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Xu, J., Ying, C., Tan, S., Sun, Z., Wang, P., Sun, Z..  2018.  An Attribute-Based Searchable Encryption Scheme Supporting Trapdoor Updating. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :7-14.
In the cloud computing environment, a growing number of users share their own data files through cloud storage. However, there will be some security and privacy problems due to the reason that the cloud is not completely trusted, so it needs to be resolved by access control. Attribute-based encryption (ABE) and searchable encryption (SE) can solve fine-grained access control. At present, researchers combine the two to propose an attribute-based searchable encryption scheme and achieved remarkable results. Nevertheless, most of existing attribute-based searchable encryption schemes cannot resist online/offline keyword guessing attack. To solve the problem, we present an attribute-based (CP-ABE) searchable encryption scheme that supports trapdoor updating (CSES-TU). In this scheme, the data owner can formulate an access strategy for the encrypted data. Only the attributes of the data user are matched with the strategy can the effective trapdoor be generated and the ciphertext be searched, and that this scheme will update trapdoors at the same time. Even if the keywords are the same, new trapdoors will be generated every time when the keyword is searched, thus minimizing the damage caused by online/offline keyword guessing attack. Finally, the performance of the scheme is analyzed, and the proof of correctness and security are given at the same time.
Xu, J., Howard, A..  2020.  Would you Take Advice from a Robot? Developing a Framework for Inferring Human-Robot Trust in Time-Sensitive Scenarios 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :814—820.

Trust is a key element for successful human-robot interaction. One challenging problem in this domain is the issue of how to construct a formulation that optimally models this trust phenomenon. This paper presents a framework for modeling human-robot trust based on representing the human decision-making process as a formulation based on trust states. Using this formulation, we then discuss a generalized model of human-robot trust based on Hidden Markov Models and Logistic Regression. The proposed approach is validated on datasets collected from two different human subject studies in which the human is provided the ability to take advice from a robot. Both experimental scenarios were time-sensitive, in that a decision had to be made by the human in a limited time period, but each scenario featured different levels of cognitive load. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed formulation can be utilized to model trust, in which the system can predict whether the human will decide to take advice (or not) from the robot. It was found that our prediction performance degrades after the robot made a mistake. The validation of this approach on two scenarios implies that this model can be applied to other interactive scenarios as long as the interaction dynamics fits into the proposed formulation. Directions for future improvements are discussed.

Xu, J., Howard, A..  2020.  How much do you Trust your Self-Driving Car? Exploring Human-Robot Trust in High-Risk Scenarios 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :4273—4280.

Trust is an important characteristic of successful interactions between humans and agents in many scenarios. Self-driving scenarios are of particular relevance when discussing the issue of trust due to the high-risk nature of erroneous decisions being made. The present study aims to investigate decision-making and aspects of trust in a realistic driving scenario in which an autonomous agent provides guidance to humans. To this end, a simulated driving environment based on a college campus was developed and presented. An online and an in-person experiment were conducted to examine the impacts of mistakes made by the self-driving AI agent on participants’ decisions and trust. During the experiments, participants were asked to complete a series of driving tasks and make a sequence of decisions in a time-limited situation. Behavior analysis indicated a similar relative trend in the decisions across these two experiments. Survey results revealed that a mistake made by the self-driving AI agent at the beginning had a significant impact on participants’ trust. In addition, similar overall experience and feelings across the two experimental conditions were reported. The findings in this study add to our understanding of trust in human-robot interaction scenarios and provide valuable insights for future research work in the field of human-robot trust.

