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2019
Peng, Peng, Li, Suoping, An, Xinlei, Wang, Fan, Dou, Zufang, Xu, Qianyu.  2019.  Synchronization for three chaotic systems with different structures and its application in secure communication. 2019 IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :1485–1489.
Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a novel adaptive synchronization method is proposed for three chaotic systems with different orders. Then the proposed method is applied to secure communication. This paper designs a novel multistage chaotic synchronized secure communication system in which the encrypted information signal is transmitted to the receiver after two chaotic masking, and then recovered at the synchronized receiver. Numerical results show the success in transmitting a continuous signal and a discrete signal through three synchronized systems.
Rani, Rinki, Kumar, Sushil, Dohare, Upasana.  2019.  Trust Evaluation for Light Weight Security in Sensor Enabled Internet of Things: Game Theory Oriented Approach. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:8421–8432.
In sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT), nodes are deployed in an open and remote environment, therefore, are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Recently, trust-based schemes have played a pivotal role in addressing nodes' misbehavior attacks in IoT. However, the existing trust-based schemes apply network wide dissemination of the control packets that consume excessive energy in the quest of trust evaluation, which ultimately weakens the network lifetime. In this context, this paper presents an energy efficient trust evaluation (EETE) scheme that makes use of hierarchical trust evaluation model to alleviate the malicious effects of illegitimate sensor nodes and restricts network wide dissemination of trust requests to reduce the energy consumption in clustered-sensor enabled IoT. The proposed EETE scheme incorporates three dilemma game models to reduce additional needless transmissions while balancing the trust throughout the network. Specially: 1) a cluster formation game that promotes the nodes to be cluster head (CH) or cluster member to avoid the extraneous cluster; 2) an optimal cluster formation dilemma game to affirm the minimum number of trust recommendations for maintaining the balance of the trust in a cluster; and 3) an activity-based trust dilemma game to compute the Nash equilibrium that represents the best strategy for a CH to launch its anomaly detection technique which helps in mitigation of malicious activity. Simulation results show that the proposed EETE scheme outperforms the current trust evaluation schemes in terms of detection rate, energy efficiency and trust evaluation time for clustered-sensor enabled IoT.
Labib, N. S., Brust, M. R., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2019.  Trustworthiness in IoT – A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work.
Sun, Z., Du, P., Nakao, A., Zhong, L., Onishi, R..  2019.  Building Dynamic Mapping with CUPS for Next Generation Automotive Edge Computing. 2019 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet). :1—6.

With the development of IoT and 5G networks, the demand for the next-generation intelligent transportation system has been growing at a rapid pace. Dynamic mapping has been considered one of the key technologies to reduce traffic accidents and congestion in the intelligent transportation system. However, as the number of vehicles keeps growing, a huge volume of mapping traffic may overload the central cloud, leading to serious performance degradation. In this paper, we propose and prototype a CUPS (control and user plane separation)-based edge computing architecture for the dynamic mapping and quantify its benefits by prototyping. There are a couple of merits of our proposal: (i) we can mitigate the overhead of the networks and central cloud because we only need to abstract and send global dynamic mapping information from the edge servers to the central cloud; (ii) we can reduce the response latency since the dynamic mapping traffic can be isolated from other data traffic by being generated and distributed from a local edge server that is deployed closer to the vehicles than the central server in cloud. The capabilities of our system have been quantified. The experimental results have shown our system achieves throughput improvement by more than four times, and response latency reduction by 67.8% compared to the conventional central cloud-based approach. Although these results are still obtained from the preliminary evaluations using our prototype system, we believe that our proposed architecture gives insight into how we utilize CUPS and edge computing to enable efficient dynamic mapping applications.

Dabas, K., Madaan, N., Arya, V., Mehta, S., Chakraborty, T., Singh, G..  2019.  Fair Transfer of Multiple Style Attributes in Text. 2019 Grace Hopper Celebration India (GHCI). :1—5.

