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Venkatakrishnan, Roopak, Vouk, Mladen A..  2014.  Diversity-based Detection of Security Anomalies. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :29:1–29:2.

Detecting and preventing attacks before they compromise a system can be done using acceptance testing, redundancy based mechanisms, and using external consistency checking such external monitoring and watchdog processes. Diversity-based adjudication, is a step towards an oracle that uses knowable behavior of a healthy system. That approach, under best circumstances, is able to detect even zero-day attacks. In this approach we use functionally equivalent but in some way diverse components and we compare their output vectors and reactions for a given input vector. This paper discusses practical relevance of this approach in the context of recent web-service attacks.

Venkataramana, B., Jadhav, A..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols under Black Hole Attack in Cognitive Radio Mesh Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :98–102.
Wireless technology is rapidly proliferating. Devices such as Laptops, PDAs and cell-phones gained a lot of importance due to the use of wireless technology. Nowadays there is also a huge demand for spectrum allocation and there is a need to utilize the maximum available spectrum in efficient manner. Cognitive Radio (CR) Network is one such intelligent radio network, designed to utilize the maximum licensed bandwidth to un-licensed users. Cognitive Radio has the capability to understand unused spectrum at a given time at a specific location. This capability helps to minimize the interference to the licensed users and improves the performance of the network. Routing protocol selection is one of the main strategies to design any wireless or wired networks. In Cognitive radio networks the selected routing protocol should be best in terms of establishing an efficient route, addressing challenges in network topology and should be able to reduce bandwidth consumption. Performance analysis of the protocols helps to select the best protocol in the network. Objective of this study is to evaluate performance of various cognitive radio network routing protocols like Spectrum Aware On Demand Routing Protocol (SORP), Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks (SAMER) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) with and without black hole attack using various performance parameters like Throughput, E2E delay and Packet delivery ratio with the help of NS2 simulator.
Venkatesan, R., Kumar, G. Ashwin, Nandhan, M. R..  2018.  A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETECT DDOS ATTACK THROUGH VIRTUAL HONEYPOT. 2018 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCA). :1-6.

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack remains an exceptional security risk, alleviating these digital attacks are for all intents and purposes extremely intense to actualize, particularly when it faces exceptionally well conveyed attacks. The early disclosure of these attacks, through testing, is critical to ensure safety of end-clients and the wide-ranging expensive network resources. With respect to DDoS attacks - its hypothetical establishment, engineering, and calculations of a honeypot have been characterized. At its core, the honeypot consists of an intrusion prevention system (Interruption counteractive action framework) situated in the Internet Service Providers level. The IPSs then create a safety net to protect the hosts by trading chosen movement data. The evaluation of honeypot promotes broad reproductions and an absolute dataset is introduced, indicating honeypot's activity and low overhead. The honeypot anticipates such assaults and mitigates the servers. The prevailing IDS are generally modulated to distinguish known authority level system attacks. This spontaneity makes the honeypot system powerful against uncommon and strange vindictive attacks.

Venkatesan, S., Sugrim, S., Izmailov, R., Chiang, C. J., Chadha, R., Doshi, B., Hoffman, B., Newcomb, E. Allison, Buchler, N..  2018.  On Detecting Manifestation of Adversary Characteristics. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :431–437.

Adversaries are conducting attack campaigns with increasing levels of sophistication. Additionally, with the prevalence of out-of-the-box toolkits that simplify attack operations during different stages of an attack campaign, multiple new adversaries and attack groups have appeared over the past decade. Characterizing the behavior and the modus operandi of different adversaries is critical in identifying the appropriate security maneuver to detect and mitigate the impact of an ongoing attack. To this end, in this paper, we study two characteristics of an adversary: Risk-averseness and Experience level. Risk-averse adversaries are more cautious during their campaign while fledgling adversaries do not wait to develop adequate expertise and knowledge before launching attack campaigns. One manifestation of these characteristics is through the adversary's choice and usage of attack tools. To detect these characteristics, we present multi-level machine learning (ML) models that use network data generated while under attack by different attack tools and usage patterns. In particular, for risk-averseness, we considered different configurations for scanning tools and trained the models in a testbed environment. The resulting model was used to predict the cautiousness of different red teams that participated in the Cyber Shield ‘16 exercise. The predictions matched the expected behavior of the red teams. For Experience level, we considered publicly-available remote access tools and usage patterns. We developed a Markov model to simulate usage patterns of attackers with different levels of expertise and through experiments on CyberVAN, we showed that the ML model has a high accuracy.

