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Xie, Yuxiang, Chen, Nanyu, Shi, Xiaolin.  2018.  False Discovery Rate Controlled Heterogeneous Treatment Effect Detection for Online Controlled Experiments. Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining. :876-885.

Online controlled experiments (a.k.a. A/B testing) have been used as the mantra for data-driven decision making on feature changing and product shipping in many Internet companies. However, it is still a great challenge to systematically measure how every code or feature change impacts millions of users with great heterogeneity (e.g. countries, ages, devices). The most commonly used A/B testing framework in many companies is based on Average Treatment Effect (ATE), which cannot detect the heterogeneity of treatment effect on users with different characteristics. In this paper, we propose statistical methods that can systematically and accurately identify Heterogeneous Treatment Effect (HTE) of any user cohort of interest (e.g. mobile device type, country), and determine which factors (e.g. age, gender) of users contribute to the heterogeneity of the treatment effect in an A/B test. By applying these methods on both simulation data and real-world experimentation data, we show how they work robustly with controlled low False Discover Rate (FDR), and at the same time, provides us with useful insights about the heterogeneity of identified user groups. We have deployed a toolkit based on these methods, and have used it to measure the Heterogeneous Treatment Effect of many A/B tests at Snap.

Ximenes, Agostinho Marques, Sukaridhoto, Sritrusta, Sudarsono, Amang, Ulil Albaab, Mochammad Rifki, Basri, Hasan, Hidayat Yani, Muhammad Aksa, Chang Choon, Chew, Islam, Ezharul.  2019.  Implementation QR Code Biometric Authentication for Online Payment. 2019 International Electronics Symposium (IES). :676–682.
Based on the Indonesian of Statistics the level of society people in 2019 is grow up. Based on data, the bank conducted a community to simple transaction payment in the market. Bank just used a debit card or credit card for the transaction, but the banks need more investment for infrastructure and very expensive. Based on that cause the bank needs another solution for low-cost infrastructure. Obtained from solutions that, the bank implementation QR Code Biometric authentication Payment Online is one solution that fulfills. This application used for payment in online merchant. The transaction permits in this study lie in the biometric encryption, or decryption transaction permission and QR Code Scan to improve communication security and transaction data. The test results of implementation Biometric Cloud Authentication Platform show that AES 256 agents can be implemented for face biometric encryption and decryption. Code Scan QR to carry out transaction permits with Face verification transaction permits gets the accuracy rate of 95% for 10 sample people and transaction process gets time speed of 53.21 seconds per transaction with a transaction sample of 100 times.
Xin Liu, Illinois Institute of Technology, Dong Jin, Illinois Institute of Technology, Cheol Won Lee, National Research Institute, South Korea, Jong Cheol Moon, National Research Institute, South Korea.  2016.  ConVenus: Congestion Verification of Network Updates in Software-defined Networks. Winter Simulation Conference (WSC).

We present ConVenus, a system that performs rapid congestion verification of network updates in softwaredefined networks. ConVenus is a lightweight middleware between the SDN controller and network devices, and is capable to intercept flow updates from the controller and verify whether the amount of traffic in any links and switches exceeds the desired capacity. To enable online verification, ConVenus dynamically identifies the minimum set of flows and switches that are affected by each flow update, and creates a compact network model. ConVenus uses a four-phase simulation algorithm to quickly compute the throughput of every flow in the network model and report network congestion. The experimental results demonstrate that ConVenus manages to verify 90% of the updates in a network consisting of over 500 hosts and 80 switches within 5 milliseconds.

Xin Xia, Yang Feng, Lo, D., Zhenyu Chen, Xinyu Wang.  2014.  Towards more accurate multi-label software behavior learning. Software Maintenance, Reengineering and Reverse Engineering (CSMR-WCRE), 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on. :134-143.