To preserve anonymity and obfuscate their identity on online platforms users may morph their text and portray themselves as a different gender or demographic. Similarly, a chatbot may need to customize its communication style to improve engagement with its audience. This manner of changing the style of written text has gained significant attention in recent years. Yet these past research works largely cater to the transfer of single style attributes. The disadvantage of focusing on a single style alone is that this often results in target text where other existing style attributes behave unpredictably or are unfairly dominated by the new style. To counteract this behavior, it would be nice to have a style transfer mechanism that can transfer or control multiple styles simultaneously and fairly. Through such an approach, one could obtain obfuscated or written text incorporated with a desired degree of multiple soft styles such as female-quality, politeness, or formalness. To the best of our knowledge this work is the first that shows and attempt to solve the issues related to multiple style transfer. We also demonstrate that the transfer of multiple styles cannot be achieved by sequentially performing multiple single-style transfers. This is because each single style-transfer step often reverses or dominates over the style incorporated by a previous transfer step. We then propose a neural network architecture for fairly transferring multiple style attributes in a given text. We test our architecture on the Yelp dataset to demonstrate our superior performance as compared to existing one-style transfer steps performed in a sequence.

Duncan, Adam, Rahman, Fahim, Lukefahr, Andrew, Farahmandi, Farimah, Tehranipoor, Mark.  2019.  FPGA Bitstream Security: A Day in the Life. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1—10.

Security concerns for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) applications and hardware are evolving as FPGA designs grow in complexity, involve sophisticated intellectual properties (IPs), and pass through more entities in the design and implementation flow. FPGAs are now routinely found integrated into system-on-chip (SoC) platforms, cloud-based shared computing resources, and in commercial and government systems. The IPs included in FPGAs are sourced from multiple origins and passed through numerous entities (such as design house, system integrator, and users) through the lifecycle. This paper thoroughly examines the interaction of these entities from the perspective of the bitstream file responsible for the actual hardware configuration of the FPGA. Five stages of the bitstream lifecycle are introduced to analyze this interaction: 1) bitstream-generation, 2) bitstream-at-rest, 3) bitstream-loading, 4) bitstream-running, and 5) bitstream-end-of-life. Potential threats and vulnerabilities are discussed at each stage, and both vendor-offered and academic countermeasures are highlighted for a robust and comprehensive security assurance.

Feyisetan, Oluwaseyi, Diethe, Tom, Drake, Thomas.  2019.  Leveraging Hierarchical Representations for Preserving Privacy and Utility in Text. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM). :210—219.

Guaranteeing a certain level of user privacy in an arbitrary piece of text is a challenging issue. However, with this challenge comes the potential of unlocking access to vast data stores for training machine learning models and supporting data driven decisions. We address this problem through the lens of dx-privacy, a generalization of Differential Privacy to non Hamming distance metrics. In this work, we explore word representations in Hyperbolic space as a means of preserving privacy in text. We provide a proof satisfying dx-privacy, then we define a probability distribution in Hyperbolic space and describe a way to sample from it in high dimensions. Privacy is provided by perturbing vector representations of words in high dimensional Hyperbolic space to obtain a semantic generalization. We conduct a series of experiments to demonstrate the tradeoff between privacy and utility. Our privacy experiments illustrate protections against an authorship attribution algorithm while our utility experiments highlight the minimal impact of our perturbations on several downstream machine learning models. Compared to the Euclidean baseline, we observe \textbackslashtextgreater 20x greater guarantees on expected privacy against comparable worst case statistics.

Karaküçük, Ahmet, Dirik, A. Emir.  2019.  Source Device Attribution of Thermal Images Captured with Handheld IR Cameras. 2019 11th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ELECO). :547—551.

Source camera attribution of digital images has been a hot research topic in digital forensics literature. However, the thermal cameras and the radiometric data they generate stood as a nascent topic, as such devices are expensive and tailored for specific use-cases - not adapted by the masses. This has changed dramatically, with the low-cost, pluggable thermal-camera add-ons to smartphones and similar low-cost pocket-size thermal cameras introduced to consumers recently, which enabled the use of thermal imaging devices for the masses. In this paper, we are going to investigate the use of an established source device attribution method on radiometric data produced with a consumer-level, low-cost handheld thermal camera. The results we represent in this paper are promising and show that it is quite possible to attribute thermal images with their source camera.

