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Saleh, A. H., Yousif, A. S., Ahmed, F. Y. H..  2020.  Information Hiding for Text Files by Adopting the Genetic Algorithm and DNA Coding. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :220–223.
Hiding information is a process to hide data or include it in different digital media such as image, audio, video, and text. However, there are many techniques to achieve the process of hiding information in the image processing, in this paper, a new method has been proposed for hidden data mechanism (which is a text file), then a transposition cipher method has been employed for encryption completed. It can be used to build an encrypted text and also to increase security against possible attacks while sending it over the World Wide Web. A genetic algorithm has been affected in the adjustment of the encoded text and DNA in the creation of an encrypted text that is difficult to detect and then include in the image and that affected the image visual quality. The proposed method outperforms the state of arts in terms of efficiently retrieving the embedded messages. Performance evaluation has been recorded high visual quality scores for the (SNR (single to noise ratio), PSNR (peak single to noise ratio) and MSE (mean square error).
Saleh, C., Mohsen, M..  2017.  FBG security fence for intrusion detection. 2017 International Conference on Engineering MIS (ICEMIS). :1–5.

The following topics are dealt with: feature extraction; data mining; support vector machines; mobile computing; photovoltaic power systems; mean square error methods; fault diagnosis; natural language processing; control system synthesis; and Internet of Things.

Saleh, I., Ji, H..  2020.  Network Traffic Images: A Deep Learning Approach to the Challenge of Internet Traffic Classification. 2020 10th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0329–0334.
The challenge of network traffic classification exists at the heart of many networking related tasks aimed at improving the overall user experience and usability of the internet. Current techniques, such as deep packet inspection, depend heavily on interaction by network administrators and engineers to maintain up to date stores of application network signatures and the infrastructure required to utilize them effectively. In this paper, we introduce Network Traffic Images, a 2-dimensional (2D) formulation of a stream of packet header lengths, which enable us to employ deep convolutional neural networks for network traffic classification. Five different network traffic image orientation mappings are carefully designed to deduce the best way to transform the 1-dimensional packet-subflow into a 2D image. Two different mapping strategies, one packet-relative and the other time-relative, are experimented with to map the packets of a packet flow to the pixels in the image. Experiments shows that high classification accuracy can be achieved with minimal manual effort using network traffic images in deep learning.
Saleh, M., Ratazzi, E. P., Xu, S..  2017.  A Control Flow Graph-Based Signature for Packer Identification. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :683–688.

The large number of malicious files that are produced daily outpaces the current capacity of malware analysis and detection. For example, Intel Security Labs reported that during the second quarter of 2016, their system found more than 40M of new malware [1]. The damage of malware attacks is also increasingly devastating, as witnessed by the recent Cryptowall malware that has reportedly generated more than \$325M in ransom payments to its perpetrators [2]. In terms of defense, it has been widely accepted that the traditional approach based on byte-string signatures is increasingly ineffective, especially for new malware samples and sophisticated variants of existing ones. New techniques are therefore needed for effective defense against malware. Motivated by this problem, the paper investigates a new defense technique against malware. The technique presented in this paper is utilized for automatic identification of malware packers that are used to obfuscate malware programs. Signatures of malware packers and obfuscators are extracted from the CFGs of malware samples. Unlike conventional byte signatures that can be evaded by simply modifying one or multiple bytes in malware samples, these signatures are more difficult to evade. For example, CFG-based signatures are shown to be resilient against instruction modifications and shuffling, as a single signature is sufficient for detecting mildly different versions of the same malware. Last but not least, the process for extracting CFG-based signatures is also made automatic.