In a modern software system, when a program fails, a crash report which contains an execution trace would be sent to the software vendor for diagnosis. A crash report which corresponds to a failure could be caused by multiple types of faults simultaneously. Many large companies such as Baidu organize a team to analyze these failures, and classify them into multiple labels (i.e., multiple types of faults). However, it would be time-consuming and difficult for developers to manually analyze these failures and come out with appropriate fault labels. In this paper, we automatically classify a failure into multiple types of faults, using a composite algorithm named MLL-GA, which combines various multi-label learning algorithms by leveraging genetic algorithm (GA). To evaluate the effectiveness of MLL-GA, we perform experiments on 6 open source programs and show that MLL-GA could achieve average F-measures of 0.6078 to 0.8665. We also compare our algorithm with Ml.KNN and show that on average across the 6 datasets, MLL-GA improves the average F-measure of MI.KNN by 14.43%.

Xin, B., Yang, W., Geng, Y., Chen, S., Wang, S., Huang, L..  2020.  Private FL-GAN: Differential Privacy Synthetic Data Generation Based on Federated Learning. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2927–2931.
Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) has already made a big splash in the field of generating realistic "fake" data. However, when data is distributed and data-holders are reluctant to share data for privacy reasons, GAN's training is difficult. To address this issue, we propose private FL-GAN, a differential privacy generative adversarial network model based on federated learning. By strategically combining the Lipschitz limit with the differential privacy sensitivity, the model can generate high-quality synthetic data without sacrificing the privacy of the training data. We theoretically prove that private FL-GAN can provide strict privacy guarantee with differential privacy, and experimentally demonstrate our model can generate satisfactory data.
Xin, Doris, Mayoraz, Nicolas, Pham, Hubert, Lakshmanan, Karthik, Anderson, John R..  2017.  Folding: Why Good Models Sometimes Make Spurious Recommendations. Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Conference on Recommender Systems. :201–209.

In recommender systems based on low-rank factorization of a partially observed user-item matrix, a common phenomenon that plagues many otherwise effective models is the interleaving of good and spurious recommendations in the top-K results. A single spurious recommendation can dramatically impact the perceived quality of a recommender system. Spurious recommendations do not result in serendipitous discoveries but rather cognitive dissonance. In this work, we investigate folding, a major contributing factor to spurious recommendations. Folding refers to the unintentional overlap of disparate groups of users and items in the low-rank embedding vector space, induced by improper handling of missing data. We formally define a metric that quantifies the severity of folding in a trained system, to assist in diagnosing its potential to make inappropriate recommendations. The folding metric complements existing information retrieval metrics that focus on the number of good recommendations and their ranks but ignore the impact of undesired recommendations. We motivate the folding metric definition on synthetic data and evaluate its effectiveness on both synthetic and real world datasets. In studying the relationship between the folding metric and other characteristics of recommender systems, we observe that optimizing for goodness metrics can lead to high folding and thus more spurious recommendations.

Xin, Le, Li, Yuanji, Shang, Shize, Li, Guangrui, Yang, Yuhao.  2019.  A Template Matching Background Filtering Method for Millimeter Wave Human Security Image. 2019 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR). :1–6.
In order to solve the interference of burrs, aliasing and other noises in the background area of millimeter wave human security inspection on the objects identification, an adaptive template matching filtering method is proposed. First, the preprocessed original image is segmented by level set algorithm, then the result is used as a template to filter the background of the original image. Finally, the image after background filtered is used as the input of bilateral filtering. The contrast experiments based on the actual millimeter wave image verifies the improvement of this algorithm compared with the traditional filtering method, and proves that this algorithm can filter the background noise of the human security image, retain the image details of the human body area, and is conducive to the object recognition and location in the millimeter wave security image.
Xin, Wei, Wang, M., Shao, Shuai, Wang, Z., Zhang, Tao.  2015.  A variant of schnorr signature scheme for path-checking in RFID-based supply chains. 2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD). :2608–2613.