Noor, Joseph, Ali-Eldin, Ahmed, Garcia, Luis, Rao, Chirag, Dasari, Venkat R., Ganesan, Deepak, Jalaian, Brian, Shenoy, Prashant, Srivastava, Mani.  2019.  The Case for Robust Adaptation: Autonomic Resource Management is a Vulnerability. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :821–826.
Autonomic resource management for distributed edge computing systems provides an effective means of enabling dynamic placement and adaptation in the face of network changes, load dynamics, and failures. However, adaptation in-and-of-itself offers a side channel by which malicious entities can extract valuable information. An attacker can take advantage of autonomic resource management techniques to fool a system into misallocating resources and crippling applications. Using a few scenarios, we outline how attacks can be launched using partial knowledge of the resource management substrate - with as little as a single compromised node. We argue that any system that provides adaptation must consider resource management as an attack surface. As such, we propose ADAPT2, a framework that incorporates concepts taken from Moving-Target Defense and state estimation techniques to ensure correctness and obfuscate resource management, thereby protecting valuable system and application information from leaking.
Akhtar, Z., Dasgupta, D..  2019.  A Comparative Evaluation of Local Feature Descriptors for DeepFakes Detection. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1—5.
The global proliferation of affordable photographing devices and readily-available face image and video editing software has caused a remarkable rise in face manipulations, e.g., altering face skin color using FaceApp. Such synthetic manipulations are becoming a very perilous problem, as altered faces not only can fool human experts but also have detrimental consequences on automated face identification systems (AFIS). Thus, it is vital to formulate techniques to improve the robustness of AFIS against digital face manipulations. The most prominent countermeasure is face manipulation detection, which aims at discriminating genuine samples from manipulated ones. Over the years, analysis of microtextural features using local image descriptors has been successfully used in various applications owing to their flexibility, computational simplicity, and performances. Therefore, in this paper, we study the possibility of identifying manipulated faces via local feature descriptors. The comparative experimental investigation of ten local feature descriptors on a new and publicly available DeepfakeTIMIT database is reported.
Ye, Yu, Guo, Jun, Xu, Xunjian, Li, Qinpu, Liu, Hong, Di, Yuelun.  2019.  High-risk Problem of Penetration Testing of Power Grid Rainstorm Disaster Artificial Intelligence Prediction System and Its Countermeasures. 2019 IEEE 3rd Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :2675–2680.
System penetration testing is an important measure of discovering information system security issues. This paper summarizes and analyzes the high-risk problems found in the penetration testing of the artificial storm prediction system for power grid storm disasters from four aspects: application security, middleware security, host security and network security. In particular, in order to overcome the blindness of PGRDAIPS current SQL injection penetration test, this paper proposes a SQL blind bug based on improved second-order fragmentation reorganization. By modeling the SQL injection attack behavior and comparing the SQL injection vulnerability test in PGRDAIPS, this method can effectively reduce the blindness of SQL injection penetration test and improve its accuracy. With the prevalence of ubiquitous power internet of things, the electric power information system security defense work has to be taken seriously. This paper can not only guide the design, development and maintenance of disaster prediction information systems, but also provide security for the Energy Internet disaster safety and power meteorological service technology support.
Ou, Yifan, Deng, Bin, Liu, Xuan, Zhou, Ke.  2019.  Local Outlier Factor Based False Data Detection in Power Systems. 2019 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :2003—2007.
The rapid developments of smart grids provide multiple benefits to the delivery of electric power, but at the same time makes the power grids under the threat of cyber attackers. The transmitted data could be deliberately modified without triggering the alarm of bad data detection procedure. In order to ensure the stable operation of the power systems, it is extremely significant to develop effective abnormal detection algorithms against injected false data. In this paper, we introduce the density-based LOF algorithm to detect the false data and dummy data. The simulation results show that the traditional density-clustering based LOF algorithm can effectively identify FDA, but the detection performance on DDA is not satisfactory. Therefore, we propose the improved LOF algorithm to detect DDA by setting reasonable density threshold.
Tahir, Rashid, Durrani, Sultan, Ahmed, Faizan, Saeed, Hammas, Zaffar, Fareed, Ilyas, Saqib.  2019.  The Browsers Strike Back: Countering Cryptojacking and Parasitic Miners on the Web. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :703—711.

