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2021-05-26
Moslemi, Ramin, Davoodi, Mohammadreza, Velni, Javad Mohammadpour.  2020.  A Distributed Approach for Estimation of Information Matrix in Smart Grids and its Application for Anomaly Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—7.

Statistical structure learning (SSL)-based approaches have been employed in the recent years to detect different types of anomalies in a variety of cyber-physical systems (CPS). Although these approaches outperform conventional methods in the literature, their computational complexity, need for large number of measurements and centralized computations have limited their applicability to large-scale networks. In this work, we propose a distributed, multi-agent maximum likelihood (ML) approach to detect anomalies in smart grid applications aiming at reducing computational complexity, as well as preserving data privacy among different players in the network. The proposed multi-agent detector breaks the original ML problem into several local (smaller) ML optimization problems coupled by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Then, these local ML problems are solved by their corresponding agents, eventually resulting in the construction of the global solution (network's information matrix). The numerical results obtained from two IEEE test (power transmission) systems confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach for anomaly detection.

2021-05-25
Anubi, Olugbenga Moses, Konstantinou, Charalambos, Wong, Carlos A., Vedula, Satish.  2020.  Multi-Model Resilient Observer under False Data Injection Attacks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1–8.

In this paper, we present the concept of boosting the resiliency of optimization-based observers for cyber-physical systems (CPS) using auxiliary sources of information. Due to the tight coupling of physics, communication and computation, a malicious agent can exploit multiple inherent vulnerabilities in order to inject stealthy signals into the measurement process. The problem setting considers the scenario in which an attacker strategically corrupts portions of the data in order to force wrong state estimates which could have catastrophic consequences. The goal of the proposed observer is to compute the true states in-spite of the adversarial corruption. In the formulation, we use a measurement prior distribution generated by the auxiliary model to refine the feasible region of a traditional compressive sensing-based regression problem. A constrained optimization-based observer is developed using l1-minimization scheme. Numerical experiments show that the solution of the resulting problem recovers the true states of the system. The developed algorithm is evaluated through a numerical simulation example of the IEEE 14-bus system.

Meghdouri, Fares, Vázquez, Félix Iglesias, Zseby, Tanja.  2020.  Cross-Layer Profiling of Encrypted Network Data for Anomaly Detection. 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA). :469—478.

In January 2017 encrypted Internet traffic surpassed non-encrypted traffic. Although encryption increases security, it also masks intrusions and attacks by blocking the access to packet contents and traffic features, therefore making data analysis unfeasible. In spite of the strong effect of encryption, its impact has been scarcely investigated in the field. In this paper we study how encryption affects flow feature spaces and machine learning-based attack detection. We propose a new cross-layer feature vector that simultaneously represents traffic at three different levels: application, conversation, and endpoint behavior. We analyze its behavior under TLS and IPSec encryption and evaluate the efficacy with recent network traffic datasets and by using Random Forests classifiers. The cross-layer multi-key approach shows excellent attack detection in spite of TLS encryption. When IPsec is applied, the reduced variant obtains satisfactory detection for botnets, yet considerable performance drops for other types of attacks. The high complexity of network traffic is unfeasible for monolithic data analysis solutions, therefore requiring cross-layer analysis for which the multi-key vector becomes a powerful profiling core.

2021-05-13
Susukailo, Vitalii, Opirskyy, Ivan, Vasylyshyn, Sviatoslav.  2020.  Analysis of the attack vectors used by threat actors during the pandemic. 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (CSIT). 2:261—264.

This article describes attacks methods, vectors and technics used by threat actors during pandemic situations in the world. Identifies common targets of threat actors and cyber-attack tactics. The article analyzes cybersecurity challenges and specifies possible solutions and improvements in cybersecurity. Defines cybersecurity controls, which should be taken against analyzed attack vectors.