The RFID technology has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and brings convenience to supply chain management. In this paper, we concentrate on designing path-checking protocols to check the valid paths in supply chains. By entering a valid path, the check reader can distinguish whether the tags have gone through the path or not. Based on modified schnorr signature scheme, we provide a path-checking method to achieve multi-signatures and final verification. In the end, we conduct security and privacy analysis to the scheme.

Xin, Xiaoshuai, Liu, Cancheng, Wang, Bin.  2017.  Real-Time Intrusion Detection Method Based on Bidirectional Access of Modbus/TCP Protocol. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :102–106.

The Modbus/TCP protocol is commonly used in the industrial control systems for communications between the human-machine interface and the industrial controllers. This paper proposes a real-time intrusion detection method based on bidirectional access of the Modbus/TCP protocol. The method doesnt require key observation that Modbus/TCP traffic to and from master device or slave device is periodic. Anomaly detection can be realized in time by the method after checking only two packets. And even though invader modifies the legal function code to another legal one in the packet from master device to slave device, the method can also figure it out. The test results show that the presented method has traits of timeliness, low false positive rate and low false negative rate.

Xin, Yang, Qian, Zhenwei, Jiang, Rong, Song, Yang.  2019.  Trust Evaluation Strategy Based on Grey System Theory for Medical Big Data. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Educational Informatization (CSEI). :157–160.
The performance of the trust evaluation strategy depends on the accuracy and rationality of the trust evaluation weight system. Trust is a difficult to accurate measurement and quantitative cognition in the heart, the trust of the traditional evaluation method has a strong subjectivity and fuzziness and uncertainty. This paper uses the AHP method to determine the trust evaluation index weight, and combined with grey system theory to build trust gray evaluation model. The use of gray assessment based on the whitening weight function in the evaluation process reduces the impact of the problem that the evaluation result of the trust evaluation is not easy to accurately quantify when the decision fuzzy and the operating mechanism are uncertain.
Xing, Han, Zhang, Ke, Yang, Zifan, Sun, Lianying, Liu, Yi.  2018.  Traffic State Estimation with Big Data. Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Safety and Resilience. :9:1-9:5.

Traffic state estimation helps urban traffic control and management. In this paper, a traffic state estimation model based on the fusion of Hidden Markov model and SEA algorithm is proposed considering the randomness and volatility of traffic systems. Traffic data of average travel speed in selected city were collected, and the mean and fluctuation values of average travel speed in adjacent time windows were calculated. With Hidden Markov model, the system state network is defined according to mean values and fluctuation values. The operation efficiency of traffic system, as well as stability and trend values, were calculated with System Effectiveness Analysis (SEA) algorithm based on system state network. Calculation results show that the method perform well and can be applied to both traffic state assessment of certain road sections and large scale road networks.

Xing, Hang, Zhou, Chunjie, Ye, Xinhao, Zhu, Meipan.  2020.  An Edge-Cloud Synergy Integrated Security Decision-Making Method for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE 9th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS). :989–995.
With the introduction of new technologies such as cloud computing and big data, the security issues of industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) have become more complicated. Meanwhile, a lot of current security research lacks adaptation to industrial system upgrades. In this paper, an edge-cloud synergy framework for security decision-making is proposed, which takes advantage of the huge convenience and advantages brought by cloud computing and edge computing, and can make security decisions on a global perspective. Under this framework, a combination of Bayesian network-based risk assessment and stochastic game model-based security decision-making is proposed to generate an optimal defense strategy to minimize system losses. This method trains models in the clouds and infers at the edge computing nodes to achieve rapid defense strategy generation. Finally, a case study on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform proves the feasibility of the approach.
Xing, Junchi, Yang, Mingliang, Zhou, Haifeng, Wu, Chunming, Ruan, Wei.  2019.  Hiding and Trapping: A Deceptive Approach for Defending against Network Reconnaissance with Software-Defined Network. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—8.