Venkatesan, S., Albanese, M., Amin, K., Jajodia, S., Wright, M..  2016.  A moving target defense approach to mitigate DDoS attacks against proxy-based architectures. 2016 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :198–206.

Distributed Denial of Service attacks against high-profile targets have become more frequent in recent years. In response to such massive attacks, several architectures have adopted proxies to introduce layers of indirection between end users and target services and reduce the impact of a DDoS attack by migrating users to new proxies and shuffling clients across proxies so as to isolate malicious clients. However, the reactive nature of these solutions presents weaknesses that we leveraged to develop a new attack - the proxy harvesting attack - which enables malicious clients to collect information about a large number of proxies before launching a DDoS attack. We show that current solutions are vulnerable to this attack, and propose a moving target defense technique consisting in periodically and proactively replacing one or more proxies and remapping clients to proxies. Our primary goal is to disrupt the attacker's reconnaissance effort. Additionally, to mitigate ongoing attacks, we propose a new client-to-proxy assignment strategy to isolate compromised clients, thereby reducing the impact of attacks. We validate our approach both theoretically and through simulation, and show that the proposed solution can effectively limit the number of proxies an attacker can discover and isolate malicious clients.

Venkatesan, Sridhar, Albanese, Massimiliano, Cybenko, George, Jajodia, Sushil.  2016.  A Moving Target Defense Approach to Disrupting Stealthy Botnets. Proceeding MTD '16 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Moving Target Defense Pages 37-46 .

Botnets are increasingly being used for exfiltrating sensitive data from mission-critical systems. Research has shown that botnets have become extremely sophisticated and can operate in stealth mode by minimizing their host and network footprint. In order to defeat exfiltration by modern botnets, we propose a moving target defense approach for dynamically deploying detectors across a network. Specifically, we propose several strategies based on centrality measures to periodically change the placement of detectors. Our objective is to increase the attacker's effort and likelihood of detection by creating uncertainty about the location of detectors and forcing botmasters to perform additional actions in an attempt to create detector-free paths through the network. We present metrics to evaluate the proposed strategies and an algorithm to compute a lower bound on the detection probability. We validate our approach through simulations, and results confirm that the proposed solution effectively reduces the likelihood of successful exfiltration campaigns.

Venkatesan, Sridhar, Albanese, Massimiliano, Shah, Ankit, Ganesan, Rajesh, Jajodia, Sushil.  2017.  Detecting Stealthy Botnets in a Resource-Constrained Environment Using Reinforcement Learning. Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Moving Target Defense. :75–85.

Modern botnets can persist in networked systems for extended periods of time by operating in a stealthy manner. Despite the progress made in the area of botnet prevention, detection, and mitigation, stealthy botnets continue to pose a significant risk to enterprises. Furthermore, existing enterprise-scale solutions require significant resources to operate effectively, thus they are not practical. In order to address this important problem in a resource-constrained environment, we propose a reinforcement learning based approach to optimally and dynamically deploy a limited number of defensive mechanisms, namely honeypots and network-based detectors, within the target network. The ultimate goal of the proposed approach is to reduce the lifetime of stealthy botnets by maximizing the number of bots identified and taken down through a sequential decision-making process. We provide a proof-of-concept of the proposed approach, and study its performance in a simulated environment. The results show that the proposed approach is promising in protecting against stealthy botnets.

Venkatesan, Sridhar, Albanese, Massimiliano, Cybenko, George, Jajodia, Sushil.  2016.  A Moving Target Defense Approach to Disrupting Stealthy Botnets. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Moving Target Defense. :37–46.