Jain, Harsh, Vikram, Aditya, Mohana, Kashyap, Ankit, Jain, Ayush.  2020.  Weapon Detection using Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning for Security Applications. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :193—198.
Security is always a main concern in every domain, due to a rise in crime rate in a crowded event or suspicious lonely areas. Abnormal detection and monitoring have major applications of computer vision to tackle various problems. Due to growing demand in the protection of safety, security and personal properties, needs and deployment of video surveillance systems can recognize and interpret the scene and anomaly events play a vital role in intelligence monitoring. This paper implements automatic gun (or) weapon detection using a convolution neural network (CNN) based SSD and Faster RCNN algorithms. Proposed implementation uses two types of datasets. One dataset, which had pre-labelled images and the other one is a set of images, which were labelled manually. Results are tabulated, both algorithms achieve good accuracy, but their application in real situations can be based on the trade-off between speed and accuracy.
Fernandes, Steven, Raj, Sunny, Ewetz, Rickard, Pannu, Jodh Singh, Kumar Jha, Sumit, Ortiz, Eddy, Vintila, Iustina, Salter, Margaret.  2020.  Detecting Deepfake Videos using Attribution-Based Confidence Metric. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW). :1250–1259.
Recent advances in generative adversarial networks have made detecting fake videos a challenging task. In this paper, we propose the application of the state-of-the-art attribution based confidence (ABC) metric for detecting deepfake videos. The ABC metric does not require access to the training data or training the calibration model on the validation data. The ABC metric can be used to draw inferences even when only the trained model is available. Here, we utilize the ABC metric to characterize whether a video is original or fake. The deep learning model is trained only on original videos. The ABC metric uses the trained model to generate confidence values. For, original videos, the confidence values are greater than 0.94.
Xu, Shawn, Venugopalan, Subhashini, Sundararajan, Mukund.  2020.  Attribution in Scale and Space. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :9677–9686.
We study the attribution problem for deep networks applied to perception tasks. For vision tasks, attribution techniques attribute the prediction of a network to the pixels of the input image. We propose a new technique called Blur Integrated Gradients (Blur IG). This technique has several advantages over other methods. First, it can tell at what scale a network recognizes an object. It produces scores in the scale/frequency dimension, that we find captures interesting phenomena. Second, it satisfies the scale-space axioms, which imply that it employs perturbations that are free of artifact. We therefore produce explanations that are cleaner and consistent with the operation of deep networks. Third, it eliminates the need for baseline parameter for Integrated Gradients for perception tasks. This is desirable because the choice of baseline has a significant effect on the explanations. We compare the proposed technique against previous techniques and demonstrate application on three tasks: ImageNet object recognition, Diabetic Retinopathy prediction, and AudioSet audio event identification. Code and examples are at https://github.com/PAIR-code/saliency.
Kumar, Sachin, Gupta, Garima, Prasad, Ranjitha, Chatterjee, Arnab, Vig, Lovekesh, Shroff, Gautam.  2020.  CAMTA: Causal Attention Model for Multi-touch Attribution. 2020 International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :79–86.
Advertising channels have evolved from conventional print media, billboards and radio-advertising to online digital advertising (ad), where the users are exposed to a sequence of ad campaigns via social networks, display ads, search etc. While advertisers revisit the design of ad campaigns to concurrently serve the requirements emerging out of new ad channels, it is also critical for advertisers to estimate the contribution from touch-points (view, clicks, converts) on different channels, based on the sequence of customer actions. This process of contribution measurement is often referred to as multi-touch attribution (MTA). In this work, we propose CAMTA, a novel deep recurrent neural network architecture which is a causal attribution mechanism for user-personalised MTA in the context of observational data. CAMTA minimizes the selection bias in channel assignment across time-steps and touchpoints. Furthermore, it utilizes the users' pre-conversion actions in a principled way in order to predict per-channel attribution. To quantitatively benchmark the proposed MTA model, we employ the real-world Criteo dataset and demonstrate the superior performance of CAMTA with respect to prediction accuracy as compared to several baselines. In addition, we provide results for budget allocation and user-behaviour modeling on the predicted channel attribution.
Venceslai, Valerio, Marchisio, Alberto, Alouani, Ihsen, Martina, Maurizio, Shafique, Muhammad.  2020.  NeuroAttack: Undermining Spiking Neural Networks Security through Externally Triggered Bit-Flips. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