Saleh, Z., Mashhour, A..  2018.  Using Keystroke Authentication Typing Errors Pattern as Non-Repudiation in Computing Forensics. 2018 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies (3ICT). :1–6.
Access to information and data is becoming an essential part of nearly every aspect of modern business operation. Unfortunately, accessing information systems comes with increased chances of intrusion and unauthorized access. Acquiring and maintaining evidence from a computer or networks in the current high-tech world is essential in any comprehensive forensic investigation. Software and hardware tools are used to easily manage the evidence and view all relevant files. In an effort to enhance computer access security, keystroke authentication, is one of the biometric solutions that were proposed as a solution for enhancing users' identification. This research proposes using user's keystroke errors to determine guilt during forensics investigations, where it was found that individuals keystroke patters are repeatable and variant from those of others, and that keystroke patterns are impossible to steal or imitate. So, in this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of relying on ``user's mistakes'' as another behavioral biometric keystroke dynamic.
Salehi, Majid, Hughes, Danny, Crispo, Bruno.  2019.  MicroGuard: Securing Bare-Metal Microcontrollers against Code-Reuse Attacks. 2019 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1–8.
Bare-metal microcontrollers are a family of Internet of Things (IoT) devices which are increasingly deployed in critical industrial environments. Similar to other IoT devices, bare-metal microcontrollers are vulnerable to memory corruption and code-reuse attacks. We propose MicroGuard, a novel mitigation method based on component-level sandboxing and automated code randomization to securely encapsulate application components in isolated environments. We implemented MicroGuard and evaluated its efficacy and efficiency with a real-world benchmark against different types of attacks. As our evaluation shows, MicroGuard provides better security than ACES, current state-of-the-art protection framework for bare-metal microcontrollers, with a comparable performance overhead.
Salehi, Sajjad, Taghiyareh, Fattaneh.  2019.  Introspective Agents in Opinion Formation Modeling to Predict Social Market. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :28–34.
Individuals may change their opinion in effect of a wide range of factors like interaction with peer groups, governmental policies and personal intentions. Works in this area mainly focus on individuals in social network and their interactions while neglect other factors. In this paper we have introduced an opinion formation model that consider the internal tendency as a personal feature of individuals in social network. In this model agents may trust, distrust or be neutral to their neighbors. They modify their opinion based on the opinion of their neighbors, trust/distrust to them while considering the internal tendency. The results of simulation show that this model can predict the opinion of social network especially when the average of nodal degree and clustering coefficient are high enough. Since this model can predict the preferences of individuals in market, it can be used to define marketing and production strategy.
Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Salem, A., Liao, X., Shen, Y., Lu, X..  2017.  Provoking the Adversary by Dual Detection Techniques: A Game Theoretical Framework. 2017 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :326–329.

Establishing a secret and reliable wireless communication is a challenging task that is of paramount importance. In this paper, we investigate the physical layer security of a legitimate transmission link between a user that assists an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in detecting eavesdropping and jamming attacks in the presence of an adversary that is capable of conducting an eavesdropping or a jamming attack. The user is being faced by a challenge of whether to transmit, thus becoming vulnerable to an eavesdropping or a jamming attack, or to keep silent and consequently his/her transmission will be delayed. The adversary is also facing a challenge of whether to conduct an eavesdropping or a jamming attack that will not get him/her to be detected. We model the interactions between the user and the adversary as a two-state stochastic game. Explicit solutions characterize some properties while highlighting some interesting strategies that are being embraced by the user and the adversary. Results show that our proposed system outperform current systems in terms of communication secrecy.

Salem, Aleieldin, Banescu, Sebastian.  2016.  Metadata Recovery from Obfuscated Programs Using Machine Learning. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Software Security, Protection, and Reverse Engineering. :1:1–1:11.

Obfuscation is a mechanism used to hinder reverse engineering of programs. To cope with the large number of obfuscated programs, especially malware, reverse engineers automate the process of deobfuscation i.e. extracting information from obfuscated programs. Deobfuscation techniques target specific obfuscation transformations, which requires reverse engineers to manually identify the transformations used by a program, in what is known as metadata recovery attack. In this paper, we present Oedipus, a Python framework that uses machine learning classifiers viz., decision trees and naive Bayes, to automate metadata recovery attacks against obfuscated programs. We evaluated Oedipus' performance using two datasets totaling 1960 unobfuscated C programs, which were used to generate 11.075 programs obfuscated using 30 configurations of 6 different obfuscation transformations. Our results empirically show the feasibility of using machine learning to implement the metadata recovery attacks with classification accuracies of 100% in some cases.