With the recent boom in the cryptocurrency market, hackers have been on the lookout to find novel ways of commandeering users' machine for covert and stealthy mining operations. In an attempt to expose such under-the-hood practices, this paper explores the issue of browser cryptojacking, whereby miners are secretly deployed inside browser code without the knowledge of the user. To this end, we analyze the top 50k websites from Alexa and find a noticeable percentage of sites that are indulging in this exploitative exercise often using heavily obfuscated code. Furthermore, mining prevention plug-ins, such as NoMiner, fail to flag such cleverly concealed instances. Hence, we propose a machine learning solution based on hardware-assisted profiling of browser code in real-time. A fine-grained micro-architectural footprint allows us to classify mining applications with \textbackslashtextgreater99% accuracy and even flags them if the mining code has been heavily obfuscated or encrypted. We build our own browser extension and show that it outperforms other plug-ins. The proposed design has negligible overhead on the user's machine and works for all standard off-the-shelf CPUs.

Bidram, Ali, Damodaran, Lakshmisree, Fierro, Rafael.  2019.  Cybersecure Distributed Voltage Control of AC Microgrids. 2019 IEEE/IAS 55th Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference (I CPS). :1—6.

In this paper, the cybersecurity of distributed secondary voltage control of AC microgrids is addressed. A resilient approach is proposed to mitigate the negative impacts of cyberthreats on the voltage and reactive power control of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). The proposed secondary voltage control is inspired by the resilient flocking of a mobile robot team. This approach utilizes a virtual time-varying communication graph in which the quality of the communication links is virtualized and determined based on the synchronization behavior of DERs. The utilized control protocols on DERs ensure that the connectivity of the virtual communication graph is above a specific resilience threshold. Once the resilience threshold is satisfied the Weighted Mean Subsequence Reduced (WMSR) algorithm is applied to satisfy voltage restoration in the presence of malicious adversaries. A typical microgrid test system including 6 DERs is simulated to verify the validity of proposed resilient control approach.

Narang, S., Byali, M., Dayama, P., Pandit, V., Narahari, Y..  2019.  Design of Trusted B2B Market Platforms using Permissioned Blockchains and Game Theory. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :385—393.

Trusted collaboration satisfying the requirements of (a) adequate transparency and (b) preservation of privacy of business sensitive information is a key factor to ensure the success and adoption of online business-to-business (B2B) collaboration platforms. Our work proposes novel ways of stringing together game theoretic modeling, blockchain technology, and cryptographic techniques to build such a platform for B2B collaboration involving enterprise buyers and sellers who may be strategic. The B2B platform builds upon three ideas. The first is to use a permissioned blockchain with smart contracts as the technical infrastructure for building the platform. Second, the above smart contracts implement deep business logic which is derived using a rigorous analysis of a repeated game model of the strategic interactions between buyers and sellers to devise strategies to induce honest behavior from buyers and sellers. Third, we present a formal framework that captures the essential requirements for secure and private B2B collaboration, and, in this direction, we develop cryptographic regulation protocols that, in conjunction with the blockchain, help implement such a framework. We believe our work is an important first step in the direction of building a platform that enables B2B collaboration among strategic and competitive agents while maximizing social welfare and addressing the privacy concerns of the agents.

Di, A., Ruisheng, S., Lan, L., Yueming, L..  2019.  On the Large-Scale Traffic DDoS Threat of Space Backbone Network. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :192—194.

Satellite networks play an important role in realizing the combination of the space networks and ground networks as well as the global coverage of the Internet. However, due to the limitation of bandwidth resource, compared with ground network, space backbone networks are more likely to become victims of DDoS attacks. Therefore, we hypothesize an attack scenario that DDoS attackers make reflection amplification attacks, colluding with terminal devices accessing space backbone network, and exhaust bandwidth resources, resulting in degradation of data transmission and service delivery. Finally, we propose some plain countermeasures to provide solutions for future researchers.

Deeba, Farah, Tefera, Getenet, Kun, She, Memon, Hira.  2019.  Protecting the Intellectual Properties of Digital Watermark Using Deep Neural Network. 2019 4th International Conference on Information Systems Engineering (ICISE). :91—95.