Botnets are increasingly being used for exfiltrating sensitive data from mission-critical systems. Research has shown that botnets have become extremely sophisticated and can operate in stealth mode by minimizing their host and network footprint. In order to defeat exfiltration by modern botnets, we propose a moving target defense approach for dynamically deploying detectors across a network. Specifically, we propose several strategies based on centrality measures to periodically change the placement of detectors. Our objective is to increase the attacker's effort and likelihood of detection by creating uncertainty about the location of detectors and forcing botmasters to perform additional actions in an attempt to create detector-free paths through the network. We present metrics to evaluate the proposed strategies and an algorithm to compute a lower bound on the detection probability. We validate our approach through simulations, and results confirm that the proposed solution effectively reduces the likelihood of successful exfiltration campaigns.

Venkatesh, K, Pratibha, K, Annadurai, Suganya, Kuppusamy, Lakshmi.  2019.  Reconfigurable Architecture to Speed-up Modular Exponentiation. 2019 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1-6.

Diffie-Hellman and RSA encryption/decryption involve computationally intensive cryptographic operations such as modular exponentiation. Computing modular exponentiation using appropriate pre-computed pairs of bases and exponents was first proposed by Boyko et al. In this paper, we present a reconfigurable architecture for pre-computation methods to compute modular exponentiation and thereby speeding up RSA and Diffie-Hellman like protocols. We choose Diffie-Hellman key pair (a, ga mod p) to illustrate the efficiency of Boyko et al's scheme in hardware architecture that stores pre-computed values ai and corresponding gai in individual block RAM. We use a Pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to randomly choose ai values that are added and corresponding gai values are multiplied using modular multiplier to arrive at a new pair (a, ga mod p). Further, we present the advantage of using Montgomery and interleaved methods for batch multiplication to optimise time and area. We show that a 1024-bit modular exponentiation can be performed in less than 73$μ$s at a clock rate of 200MHz on a Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA.

Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
Venugopalan, V., Patterson, C. D., Shila, D. M..  2016.  Detecting and thwarting hardware trojan attacks in cyber-physical systems. 2016 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :421–425.

Cyber-physical system integrity requires both hardware and software security. Many of the cyber attacks are successful as they are designed to selectively target a specific hardware or software component in an embedded system and trigger its failure. Existing security measures also use attack vector models and isolate the malicious component as a counter-measure. Isolated security primitives do not provide the overall trust required in an embedded system. Trust enhancements are proposed to a hardware security platform, where the trust specifications are implemented in both software and hardware. This distribution of trust makes it difficult for a hardware-only or software-only attack to cripple the system. The proposed approach is applied to a smart grid application consisting of third-party soft IP cores, where an attack on this module can result in a blackout. System integrity is preserved in the event of an attack and the anomalous behavior of the IP core is recorded by a supervisory module. The IP core also provides a snapshot of its trust metric, which is logged for further diagnostics.

Verbeek, F., Schmaltz, J..  2014.  A Decision Procedure for Deadlock-Free Routing in Wormhole Networks. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 25:1935-1944.

Deadlock freedom is a key challenge in the design of communication networks. Wormhole switching is a popular switching technique, which is also prone to deadlocks. Deadlock analysis of routing functions is a manual and complex task. We propose an algorithm that automatically proves routing functions deadlock-free or outputs a minimal counter-example explaining the source of the deadlock. Our algorithm is the first to automatically check a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free routing. We illustrate its efficiency in a complex adaptive routing function for torus topologies. Results are encouraging. Deciding deadlock freedom is co-NP-Complete for wormhole networks. Nevertheless, our tool proves a 13 × 13 torus deadlock-free within seconds. Finding minimal deadlocks is more difficult. Our tool needs four minutes to find a minimal deadlock in a 11 × 11 torus while it needs nine hours for a 12 × 12 network.