Salfer, Martin, Eckert, Claudia.  2018.  Attack Graph-Based Assessment of Exploitability Risks in Automotive On-Board Networks. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :21:1–21:10.

High-end vehicles incorporate about one hundred computers; physical and virtualized ones; self-driving vehicles even more. This allows a plethora of attack combinations. This paper demonstrates how to assess exploitability risks of vehicular on-board networks via automatically generated and analyzed attack graphs. Our stochastic model and algorithm combine all possible attack vectors and consider attacker resources more efficiently than Bayesian networks. We designed and implemented an algorithm that assesses a compilation of real vehicle development documents within only two CPU minutes, using an average of about 100 MB RAM. Our proof of concept "Security Analyzer for Exploitability Risks" (SAlfER) is 200 to 5 000 times faster and 40 to 200 times more memory-efficient than an implementation with UnBBayes1. Our approach aids vehicle development by automatically re-checking the architecture for attack combinations that may have been enabled by mistake and which are not trivial to spot by the human developer. Our approach is intended for and relevant for industrial application. Our research is part of a collaboration with a globally operating automotive manufacturer and is aimed at supporting the security of autonomous, connected, electrified, and shared vehicles.

Salib, E. H., Aboutabl, M. S..  2020.  Hands-on Undergraduate Labs on Anonymity Cryptographic Algorithms. 2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—9.

This is an innovative practice full paper. In past projects, we have successfully used a private TOR (anonymity network) platform that enabled our students to explore the end-to-end inner workings of the TOR anonymity network through a number of controlled hands-on lab assignments. These have saisfied the needs of curriculum focusing on networking functions and algorithms. To be able to extend the use and application of the private TOR platform into cryptography courses, there is a desperate need to enhance the platform to allow the development of hands-on lab assignments on the cryptographic algorithms and methods utilized in the creation of TOR secure connections and end-to-end circuits for anonymity.In tackling this challenge, and since TOR is open source software, we identify the cryptographic functions called by the TOR algorithms in the process of establishing TLS connections and creating end-to-end TOR circuits as well tearing them down. We instrumented these functions with the appropriate code to log the cryptographic keys dynamically created at all nodes involved in the creation of the end to end circuit between the Client and the exit relay (connected to the target server).We implemented a set of pedagogical lab assignments on a private TOR platform and present them in this paper. Using these assignments, students are able to investigate and validate the cryptographic procedures applied in the establishment of the initial TLS connection, the creation of the first leg of a TOR circuit, as well as extending the circuit through additional relays (at least two relays). More advanced assignments are created to challenge the students to unwrap the traffic sent from the Client to the exit relay at all onion skin layers and compare it with the actual traffic delivered to the target server.

Salim, M. N., Hutahaean, I. W., Susanti, B. H..  2020.  Fixed Point Attack on Lin et al.’s Modified Hash Function Scheme based on SMALLPRESENT-[8] Algorithm. 2020 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS). CFP2013V-ART:1–7.
Lin et al.'s scheme is a hash function Message Authentication Codes (MAC) block cipher based scheme that's composed of the compression function. Fixed point messages have been found on SMALLPRESENT-[s] algorithm. The vulnerability of block cipher algorithm against fixed point attacks can affect the vulnerability of block cipher based hash function schemes. This paper applies fixed point attack against Lin et al.'s modified scheme based on SMALLPRESENT-[8] algorithm. Fixed point attack was done using fixed point message from SMALLPRESENT-[8] algorithm which used as Initial Value (IV) on the scheme branch. The attack result shows that eight fixed point messages are successfully discovered on the B1 branch. The fixed point messages discovery on B1 and B2 branches form 18 fixed point messages on Lin et al.'s modified scheme with different IVs and keys. The discovery of fixed point messages shows that Lin et al.'s modified scheme is vulnerable to fixed point attack.
Salinas, Sergio, Luo, Changqing, Liao, Weixian, Li, Pan.  2016.  Efficient Secure Outsourcing of Large-scale Quadratic Programs. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :281–292.