Due to their proven efficiency, machine-learning systems are deployed in a wide range of complex real-life problems. More specifically, Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) emerged as a promising solution to the accuracy, resource-utilization, and energy-efficiency challenges in machine-learning systems. While these systems are going mainstream, they have inherent security and reliability issues. In this paper, we propose NeuroAttack, a cross-layer attack that threatens the SNNs integrity by exploiting low-level reliability issues through a high-level attack. Particularly, we trigger a fault-injection based sneaky hardware backdoor through a carefully crafted adversarial input noise. Our results on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and SNNs show a serious integrity threat to state-of-the art machine-learning techniques.

2021-05-05
Chalkiadakis, Nikolaos, Deyannis, Dimitris, Karnikis, Dimitris, Vasiliadis, Giorgos, Ioannidis, Sotiris.  2020.  The Million Dollar Handshake: Secure and Attested Communications in the Cloud. 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :63—70.

The number of applications and services that are hosted on cloud platforms is constantly increasing. Nowadays, more and more applications are hosted as services on cloud platforms, co-existing with other services in a mutually untrusted environment. Facilities such as virtual machines, containers and encrypted communication channels aim to offer isolation between the various applications and protect sensitive user data. However, such techniques are not always able to provide a secure execution environment for sensitive applications nor they offer guarantees that data are not monitored by an honest but curious provider once they reach the cloud infrastructure. The recent advancements of trusted execution environments within commodity processors, such as Intel SGX, provide a secure reverse sandbox, where code and data are isolated even from the underlying operating system. Moreover, Intel SGX provides a remote attestation mechanism, allowing the communicating parties to verify their identity as well as prove that code is executed on hardware-assisted software enclaves. Many approaches try to ensure code and data integrity, as well as enforce channel encryption schemes such as TLS, however, these techniques are not enough to achieve complete isolation and secure communications without hardware assistance or are not efficient in terms of performance. In this work, we design and implement a practical attestation system that allows the service provider to offer a seamless attestation service between the hosted applications and the end clients. Furthermore, we implement a novel caching system that is capable to eliminate the latencies introduced by the remote attestation process. Our approach allows the parties to attest one another before each communication attempt, with improved performance when compared to a standard TLS handshake.

Bulle, Bruno B., Santin, Altair O., Viegas, Eduardo K., dos Santos, Roger R..  2020.  A Host-based Intrusion Detection Model Based on OS Diversity for SCADA. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :691—696.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been a frequent target of cyberattacks in Industrial Control Systems (ICS). As such systems are a frequent target of highly motivated attackers, researchers often resort to intrusion detection through machine learning techniques to detect new kinds of threats. However, current research initiatives, in general, pursue higher detection accuracies, neglecting the detection of new kind of threats and their proposal detection scope. This paper proposes a novel, reliable host-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems through the Operating System (OS) diversity. Our proposal evaluates, at the OS level, the SCADA communication over time and, opportunistically, detects, and chooses the most appropriate OS to be used in intrusion detection for reliability purposes. Experiments, performed through a variety of SCADA OSs front-end, shows that OS diversity provides higher intrusion detection scope, improving detection accuracy by up to 8 new attack categories. Besides, our proposal can opportunistically detect the most reliable OS that should be used for the current environment behavior, improving by up to 8%, on average, the system accuracy when compared to a single OS approach, in the best case.