Verdoliva, L..  2020.  Media Forensics and DeepFakes: An Overview. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing. 14:910—932.
With the rapid progress in recent years, techniques that generate and manipulate multimedia content can now provide a very advanced level of realism. The boundary between real and synthetic media has become very thin. On the one hand, this opens the door to a series of exciting applications in different fields such as creative arts, advertising, film production, and video games. On the other hand, it poses enormous security threats. Software packages freely available on the web allow any individual, without special skills, to create very realistic fake images and videos. These can be used to manipulate public opinion during elections, commit fraud, discredit or blackmail people. Therefore, there is an urgent need for automated tools capable of detecting false multimedia content and avoiding the spread of dangerous false information. This review paper aims to present an analysis of the methods for visual media integrity verification, that is, the detection of manipulated images and videos. Special emphasis will be placed on the emerging phenomenon of deepfakes, fake media created through deep learning tools, and on modern data-driven forensic methods to fight them. The analysis will help highlight the limits of current forensic tools, the most relevant issues, the upcoming challenges, and suggest future directions for research.
Verdoliva, Luisa.  2018.  Deep Learning in Multimedia Forensics. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security. :3–3.
With the widespread diffusion of powerful media editing tools, falsifying images and videos has become easier and easier in the last few years. Fake multimedia, often used to support fake news, represents a growing menace in many fields of life, notably in politics, journalism, and the judiciary. In response to this threat, the signal processing community has produced a major research effort. A large number of methods have been proposed for source identification, forgery detection and localization, relying on the typical signal processing tools. The advent of deep learning, however, is changing the rules of the game. On one hand, new sophisticated methods based on deep learning have been proposed to accomplish manipulations that were previously unthinkable. On the other hand, deep learning provides also the analyst with new powerful forensic tools. Given a suitably large training set, deep learning architectures ensure usually a significant performance gain with respect to conventional methods, and a much higher robustness to post-processing and evasions. In this talk after reviewing the main approaches proposed in the literature to ensure media authenticity, the most promising solutions relying on Convolutional Neural Networks will be explored with special attention to realistic scenarios, such as when manipulated images and videos are spread out over social networks. In addition, an analysis of the efficacy of adversarial attacks on such methods will be presented.
Verma, Abhishek, Ranga, Virender.  2019.  ELNIDS: Ensemble Learning based Network Intrusion Detection System for RPL based Internet of Things. 2019 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU). :1–6.
Internet of Things is realized by a large number of heterogeneous smart devices which sense, collect and share data with each other over the internet in order to control the physical world. Due to open nature, global connectivity and resource constrained nature of smart devices and wireless networks the Internet of Things is susceptible to various routing attacks. In this paper, we purpose an architecture of Ensemble Learning based Network Intrusion Detection System named ELNIDS for detecting routing attacks against IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks. We implement four different ensemble based machine learning classifiers including Boosted Trees, Bagged Trees, Subspace Discriminant and RUSBoosted Trees. To evaluate proposed intrusion detection model we have used RPL-NIDDS17 dataset which contains packet traces of Sinkhole, Blackhole, Sybil, Clone ID, Selective Forwarding, Hello Flooding and Local Repair attacks. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. We observe that ensemble of Boosted Trees achieve the highest Accuracy of 94.5% while Subspace Discriminant method achieves the lowest Accuracy of 77.8 % among classifier validation methods. Similarly, an ensemble of RUSBoosted Trees achieves the highest Area under ROC value of 0.98 while lowest Area under ROC value of 0.87 is achieved by an ensemble of Subspace Discriminant among all classifier validation methods. All the implemented classifiers show acceptable performance results.
Verma, D. C., de Mel, G..  2017.  Measures of Network Centricity for Edge Deployment of IoT Applications. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :4612–4620.

Edge Computing is a scheme to improve the performance, latency and security guidelines for IoT applications. However, edge deployment of an application also comes with additional complexity in management, an increased attack surface for security vulnerability, and could potentially result in a more expensive solution. As a result, the conditions under which an edge deployment of IoT applications delivers a better solution is not always obvious. Metrics which would be able to predict whether or not an IoT application is suitable for edge deployment can provide useful insights to address this question. In this paper, we examine the key performance indicators for IoT applications, namely the responsiveness, scalability and cost models for different types of IoT applications. Our analysis identifies that network centrality of an IoT application is a key characteristic which determines whether or not an IoT application is a good candidate for edge deployment. We discuss the different measures of network centrality that can be used to characterize applications, and the relative performance of edge deployment compared to centralized deployment for various IoT applications.