Network reconnaissance aims at gathering as much information as possible before an attack is launched. Meanwhile, static host address configuration facilitates network reconnaissance. Currently, more sophisticated network reconnaissance has been emerged with the adaptive and cooperative features. To address this, in this paper, we present Hiding and Trapping (HaT), which is a deceptive approach to disrupt adversarial network reconnaissance with the help of the software-defined networking (SDN) paradigm. HaT is able to hide valuable hosts from attackers and to trap them into decoy nodes through strategic and holistic host address mutation according to characteristic of adversaries. We implement a prototype of HaT, and evaluate its performance by experiments. The experimental results show that HaT is capable to effectively disrupt adversarial network reconnaissance with better deceptive performance than the existing address randomization approach.

Xing, Yue, Huang, Bo-Yuan, Gupta, Aarti, Malik, Sharad.  2018.  A Formal Instruction-Level GPU Model for Scalable Verification. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :130:1-130:8.

GPUs have been widely used to accelerate big-data inference applications and scientific computing through their parallelized hardware resources and programming model. Their extreme parallelism increases the possibility of bugs such as data races and un-coalesced memory accesses, and thus verifying program correctness is critical. State-of-the-art GPU program verification efforts mainly focus on analyzing application-level programs, e.g., in C, and suffer from the following limitations: (1) high false-positive rate due to coarse-grained abstraction of synchronization primitives, (2) high complexity of reasoning about pointer arithmetic, and (3) keeping up with an evolving API for developing application-level programs. In this paper, we address these limitations by modeling GPUs and reasoning about programs at the instruction level. We formally model the Nvidia GPU at the parallel execution thread (PTX) level using the recently proposed Instruction-Level Abstraction (ILA) model for accelerators. PTX is analogous to the Instruction-Set Architecture (ISA) of a general-purpose processor. Our formal ILA model of the GPU includes non-synchronization instructions as well as all synchronization primitives, enabling us to verify multithreaded programs. We demonstrate the applicability of our ILA model in scalable GPU program verification of data-race checking. The evaluation shows that our checker outperforms state-of-the-art GPU data race checkers with fewer false-positives and improved scalability.

Xing, Z., Liu, L., Li, S., Liu, Y..  2018.  Analysis of Radiation Effects for Monitoring Circuit Based on Deep Belief Network and Support Vector Method. 2018 Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Chongqing). :511-516.

The monitoring circuit is widely applied in radiation environment and it is of significance to study the circuit reliability with the radiation effects. In this paper, an intelligent analysis method based on Deep Belief Network (DBN) and Support Vector Method is proposed according to the radiation experiments analysis of the monitoring circuit. The Total Ionizing Dose (TID) of the monitoring circuit is used to identify the circuit degradation trend. Firstly, the output waveforms of the monitoring circuit are obtained by radiating with the different TID. Subsequently, the Deep Belief Network Model is trained to extract the features of the circuit signal. Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) are applied to classify and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the monitoring circuit. According to the experimental results, the performance of DBN-SVM exceeds DBN method for feature extraction and classification, and SVR is effective for predicting the degradation.

Xingbang Tian, Baohua Huang, Min Wu.  2014.  A transparent middleware for encrypting data in MongoDB. Electronics, Computer and Applications, 2014 IEEE Workshop on. :906-909.

Due to the development of cloud computing and NoSQL database, more and more sensitive information are stored in NoSQL databases, which exposes quite a lot security vulnerabilities. This paper discusses security features of MongoDB database and proposes a transparent middleware implementation. The analysis of experiment results show that this transparent middleware can efficiently encrypt sensitive data specified by users on a dataset level. Existing application systems do not need too many modifications in order to apply this middleware.