Recently in the vast advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and Deep Neural Network (DNN) driven us to the robust applications. Such as Image processing, speech recognition, and natural language processing, DNN Algorithms has succeeded in many drawbacks; especially the trained DNN models have made easy to the researchers to produces state-of-art results. However, sharing these trained models are always a challenging task, i.e. security, and protection. We performed extensive experiments to present some analysis of watermark in DNN. We proposed a DNN model for Digital watermarking which investigate the intellectual property of Deep Neural Network, Embedding watermarks, and owner verification. This model can generate the watermarks to deal with possible attacks (fine tuning and train to embed). This approach is tested on the standard dataset. Hence this model is robust to above counter-watermark attacks. Our model accurately and instantly verifies the ownership of all the remotely expanded deep learning models without affecting the model accuracy for standard information data.

Visalli, Nicholas, Deng, Lin, Al-Suwaida, Amro, Brown, Zachary, Joshi, Manish, Wei, Bingyang.  2019.  Towards Automated Security Vulnerability and Software Defect Localization. 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA). :90–93.

Security vulnerabilities and software defects are prevalent in software systems, threatening every aspect of cyberspace. The complexity of modern software makes it hard to secure systems. Security vulnerabilities and software defects become a major target of cyberattacks which can lead to significant consequences. Manual identification of vulnerabilities and defects in software systems is very time-consuming and tedious. Many tools have been designed to help analyze software systems and to discover vulnerabilities and defects. However, these tools tend to miss various types of bugs. The bugs that are not caught by these tools usually include vulnerabilities and defects that are too complicated to find or do not fall inside of an existing rule-set for identification. It was hypothesized that these undiscovered vulnerabilities and defects do not occur randomly, rather, they share certain common characteristics. A methodology was proposed to detect the probability of a bug existing in a code structure. We used a comprehensive experimental evaluation to assess the methodology and report our findings.

Portolan, Michele, Savino, Alessandro, Leveugle, Regis, Di Carlo, Stefano, Bosio, Alberto, Di Natale, Giorgio.  2019.  Alternatives to Fault Injections for Early Safety/Security Evaluations. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–10.
Functional Safety standards like ISO 26262 require a detailed analysis of the dependability of components subjected to perturbations. Radiation testing or even much more abstract RTL fault injection campaigns are costly and complex to set up especially for SoCs and Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) comprising intertwined hardware and software. Moreover, some approaches are only applicable at the very end of the development cycle, making potential iterations difficult when market pressure and cost reduction are paramount. In this tutorial, we present a summary of classical state-of-the-art approaches, then alternative approaches for the dependability analysis that can give an early yet accurate estimation of the safety or security characteristics of HW-SW systems. Designers can rely on these tools to identify issues in their design to be addressed by protection mechanisms, ensuring that system dependability constraints are met with limited risk when subjected later to usual fault injections and to e.g., radiation testing or laser attacks for certification.
Jamader, Asik Rahaman, Das, Puja, Acharya, Biswa Ranjan.  2019.  BcIoT: Blockchain based DDos Prevention Architecture for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :377–382.
The Internet of Things (IoT) visualizes a massive network with billions of interaction among smart things which are capable of contributing all sorts of services. Self-configuring things (nodes) are connected dynamically with a global network in IoT scenario. The small things are widely spread in a real world paradigm with minimal processing capacity and limited storage. The recent IoT technologies have more concerns about the security, privacy and reliability. Sharing personal data over the centralized system still remains as a challenging task. If the infrastructure is able to provide the assurance for transferring the data but for now it requires special attention on security and data consistency. Because, centralized system and infrastructure is viewed as a more attractive point for hacker or cyber-attacker. To solve this we present a secured smart contract based on Blockchain to develop a secured communicative network. A Hash based secret key is used for encryption and decryption purposes. A demo attack is done for developing a better understanding on blockchain technology in terms of their comparison and calculation.
Melendez, Carlos, Diaz, Matias, Rojas, Felix, Cardenas, Roberto, Espinoza, Mauricio.  2019.  Control of a Double Fed Induction Generator based Wind Energy Conversion System equipped with a Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter. 2019 Fourteenth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER). :1–11.