Verma, Dinesh, Bertino, Elisa, de Mel, Geeth, Melrose, John.  2019.  On the Impact of Generative Policies on Security Metrics. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :104–109.
Policy based Security Management in an accepted practice in the industry, and required to simplify the administrative overhead associated with security management in complex systems. However, the growing dynamicity, complexity and scale of modern systems makes it difficult to write the security policies manually. Using AI, we can generate policies automatically. Security policies generated automatically can reduce the manual burden introduced in defining policies, but their impact on the overall security of a system is unclear. In this paper, we discuss the security metrics that can be associated with a system using generative policies, and provide a simple model to determine the conditions under which generating security policies will be beneficial to improve the security of the system. We also show that for some types of security metrics, a system using generative policies can be considered as equivalent to a system using manually defined policies, and the security metrics of the generative policy based system can be mapped to the security metrics of the manual system and vice-versa.
Verma, Dinesh, Calo, Seraphin, Cirincione, Greg.  2018.  Distributed AI and Security Issues in Federated Environments. Proceedings of the Workshop Program of the 19th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking. :4:1–4:6.
Many real-world IoT solutions have to be implemented in a federated environment, which are environments where many different administrative organizations are involved in different parts of the solution. Smarter Cities, Federated Governance, International Trade and Military Coalition Operations are examples of federated environments. As end devices become more capable and intelligent, learning from their environment, and adapting on their own, they expose new types of security vulnerabilities and present an increased attack surface. A distributed AI approach can help mitigate many of the security problems that one may encounter in such federated environments. In this paper, we outline some of the scenarios in which we need to rethink security issues as devices become more intelligent, and discuss how distributed AI techniques can be used to reduce the security exposures in such environments.
Verma, R., Sharma, R., Singh, U..  2017.  New approach through detection and prevention of wormhole attack in MANET. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:526–531.

A Local Area Network (LAN) consists of wireless mobile nodes that can communicate with each other through electromagnetic radio waves. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) consists of mobile nodes, the network is infrastructure less. It dynamically self organizes in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Security is extremely vital for MANET. Attacks pave way for security. Among all the potential attacks on MANET, detection of wormhole attack is very difficult.One malicious node receives packets from a particular location, tunnels them to a different contagious nodes situated in another location of the network and distorts the full routing method. All routes are converged to the wormhole established by the attackers. The complete routing system in MANET gets redirected. Many existing ways have been surveyed to notice wormhole attack in MANET. Our proposed methodology is a unique wormhole detection and prevention algorithm that shall effectively notice the wormhole attack in theMANET. Our notion is to extend the detection as well as the quantitative relation relative to the existing ways.

Verma, Rajat Singh, Chandavarkar, B. R., Nazareth, Pradeep.  2019.  Mitigation of hard-coded credentials related attacks using QR code and secured web service for IoT. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Hard-coded credentials such as clear text log-in id and password provided by the IoT manufacturers and unsecured ways of remotely accessing IoT devices are the major security concerns of industry and academia. Limited memory, power, and processing capabilities of IoT devices further worsen the situations in improving the security of IoT devices. In such scenarios, a lightweight security algorithm up to some extent can minimize the risk. This paper proposes one such approach using Quick Response (QR) code to mitigate hard-coded credentials related attacks such as Mirai malware, wreak havoc, etc. The QR code based approach provides non-clear text unpredictable login id and password. Further, this paper also proposes a secured way of remotely accessing IoT devices through modified https. The proposed algorithms are implemented and verified using Raspberry Pi 3 model B.
Verma, S., Pal, S.K., Muttoo, S.K..  2014.  A new tool for lightweight encryption on android. Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2014 IEEE International. :306-311.

Theft or loss of a mobile device could be an information security risk as it can result in loss of con fidential personal data. Traditional cryptographic algorithms are not suitable for resource constrained and handheld devices. In this paper, we have developed an efficient and user friendly tool called “NCRYPT” on Android platform. “NCRYPT” application is used to secure the data at rest on Android thus making it inaccessible to unauthorized users. It is based on lightweight encryption scheme i.e. Hummingbird-2. The application provides secure storage by making use of password based authentication so that an adversary cannot access the confidential data stored on the mobile device. The cryptographic key is derived through the password based key generation method PBKDF2 from the standard SUN JCE cryptographic provider. Various tools for encryption are available in the market which are based on AES or DES encryption schemes. Ihe reported tool is based on Hummingbird-2 and is faster than most of the other existing schemes. It is also resistant to most of attacks applicable to Block and Stream Ciphers. Hummingbird-2 has been coded in C language and embedded in Android platform with the help of JNI (Java Native Interface) for faster execution. This application provides choice for en crypting the entire data on SD card or selective files on the smart phone and protect p ersonal or confidential information available in such devices.