2021-05-03
Maunero, Nicoló, Prinetto, Paolo, Roascio, Gianluca, Varriale, Antonio.  2020.  A FPGA-based Control-Flow Integrity Solution for Securing Bare-Metal Embedded Systems. 2020 15th Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–10.
Memory corruption vulnerabilities, mainly present in C and C++ applications, may enable attackers to maliciously take control over the program running on a target machine by forcing it to execute an unintended sequence of instructions present in memory. This is the principle of modern Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs) and of famous attack paradigms as Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) and Jump-Oriented Programming (JOP). Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) is a promising approach to protect against such runtime attacks. Recently, many CFI-based solutions have been proposed, resorting to both hardware and software implementations. However, many of these solutions are hardly applicable to microcontroller systems, often very resource-limited. The paper presents a generic, portable, and lightweight CFI solution for bare-metal embedded systems, i.e., systems that execute firmware directly from their Flash memory, without any Operating System. The proposed defense mixes software and hardware instrumentation and is based on monitoring the Control-Flow Graph (CFG) with an FPGA connected to the CPU. The solution, applicable in principle to any architecture which disposes of an FPGA, forces all control-flow transfers to be compliant with the CFG, and preserves the execution context from possible corruption when entering unpredictable code such as Interrupt Services Routines (ISR).
2021-04-29
Fejrskov, M., Pedersen, J. M., Vasilomanolakis, E..  2020.  Cyber-security research by ISPs: A NetFlow and DNS Anonymization Policy. :1—8.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have an economic and operational interest in detecting malicious network activity relating to their subscribers. However, it is unclear what kind of traffic data an ISP has available for cyber-security research, and under which legal conditions it can be used. This paper gives an overview of the challenges posed by legislation and of the data sources available to a European ISP. DNS and NetFlow logs are identified as relevant data sources and the state of the art in anonymization and fingerprinting techniques is discussed. Based on legislation, data availability and privacy considerations, a practically applicable anonymization policy is presented.

2021-04-27
Giannoutakis, K. M., Spathoulas, G., Filelis-Papadopoulos, C. K., Collen, A., Anagnostopoulos, M., Votis, K., Nijdam, N. A..  2020.  A Blockchain Solution for Enhancing Cybersecurity Defence of IoT. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :490—495.

The growth of IoT devices during the last decade has led to the development of smart ecosystems, such as smart homes, prone to cyberattacks. Traditional security methodologies support to some extend the requirement for preserving privacy and security of such deployments, but their centralized nature in conjunction with low computational capabilities of smart home gateways make such approaches not efficient. Last achievements on blockchain technologies allowed the use of such decentralized architectures to support cybersecurity defence mechanisms. In this work, a blockchain framework is presented to support the cybersecurity mechanisms of smart homes installations, focusing on the immutability of users and devices that constitute such environments. The proposed methodology provides also the appropriate smart contracts support for ensuring the integrity of the smart home gateway and IoT devices, as well as the dynamic and immutable management of blocked malicious IPs. The framework has been deployed on a real smart home environment demonstrating its applicability and efficiency.

Vishwakarma, L., Das, D..  2020.  BSS: Blockchain Enabled Security System for Internet of Things Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—4.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), devices can interconnect and communicate autonomously, which requires devices to authenticate each other to exchange meaningful information. Otherwise, these things become vulnerable to various attacks. The conventional security protocols are not suitable for IoT applications due to the high computation and storage demand. Therefore, we proposed a blockchain-enabled secure storage and communication scheme for IoT applications, called BSS. The scheme ensures identification, authentication, and data integrity. Our scheme uses the security advantages of blockchain and helps to create safe zones (trust batch) where authenticated objects interconnect securely and do communication. A secure and robust trust mechanism is employed to build these batches, where each device has to authenticate itself before joining the trust batch. The obtained results satisfy the IoT security requirements with 60% reduced computation, storage and communication cost compared with state-of-the-art schemes. BSS also withstands various cyberattacks such as impersonation, message replay, man-in-the-middle, and botnet attacks.