Xingjie, F., Guogenp, W., ShiBIN, Z., ChenHAO.  2020.  Industrial Control System Intrusion Detection Model based on LSTM Attack Tree. 2020 17th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :255–260.
With the rapid development of the Industrial Internet, the network security risks faced by industrial control systems (ICSs) are becoming more and more intense. How to do a good job in the security protection of industrial control systems is extremely urgent. For traditional network security, industrial control systems have some unique characteristics, which results in traditional intrusion detection systems that cannot be directly reused on it. Aiming at the industrial control system, this paper constructs all attack paths from the hacker's perspective through the attack tree model, and uses the LSTM algorithm to identify and classify the attack behavior, and then further classify the attack event by extracting atomic actions. Finally, through the constructed attack tree model, the results are reversed and predicted. The results show that the model has a good effect on attack recognition, and can effectively analyze the hacker attack path and predict the next attack target.
Xinhai Zhang, Persson, M., Nyberg, M., Mokhtari, B., Einarson, A., Linder, H., Westman, J., DeJiu Chen, Torngren, M..  2014.  Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems. Software Maintenance, Reengineering and Reverse Engineering (CSMR-WCRE), 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on. :379-382.

The importance and potential advantages with a comprehensive product architecture description are well described in the literature. However, developing such a description takes additional resources, and it is difficult to maintain consistency with evolving implementations. This paper presents an approach and industrial experience which is based on architecture recovery from source code at truck manufacturer Scania CV AB. The extracted representation of the architecture is presented in several views and verified on CAN signal level. Lessons learned are discussed.

Xinyi Huang, Yang Xiang, Bertino, E., Jianying Zhou, Li Xu.  2014.  Robust Multi-Factor Authentication for Fragile Communications. Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on. 11:568-581.

In large-scale systems, user authentication usually needs the assistance from a remote central authentication server via networks. The authentication service however could be slow or unavailable due to natural disasters or various cyber attacks on communication channels. This has raised serious concerns in systems which need robust authentication in emergency situations. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. In a slow connection situation, we present a secure generic multi-factor authentication protocol to speed up the whole authentication process. Compared with another generic protocol in the literature, the new proposal provides the same function with significant improvements in computation and communication. Another authentication mechanism, which we name stand-alone authentication, can authenticate users when the connection to the central server is down. We investigate several issues in stand-alone authentication and show how to add it on multi-factor authentication protocols in an efficient and generic way.

Xinyu Zhou, University of Maryland at College Park, David Nicol, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2017.  Trust-Aware Failure Detector in Multi-Agent Systems.

Poster presented at the 2017 Science of Security UIUC Lablet Summer Internship Poster Session held on July 27, 2017 in Urbana, IL.

Xiong Xu, Yanfei Zhong, Liangpei Zhang.  2014.  Adaptive Subpixel Mapping Based on a Multiagent System for Remote-Sensing Imagery. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on. 52:787-804.

The existence of mixed pixels is a major problem in remote-sensing image classification. Although the soft classification and spectral unmixing techniques can obtain an abundance of different classes in a pixel to solve the mixed pixel problem, the subpixel spatial attribution of the pixel will still be unknown. The subpixel mapping technique can effectively solve this problem by providing a fine-resolution map of class labels from coarser spectrally unmixed fraction images. However, most traditional subpixel mapping algorithms treat all mixed pixels as an identical type, either boundary-mixed pixel or linear subpixel, leading to incomplete and inaccurate results. To improve the subpixel mapping accuracy, this paper proposes an adaptive subpixel mapping framework based on a multiagent system for remote-sensing imagery. In the proposed multiagent subpixel mapping framework, three kinds of agents, namely, feature detection agents, subpixel mapping agents and decision agents, are designed to solve the subpixel mapping problem. Experiments with artificial images and synthetic remote-sensing images were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed subpixel mapping algorithm in comparison with the hard classification method and other subpixel mapping algorithms: subpixel mapping based on a back-propagation neural network and the spatial attraction model. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other two subpixel mapping algorithms in reconstructing the different structures in mixed pixels.