Vernotte, A., Johnson, P., Ekstedt, M., Lagerström, R..  2017.  In-Depth Modeling of the UNIX Operating System for Architectural Cyber Security Analysis. 2017 IEEE 21st International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop (EDOCW). :127–136.

ICT systems have become an integral part of business and life. At the same time, these systems have become extremely complex. In such systems exist numerous vulnerabilities waiting to be exploited by potential threat actors. pwnPr3d is a novel modelling approach that performs automated architectural analysis with the objective of measuring the cyber security of the modeled architecture. Its integrated modelling language allows users to model software and hardware components with great level of details. To illustrate this capability, we present in this paper the metamodel of UNIX, operating systems being the core of every software and every IT system. After describing the main UNIX constituents and how they have been modelled, we illustrate how the modelled OS integrates within pwnPr3d's rationale by modelling the spreading of a self-replicating malware inspired by WannaCry.

Verriet, Jacques, Dankers, Reinier, Somers, Lou.  2018.  Performance Prediction for Families of Data-Intensive Software Applications. Companion of the 2018 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering. :189-194.

Performance is a critical system property of any system, in particular of data-intensive systems, such as image processing systems. We describe a performance engineering method for families of data-intensive systems that is both simple and accurate; the performance of new family members is predicted using models of existing family members. The predictive models are calibrated using static code analysis and regression. Code analysis is used to extract performance profiles, which are used in combination with regression to derive predictive performance models. A case study presents the application for an industrial image processing case, which revealed as benefits the easy application and identification of code performance optimization points. 

Versluis, L., Neacsu, M., Iosup, A..  2018.  A Trace-Based Performance Study of Autoscaling Workloads of Workflows in Datacenters. 2018 18th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID). :223–232.

To improve customer experience, datacenter operators offer support for simplifying application and resource management. For example, running workloads of workflows on behalf of customers is desirable, but requires increasingly more sophisticated autoscaling policies, that is, policies that dynamically provision resources for the customer. Although selecting and tuning autoscaling policies is a challenging task for datacenter operators, so far relatively few studies investigate the performance of autoscaling for workloads of workflows. Complementing previous knowledge, in this work we propose the first comprehensive performance study in the field. Using trace-based simulation, we compare state-of-the-art autoscaling policies across multiple application domains, workload arrival patterns (e.g., burstiness), and system utilization levels. We further investigate the interplay between autoscaling and regular allocation policies, and the complexity cost of autoscaling. Our quantitative study focuses not only on traditional performance metrics and on state-of-the-art elasticity metrics, but also on time-and memory-related autoscaling-complexity metrics. Our main results give strong and quantitative evidence about previously unreported operational behavior, for example, that autoscaling policies perform differently across application domains and allocation and provisioning policies should be co-designed.

Vetrekar, N. T., Raghavendra, R., Gaonkar, A. A., Naik, G. M., Gad, R. S..  2016.  Extended Multi-spectral Face Recognition Across Two Different Age Groups: An Empirical Study. Proceedings of the Tenth Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing. :78:1–78:8.

Face recognition has attained a greater importance in bio-metric authentication due to its non-intrusive property of identifying individuals at varying stand-off distance. Face recognition based on multi-spectral imaging has recently gained prime importance due to its ability to capture spatial and spectral information across the spectrum. Our first contribution in this paper is to use extended multi-spectral face recognition in two different age groups. The second contribution is to show empirically the performance of face recognition for two age groups. Thus, in this paper, we developed a multi-spectral imaging sensor to capture facial database for two different age groups (≤ 15years and ≥ 20years) at nine different spectral bands covering 530nm to 1000nm range. We then collected a new facial images corresponding to two different age groups comprises of 168 individuals. Extensive experimental evaluation is performed independently on two different age group databases using four different state-of-the-art face recognition algorithms. We evaluate the verification and identification rate across individual spectral bands and fused spectral band for two age groups. The obtained evaluation results shows higher recognition rate for age groups ≥ 20years than ≤ 15years, which indicates the variation in face recognition across the different age groups.