During the last years, the Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter (M3C) has been investigated due to its capacity tooperate in high voltage and power levels. This converter is appropriate for Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs), due to its advantages such as redundancy, high power quality, expandability and control flexibility. For Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) WECSs, the M3C has advantages additional benefits, for instance, high power density in the rotor, with a more compact modular converter, and control of bidirectional reactive power flow. Therefore, this paper presents a WECS composed of a DFIG and an M3C. The modelling and control of this WECS topology are described and analyzed in this paper. Additionally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of this proposal.

Zhu, L., Dong, H., Shen, M., Gai, K..  2019.  An Incentive Mechanism Using Shapley Value for Blockchain-Based Medical Data Sharing. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :113–118.
With the development of big data and machine learning techniques, medical data sharing for the use of disease diagnosis has received considerable attention. Blockchain, as an emerging technology, has been widely used to resolve the efficiency and security issues in medical data sharing. However, the existing studies on blockchain-based medical data sharing have rarely concerned about the reasonable incentive mechanism. In this paper, we propose a cooperation model where medical data is shared via blockchain. We derive the topological relationships among the participants consisting of data owners, miners and third parties, and gradually develop the computational process of Shapley value revenue distribution. Specifically, we explore the revenue distribution under different consensuses of blockchain. Finally, we demonstrate the incentive effect and rationality of the proposed solution by analyzing the revenue distribution.
Chia, Pern Hui, Desfontaines, Damien, Perera, Irippuge Milinda, Simmons-Marengo, Daniel, Li, Chao, Day, Wei-Yen, Wang, Qiushi, Guevara, Miguel.  2019.  KHyperLogLog: Estimating Reidentifiability and Joinability of Large Data at Scale. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :350–364.
Understanding the privacy relevant characteristics of data sets, such as reidentifiability and joinability, is crucial for data governance, yet can be difficult for large data sets. While computing the data characteristics by brute force is straightforward, the scale of systems and data collected by large organizations demands an efficient approach. We present KHyperLogLog (KHLL), an algorithm based on approximate counting techniques that can estimate the reidentifiability and joinability risks of very large databases using linear runtime and minimal memory. KHLL enables one to measure reidentifiability of data quantitatively, rather than based on expert judgement or manual reviews. Meanwhile, joinability analysis using KHLL helps ensure the separation of pseudonymous and identified data sets. We describe how organizations can use KHLL to improve protection of user privacy. The efficiency of KHLL allows one to schedule periodic analyses that detect any deviations from the expected risks over time as a regression test for privacy. We validate the performance and accuracy of KHLL through experiments using proprietary and publicly available data sets.
Guo, Xiaolong, Dutta, Raj Gautam, He, Jiaji, Tehranipoor, Mark M., Jin, Yier.  2019.  QIF-Verilog: Quantitative Information-Flow based Hardware Description Languages for Pre-Silicon Security Assessment. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :91—100.
Hardware vulnerabilities are often due to design mistakes because the designer does not sufficiently consider potential security vulnerabilities at the design stage. As a result, various security solutions have been developed to protect ICs, among which the language-based hardware security verification serves as a promising solution. The verification process will be performed while compiling the HDL of the design. However, similar to other formal verification methods, the language-based approach also suffers from scalability issue. Furthermore, existing solutions either lead to hardware overhead or are not designed for vulnerable or malicious logic detection. To alleviate these challenges, we propose a new language based framework, QIF-Verilog, to evaluate the trustworthiness of a hardware system at register transfer level (RTL). This framework introduces a quantified information flow (QIF) model and extends Verilog type systems to provide more expressiveness in presenting security rules; QIF is capable of checking the security rules given by the hardware designer. Secrets are labeled by the new type and then parsed to data flow, to which a QIF model will be applied. To demonstrate our approach, we design a compiler for QIF-Verilog and perform vulnerability analysis on benchmarks from Trust-Hub and OpenCore. We show that Trojans or design faults that leak information from circuit outputs can be detected automatically, and that our method evaluates the security of the design correctly.
Shapiro, Jeffrey H., Boroson, Don M., Dixon, P. Ben, Grein, Matthew E., Hamilton, Scott A..  2019.  Quantum Low Probability of Intercept. 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1—2.

Quantum low probability of intercept transmits ciphertext in a way that prevents an eavesdropper possessing the decryption key from recovering the plaintext. It is capable of Gbps communication rates on optical fiber over metropolitan-area distances.