Aktepe, S., Varol, C., Shashidhar, N..  2020.  2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—5.
Cryptocurrencies are the digital currencies designed to replace the regular cash money while taking place in our daily lives especially for the last couple of years. Mining cryptocurrencies are one of the popular ways to have them and make a profit due to unstable values in the market. This attracts attackers to utilize malware on internet users' computer resources, also known as cryptojacking, to mine cryptocurrencies. Cryptojacking started to be a major issue in the internet world. In this case, we developed MiNo, a web browser add-on application to detect these malicious mining activities running without the user's permission or knowledge. This add-on provides security and efficiency for the computer resources of the internet users. MiNo designed and developed with double-layer protection which makes it ahead of its competitors in the market.
Vuppalapati, C., Ilapakurti, A., Kedari, S., Vuppalapati, R., Vuppalapati, J., Kedari, S..  2020.  The Role of Combinatorial Mathematical Optimization and Heuristics to improve Small Farmers to Veterinarian access and to create a Sustainable Food Future for the World. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :214–221.
The Global Demand for agriculture and dairy products is rising. Demand is expected to double by 2050. This will challenge agriculture markets in a way we have not seen before. For instance, unprecedented demand to increase in dairy farm productivity of already shrinking farms, untethered perpetual access to veterinarians by small dairy farms, economic engines of the developing countries, for animal husbandry and, finally, unprecedented need to increase productivity of veterinarians who're already understaffed, over-stressed, resource constrained to meet the current global dairy demands. The lack of innovative solutions to address the challenge would result in a major obstacle to achieve sustainable food future and a colossal roadblock ending economic disparities. The paper proposes a novel innovative data driven framework cropped by data generated using dairy Sensors and by mathematical formulations using Solvers to generate an exclusive veterinarian daily farms prioritized visit list so as to have a greater coverage of the most needed farms performed in-time and improve small farmers access to veterinarians, a precious and highly shortage & stressed resource.
Balestrieri, E., Vito, L. D., Picariello, F., Rapuano, S., Tudosa, I..  2020.  A TDoA-based Measurement Method for RF Emitters Localization by Exploiting Wideband Compressive Sampling. 2020 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1–6.
This paper proposes a Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) based method for the localization of Radio Frequency (RF) emitters working at different carriers, by using wideband spectrum sensors exploiting compressive sampling. The proposed measurement method is based on four or more RF receivers, with known Cartesian positions, performing non uniform sampling on the received signal. By means of simulations, the method has been compared against a localization method adopting RF receivers performing uniform sampling at Nyquist rate. The obtained preliminary results demonstrate that the method is capable of localizing two RF emitters achieving the same results obtained with uniform sampling, with a compression ratio up to CR = 20.
Balestrieri, E., Vito, L. De, Picariello, F., Rapuano, S., Tudosa, I..  2020.  A Novel CS-based Measurement Method for Impairments Identification in Wireline Channels. 2020 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1–6.
The paper proposes a new measurement method for impairments identification in wireline channels (i.e. wire cables) by exploiting a Compressive Sampling (CS)-based technique. The method consists of two-phases: (i) acquisition and reconstruction of the channel impulse response in the nominal working condition and (ii) analysis of the channel state to detect any physical anomaly/discontinuity like deterioration (e.g. aging due to harsh environment) or unauthorized side channel attacks (e.g. taps). The first results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of estimating the channel impairments with an accuracy that could allow the classification of the main channel impairments. The proposed method could be used to develop low-cost instrumentation for continuous monitoring of the physical layer of data networks and to improve their hardware security.
Elavarasan, G., Veni, S..  2020.  Data Sharing Attribute-Based Secure with Efficient Revocation in Cloud Computing. 2020 International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT-1441). :1—6.

In recent days, cloud computing is one of the emerging fields. It is a platform to maintain the data and privacy of the users. To process and regulate the data with high security, the access control methods are used. The cloud environment always faces several challenges such as robustness, security issues and so on. Conventional methods like Cipher text-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) are reflected in providing huge security, but still, the problem exists like the non-existence of attribute revocation and minimum efficient. Hence, this research work particularly on the attribute-based mechanism to maximize efficiency. Initially, an objective coined out in this work is to define the attributes for a set of users. Secondly, the data is to be re-encrypted based on the access policies defined for the particular file. The re-encryption process renders information to the cloud server for verifying the authenticity of the user even though the owner is offline. The main advantage of this work evaluates multiple attributes and allows respective users who possess those attributes to access the data. The result proves that the proposed Data sharing scheme helps for Revocation under a fine-grained attribute structure.

