM side-channel leakage at its source such that the correlated signature is not passed through the top-level metals, MIM capacitors, or on-board inductors, which are the primary sources of EM leakage, thereby preventing EM SCA attacks.
Das, Debayan, Nath, Mayukh, Chatterjee, Baibhab, Ghosh, Santosh, Sen, Shreyas.  2019.  S℡LAR: A Generic EM Side-Channel Attack Protection through Ground-Up Root-Cause Analysis. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :11–20.
The threat of side-channels is becoming increasingly prominent for resource-constrained internet-connected devices. While numerous power side-channel countermeasures have been proposed, a promising approach to protect the non-invasive electromagnetic side-channel attacks has been relatively scarce. Today's availability of high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) probes mandates the need for a low-overhead solution to protect EM side-channel analysis (SCA) attacks. This work, for the first time, performs a white-box analysis to root-cause the origin of the EM leakage from an integrated circuit. System-level EM simulations with Intel 32 nm CMOS technology interconnect stack, as an example, reveals that the EM leakage from metals above layer 8 can be detected by an external non-invasive attacker with the commercially available state-of-the-art EM probes. Equipped with this `white-box' understanding, this work proposes S℡LAR: Signature aTtenuation Embedded CRYPTO with Low-Level metAl Routing, which is a two-stage solution to eliminate the critical signal radiation from the higher-level metal layers. Firstly, we propose routing the entire cryptographic core within the local lower-level metal layers, whose leakage cannot be picked up by an external attacker. Then, the entire crypto IP is embedded within a Signature Attenuation Hardware (SAH) which in turn suppresses the critical encryption signature before it routes the current signature to the highly radiating top-level metal layers. System-level implementation of the S℡LAR hardware with local lower-level metal routing in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology, with an AES-128 encryption engine (as an example cryptographic block) operating at 40 MHz, shows that the system remains secure against EM SCA attack even after 1M encryptions, with 67% energy efficiency and 1.23× area overhead compared to the unprotected AES.
Das, M. Swami, Govardhan, A., Lakshmi, D. Vijaya.  2016.  Best Practices for Web Applications to Improve Performance of QoS. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies. :123:1–123:9.

Web Service Architecture gives a compatible and scalable structure for web service interactions with performance, responsiveness, reliability and security to make a quality of software design. Systematic quantitative approaches have been discussed for designing and developing software systems that meet performance objectives. Many companies have successfully applied these techniques in different applications to achieve better performance in terms of financial, customer satisfaction, and other benefits. This paper describes the architecture, design, implementation, integration testing, performance and maintenance of new applications. The most successful best practices used in world class organizations are discussed. This will help the application, component, and software system designers to develop web applications and fine tune the existing methods in line with the best practices. In business process automation, many standard practices and technologies have been used to model and execute business processes. The emerging technology is web applications technology which provides a great flexibility for development of interoperable environment services. In this paper we propose a Case study of Automatic Gas Booking system, a business process development strategy and best practices used in development of software components used in web applications. The classification of QWS dataset with 2507 records, service invocations, integration and security for web applications have been discussed.