The massive amount of data that is being collected by today's society has the potential to advance scientific knowledge and boost innovations. However, people often lack sufficient computing resources to analyze their large-scale data in a cost-effective and timely way. Cloud computing offers access to vast computing resources on an on-demand and pay-per-use basis, which is a practical way for people to analyze their huge data sets. However, since their data contain sensitive information that needs to be kept secret for ethical, security, or legal reasons, many people are reluctant to adopt cloud computing. For the first time in the literature, we propose a secure outsourcing algorithm for large-scale quadratic programs (QPs), which is one of the most fundamental problems in data analysis. Specifically, based on simple linear algebra operations, we design a low-complexity QP transformation that protects the private data in a QP. We show that the transformed QP is computationally indistinguishable under a chosen plaintext attack (CPA), i.e., CPA-secure. We then develop a parallel algorithm to solve the transformed QP at the cloud, and efficiently find the solution to the original QP at the user. We implement the proposed algorithm on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a laptop. We find that our proposed algorithm offers significant time savings for the user and is scalable to the size of the QP.

Sallal, M., Owenson, G., Adda, M..  2020.  Evaluation of Security and Performance of Master Node Protocol in the Bitcoin Peer-to-Peer Network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :1—3.

The mechanism of peers randomly choosing logical neighbors without any knowledge about underlying physical topology can cause a delay overhead in information propagation which makes the system vulnerable to double spend attacks. This paper introduces a proximity-aware extensions to the current Bitcoin protocol, named Master Node Based Clustering (MNBC). The ultimate purpose of the proposed protocol is to improve the information propagation delay in the Bitcoin network.

Sallam, A., Bertino, E..  2017.  Detection of Temporal Insider Threats to Relational Databases. 2017 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :406–415.

The mitigation of insider threats against databases is a challenging problem as insiders often have legitimate access privileges to sensitive data. Therefore, conventional security mechanisms, such as authentication and access control, may be insufficient for the protection of databases against insider threats and need to be complemented with techniques that support real-time detection of access anomalies. The existing real-time anomaly detection techniques consider anomalies in references to the database entities and the amounts of accessed data. However, they are unable to track the access frequencies. According to recent security reports, an increase in the access frequency by an insider is an indicator of a potential data misuse and may be the result of malicious intents for stealing or corrupting the data. In this paper, we propose techniques for tracking users' access frequencies and detecting anomalous related activities in real-time. We present detailed algorithms for constructing accurate profiles that describe the access patterns of the database users and for matching subsequent accesses by these users to the profiles. Our methods report and log mismatches as anomalies that may need further investigation. We evaluated our techniques on the OLTP-Benchmark. The results of the evaluation indicate that our techniques are very effective in the detection of anomalies.

Sallam, Asmaa, Bertino, Elisa.  2018.  Detection of Temporal Data Ex-Filtration Threats to Relational Databases. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :146–155.
According to recent reports, the most common insider threats to systems are unauthorized access to or use of corporate information and exposure of sensitive data. While anomaly detection techniques have proved to be effective in the detection of early signs of data theft, these techniques are not able to detect sophisticated data misuse scenarios in which malicious insiders seek to aggregate knowledge by executing and combining the results of several queries. We thus need techniques that are able to track users' actions across time to detect correlated ones that collectively flag anomalies. In this paper, we propose such techniques for the detection of anomalous accesses to relational databases. Our approach is to monitor users' queries, sequences of queries and sessions of database connection to detect queries that retrieve amounts of data larger than the normal. Our evaluation of the proposed techniques indicates that they are very effective in the detection of anomalies.
Salleh, A., Mamat, K., Darus, M. Y..  2017.  Integration of wireless sensor network and Web of Things: Security perspective. 2017 IEEE 8th Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (ICSGRC). :138–143.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are spread everywhere throughout the world and are ordinarily used to gather physical data from the encompassing scene. WSN play a focal part in the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. WSN is rising as a noticeable component in the middleware connecting together the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Web of Things (WoT). But the integration of WSN to WoT brings new challenges that cannot be solved in a satisfactory way with traditional layer of security. This paper examined the security issue of integration between WSN and WoT, aiming to shed light on how the WSN and WoT security issue are understood and applied, both in academia and industries. This paper introduces security perfective of integration WSN to WoT which offers capabilities to identify and connect worldwide physical objects into a unified system. As a part of the integration, serious concerns are raised over access of personal information pertaining to device (smart thing) and individual privacy. The motivation of this paper is to summarizes the security threats of the integration and suggestion to mitigate the threat.
Salles-Loustau, G., Garcia, L., Sun, P., Dehnavi, M., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Power Grid Safety Control via Fine-Grained Multi-Persona Programmable Logic Controllers. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). :283–288.