2021-04-08
Verdoliva, L..  2020.  Media Forensics and DeepFakes: An Overview. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing. 14:910—932.
With the rapid progress in recent years, techniques that generate and manipulate multimedia content can now provide a very advanced level of realism. The boundary between real and synthetic media has become very thin. On the one hand, this opens the door to a series of exciting applications in different fields such as creative arts, advertising, film production, and video games. On the other hand, it poses enormous security threats. Software packages freely available on the web allow any individual, without special skills, to create very realistic fake images and videos. These can be used to manipulate public opinion during elections, commit fraud, discredit or blackmail people. Therefore, there is an urgent need for automated tools capable of detecting false multimedia content and avoiding the spread of dangerous false information. This review paper aims to present an analysis of the methods for visual media integrity verification, that is, the detection of manipulated images and videos. Special emphasis will be placed on the emerging phenomenon of deepfakes, fake media created through deep learning tools, and on modern data-driven forensic methods to fight them. The analysis will help highlight the limits of current forensic tools, the most relevant issues, the upcoming challenges, and suggest future directions for research.
Tyagi, H., Vardy, A..  2015.  Universal Hashing for Information-Theoretic Security. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1781–1795.
The information-theoretic approach to security entails harnessing the correlated randomness available in nature to establish security. It uses tools from information theory and coding and yields provable security, even against an adversary with unbounded computational power. However, the feasibility of this approach in practice depends on the development of efficiently implementable schemes. In this paper, we review a special class of practical schemes for information-theoretic security that are based on 2-universal hash families. Specific cases of secret key agreement and wiretap coding are considered, and general themes are identified. The scheme presented for wiretap coding is modular and can be implemented easily by including an extra preprocessing layer over the existing transmission codes.
Venkitasubramaniam, P., Yao, J., Pradhan, P..  2015.  Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 103:1914–1931.
Infrastructural systems such as the electricity grid, healthcare, and transportation networks today rely increasingly on the joint functioning of networked information systems and physical components, in short, on cyber-physical architectures. Despite tremendous advances in cryptography, physical-layer security and authentication, information attacks, both passive such as eavesdropping, and active such as unauthorized data injection, continue to thwart the reliable functioning of networked systems. In systems with joint cyber-physical functionality, the ability of an adversary to monitor transmitted information or introduce false information can lead to sensitive user data being leaked or result in critical damages to the underlying physical system. This paper investigates two broad challenges in information security in cyber-physical systems (CPSs): preventing retrieval of internal physical system information through monitored external cyber flows, and limiting the modification of physical system functioning through compromised cyber flows. A rigorous analytical framework grounded on information-theoretic security is developed to study these challenges in a general stochastic control system abstraction-a theoretical building block for CPSs-with the objectives of quantifying the fundamental tradeoffs between information security and physical system performance, and through the process, designing provably secure controller policies. Recent results are presented that establish the theoretical basis for the framework, in addition to practical applications in timing analysis of anonymous systems, and demand response systems in a smart electricity grid.
Vyetrenko, S., Khosla, A., Ho, T..  2009.  On combining information-theoretic and cryptographic approaches to network coding security against the pollution attack. 2009 Conference Record of the Forty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. :788–792.
In this paper we consider the pollution attack in network coded systems where network nodes are computationally limited. We consider the combined use of cryptographic signature based security and information theoretic network error correction and propose a fountain-like network error correction code construction suitable for this purpose.
Liu, S., Hong, Y., Viterbo, E..  2014.  On measures of information theoretic security. 2014 IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW 2014). :309–310.
While information-theoretic security is stronger than computational security, it has long been considered impractical. In this work, we provide new insights into the design of practical information-theoretic cryptosystems. Firstly, from a theoretical point of view, we give a brief introduction into the existing information theoretic security criteria, such as the notions of Shannon's perfect/ideal secrecy in cryptography, and the concept of strong secrecy in coding theory. Secondly, from a practical point of view, we propose the concept of ideal secrecy outage and define a outage probability. Finally, we show how such probability can be made arbitrarily small in a practical cryptosystem.