Xiong, Chen, Chen, Hua, Cai, Ming, Gao, Jing.  2019.  A Vehicle Trajectory Adversary Model Based on VLPR Data. 2019 5th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety (ICTIS). :903–912.
Although transport agency has employed desensitization techniques to deal with the privacy information when publicizing vehicle license plate recognition (VLPR) data, the adversaries can still eavesdrop on vehicle trajectories by certain means and further acquire the associated person and vehicle information through background knowledge. In this work, a privacy attacking method by using the desensitized VLPR data is proposed to link the vehicle trajectory. First the road average speed is evaluated by analyzing the changes of traffic flow, which is used to estimate the vehicle's travel time to the next VLPR system. Then the vehicle suspicion list is constructed through the time relevance of neighboring VLPR systems. Finally, since vehicles may have the same features like color, type, etc, the target trajectory will be located by filtering the suspected list by the rule of qualified identifier (QI) attributes and closest time method. Based on the Foshan City's VLPR data, the method is tested and results show that correct vehicle trajectory can be linked, which proves that the current VLPR data publication way has the risk of privacy disclosure. At last, the effects of related parameters on the proposed method are discussed and effective suggestions are made for publicizing VLPR date in the future.
Xiong, J., Zhang, L..  2020.  Simplified Calculation of Bhattacharyya Parameters in Polar Codes. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :169–173.
The construction of polar code refers to selecting K "most reliable polarizing channels" in N polarizing channels to WN(1)transmit information bits. For non-systematic polar code, Arikan proposed a method to measure the channel reliability for BEC channel, which is called Bhattacharyya Parameter method. The calculated complexity of this method is O(N) . In this paper, we find the complementarity of Bhattacharyya Parameter. According to the complementarity, the code construction under a certain channel condition can be quickly deduced from the complementary channel condition.
Xiong, Leilei, Grijalva, Santiago.  2019.  N-1 RTU Cyber-Physical Security Assessment Using State Estimation. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–5.
Real-time supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems use remote terminal units (RTUs) to monitor and manage the flow of power at electrical substations. As their connectivity to different utility and private networks increases, RTUs are becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Some attacks seek to access RTUs to directly control power system devices with the intent to shed load or cause equipment damage. Other attacks (such as denial-of-service) target network availability and seek to block, delay, or corrupt communications between the RTU and the control center. In the most severe case, when communications are entirely blocked, the loss of an RTU can cause the power system to become unobservable. It is important to understand how losing an RTU impacts the system state (bus voltage magnitudes and angles). The system state is determined by the state estimator and serves as the input to other critical EMS applications. There is currently no systematic approach for assessing the cyber-physical impact of losing RTUs. This paper proposes a methodology for N-1 RTU cyber-physical security assessment that could benefit power system control and operation. We demonstrate our approach on the IEEE 14-bus system as well as on a synthetic 200-bus system.
Xiong, M., Li, A., Xie, Z., Jia, Y..  2018.  A Practical Approach to Answer Extraction for Constructing QA Solution. 2018 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :398–404.
Question Answering system(QA) plays an increasingly important role in the Internet age. The proportion of using the QA is getting higher and higher for the Internet users to obtain knowledge and solve problems, especially in the modern agricultural filed. However, the answer quality in QA varies widely due to the agricultural expert's level. Answer quality assessment is important. Due to the lexical gap between questions and answers, the existing approaches are not quite satisfactory. A practical approach RCAS is proposed to rank the candidate answers, which utilizes the support sets to reduce the impact of lexical gap between questions and answers. Firstly, Similar questions are retrieved and support sets are produced with their high-quality answers. Based on the assumption that high quality answers would also have intrinsic similarity, the quality of candidate answers are then evaluated through their distance from the support sets. Secondly, Different from the existing approaches, previous knowledge from similar question-answer pairs are used to bridge the straight lexical and semantic gaps between questions and answers. Experiments are implemented on approximately 0.15 million question-answer pairs about agriculture, dietetics and food from Yahoo! Answers. The results show that our approach can rank the candidate answers more precisely.