Trustworthy and safe operation of the power grid critical infrastructures relies on secure execution of low-level substation controller devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Currently, there are very few security protection solutions deployed on these devices to ensure provenance control: to execute controller code on the device that is developed by trusted parties and complies with safety/security policies that are defined by the code developer as well as the power grid operators. Resource-limited PLC controllers have been becoming increasingly popular among not only legitimate system operators, but also malicious adversaries such as the most recent Stuxnet and BlackEnergy malware that caused various damages such as unauthorized infrastructural safety and integrity violations. We present PLCtrust, a domain-specific solution that deploys virtual micro security-perimeters, so-called capsules, and the corresponding device-level runtime power system-safety policy enforcement dynamically. PLCtrust makes use of data taint analysis to monitor and control data flow among the capsules based on data owner-defined policies. PLCtrust provides the operators with a transparent and lightweight solution to address various safety-critical data protection requirements. PLCtrust also provides the legitimate third-party controller code developers with a taint-aware programming interface to develop applications in compliance with the dynamic power system safety/security policies. Our experimental results on real-world settings show that PLCtrust is transparent to the end-users while ensuring the power grid safety maintenance with minimal performance overhead.

Salloum, Maher, Mayo, Jackson R., Armstrong, Robert C..  2016.  In-Situ Mitigation of Silent Data Corruption in PDE Solvers. Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Fault-Tolerance for HPC at Extreme Scale. :43–48.

We present algorithmic techniques for parallel PDE solvers that leverage numerical smoothness properties of physics simulation to detect and correct silent data corruption within local computations. We initially model such silent hardware errors (which are of concern for extreme scale) via injected DRAM bit flips. Our mitigation approach generalizes previously developed "robust stencils" and uses modified linear algebra operations that spatially interpolate to replace large outlier values. Prototype implementations for 1D hyperbolic and 3D elliptic solvers, tested on up to 2048 cores, show that this error mitigation enables tolerating orders of magnitude higher bit-flip rates. The runtime overhead of the approach generally decreases with greater solver scale and complexity, becoming no more than a few percent in some cases. A key advantage is that silent data corruption can be handled transparently with data in cache, reducing the cost of false-positive detections compared to rollback approaches.

Salman, A., Diehl, W., Kaps, J. P..  2017.  A light-weight hardware/software co-design for pairing-based cryptography with low power and energy consumption. 2017 International Conference on Field Programmable Technology (ICFPT). :235–238.

Embedded electronic devices and sensors such as smartphones, smart watches, medical implants, and Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) are making the “Internet of Things” (IoT) a reality. Such devices often require cryptographic services such as authentication, integrity and non-repudiation, which are provided by Public-Key Cryptography (PKC). As these devices are severely resource-constrained, choosing a suitable cryptographic system is challenging. Pairing Based Cryptography (PBC) is among the best candidates to implement PKC in lightweight devices. In this research, we present a fast and energy efficient implementation of PBC based on Barreto-Naehrig (BN) curves and optimal Ate pairing using hardware/software co-design. Our solution consists of a hardware-based Montgomery multiplier, and pairing software running on an ARM Cortex A9 processor in a Zynq-7020 System-on-Chip (SoC). The multiplier is protected against simple power analysis (SPA) and differential power analysis (DPA), and can be instantiated with a variable number of processing elements (PE). Our solution improves performance (in terms of latency) over an open-source software PBC implementation by factors of 2.34 and 2.02, for 256- and 160-bit field sizes, respectively, as measured in the Zynq-7020 SoC.

Salman, A., Elhajj, I.H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2014.  DAIDS: An Architecture for Modular Mobile IDS. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :328-333.

The popularity of mobile devices and the enormous number of third party mobile applications in the market have naturally lead to several vulnerabilities being identified and abused. This is coupled with the immaturity of intrusion detection system (IDS) technology targeting mobile devices. In this paper we propose a modular host-based IDS framework for mobile devices that uses behavior analysis to profile applications on the Android platform. Anomaly detection can then be used to categorize malicious behavior and alert users. The proposed system accommodates different detection algorithms, and is being tested at a major telecom operator in North America. This paper highlights the architecture, findings, and lessons learned.

Salman, Ahmad, El-Tawab, Samy.  2019.  Efficient Hardware/Software Co-Design of Elliptic-Curve Cryptography for the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Smart Applications, Communications and Networking (SmartNets). :1—6.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is connecting the world in a way humanity has never seen before. With applications in healthcare, agricultural, transportation, and more, IoT devices help in bridging the gap between the physical and the virtual worlds. These devices usually carry sensitive data which requires security and protection in transit and rest. However, the limited power and energy consumption make it harder and more challenging to implementing security protocols, especially Public-Key Cryptosystems (PKC). In this paper, we present a hardware/software co-design for Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC) PKC suitable for lightweight devices. We present the implementation results for our design on an edge node to be used for indoor localization in a healthcare facilities.

Salman, Muhammad, Husna, Diyanatul, Apriliani, Stella Gabriella, Pinem, Josua Geovani.  2018.  Anomaly Based Detection Analysis for Intrusion Detection System Using Big Data Technique with Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality. :20-23.

Data security has become a very serious parf of any organizational information system. More and more threats across the Internet has evolved and capable to deceive firewall as well as antivirus software. In addition, the number of attacks become larger and become more dificult to be processed by the firewall or antivirus software. To improve the security of the system is usually done by adding Intrusion Detection System(IDS), which divided into anomaly-based detection and signature-based detection. In this research to process a huge amount of data, Big Data technique is used. Anomaly-based detection is proposed using Learning Vector Quantization Algorithm to detect the attacks. Learning Vector Quantization is a neural network technique that learn the input itself and then give the appropriate output according to the input. Modifications were made to improve test accuracy by varying the test parameters that present in LVQ. Varying the learning rate, epoch and k-fold cross validation resulted in a more efficient output. The output is obtained by calculating the value of information retrieval from the confusion matrix table from each attack classes. Principal Component Analysis technique is used along with Learning Vector Quantization to improve system performance by reducing the data dimensionality. By using 18-Principal Component, dataset successfully reduced by 47.3%, with the best Recognition Rate of 96.52% and time efficiency improvement up to 43.16%.

Salman, O., Kayssi, A., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I..  2017.  Multi-Level Security for the 5G/IoT Ubiquitous Network. 2017 Second International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :188–193.

5G, the fifth generation of mobile communication networks, is considered as one of the main IoT enablers. Connecting billions of things, 5G/IoT will be dealing with trillions of GBytes of data. Securing such large amounts of data is a very challenging task. Collected data varies from simple temperature measurements to more critical transaction data. Thus, applying uniform security measures is a waste of resources (processing, memory, and network bandwidth). Alternatively, a multi-level security model needs to be applied according to the varying requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-level security scheme (BLP) applied originally in the information security domain. We review its application in the network domain, and propose a modified version of BLP for the 5G/IoT case. The proposed model is proven to be secure and compliant with the model rules.