Xu, Jinsheng, Yuan, Xiaohong, Velma, Ashrith.  2016.  Design and Evaluation of a Course Module on Android Cipher Programming (Abstract Only). Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education. :689–690.
Encryption is critical in protecting the confidentiality of users' data on mobile devices. However, research has shown that many mobile apps are not correctly using the ciphers, which makes them vulnerable to the attacks. The existing resources on cipher programming education do not provide enough practical scenarios to help students learn the cipher programming in the context of real world situations with programs that have complex interacting modules with access to networking, storage, and database. This poster introduces a course module that teaches students how to develop secure Android applications by correctly using Android's cryptography APIs. This course module is targeted to two areas where programmers commonly make many mistakes: password based encryption and SSL certificate validation. The core of the module includes a real world sample Android program for students to secure by implementing cryptographic components correctly. The course module will use open-ended problem solving to let students freely explore the multiple options in securing the application. The course module includes a lecture slide on Android's Crypto library, its common misuses, and suggested good practices. Assessment materials will also be included in the course module. This course module will be used and evaluated in a Network Security class. We will present the results of the evaluation in the conference.
Xu, Jun, Mu, Dongliang, Chen, Ping, Xing, Xinyu, Wang, Pei, Liu, Peng.  2016.  CREDAL: Towards Locating a Memory Corruption Vulnerability with Your Core Dump. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :529–540.

After a program has crashed and terminated abnormally, it typically leaves behind a snapshot of its crashing state in the form of a core dump. While a core dump carries a large amount of information, which has long been used for software debugging, it barely serves as informative debugging aids in locating software faults, particularly memory corruption vulnerabilities. A memory corruption vulnerability is a special type of software faults that an attacker can exploit to manipulate the content at a certain memory. As such, a core dump may contain a certain amount of corrupted data, which increases the difficulty in identifying useful debugging information (e.g. , a crash point and stack traces). Without a proper mechanism to deal with this problem, a core dump can be practically useless for software failure diagnosis. In this work, we develop CREDAL, an automatic tool that employs the source code of a crashing program to enhance core dump analysis and turns a core dump to an informative aid in tracking down memory corruption vulnerabilities. Specifically, CREDAL systematically analyzes a core dump potentially corrupted and identifies the crash point and stack frames. For a core dump carrying corrupted data, it goes beyond the crash point and stack trace. In particular, CREDAL further pinpoints the variables holding corrupted data using the source code of the crashing program along with the stack frames. To assist software developers (or security analysts) in tracking down a memory corruption vulnerability, CREDAL also performs analysis and highlights the code fragments corresponding to data corruption. To demonstrate the utility of CREDAL, we use it to analyze 80 crashes corresponding to 73 memory corruption vulnerabilities archived in Offensive Security Exploit Database. We show that, CREDAL can accurately pinpoint the crash point and (fully or partially) restore a stack trace even though a crashing program stack carries corrupted data. In addition, we demonstrate CREDAL can potentially reduce the manual effort of finding the code fragment that is likely to contain memory corruption vulnerabilities.

Xu, Ke, Li, Yu, Huang, Bo, Liu, Xiangkai, Wang, Hong, Wu, Zhuoyan, Yan, Zhanpeng, Tu, Xueying, Wu, Tongqing, Zeng, Daibing.  2018.  A Low-Power 4096x2160@30Fps H.265/HEVC Video Encoder for Smart Video Surveillance. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design. :38:1–38:6.

This paper presents the design and VLSI implementation of a low-power HEVC main profile encoder, which is able to process up to 4096x2160@30fps 4:2:0 encoding in real-time with five-stage pipeline architecture. A pyramid ME (Motion Estimation) engine is employed to reduce search complexity. To compensate for the video sequences with fast moving objects, GME (Global Motion Estimation) are introduced to alleviate the effect of limited search range. We also implement an alternative 5x5 search along with 3x3 to boost video quality. For intra mode decision, original pixels, instead of reconstructed ones are used to reduce pipeline stall. The encoder supports DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) and features three operating modes, which helps to reduce power consumption by 25%. Scalable quality that trades encoding quality for power by reducing size of search range and intra prediction candidates, achieves 11.4% power reduction with 3.5% quality degradation. Furthermore, a lossless frame buffer compression is proposed which reduced DDR bandwidth by 49.1% and power consumption by 13.6%. The entire video surveillance SoC is fabricated with TSMC 28nm technology with 1.96 mm2 area. It consumes 2.88M logic gates and 117KB SRAM. The measured power consumption is 103mW at 350MHz for 4K encoding with high-quality mode. The 0.39nJ/pixel of energy efficiency of this work, which achieves 42% $\backslash$textasciitilde 97% power reduction as compared with reference designs, make it ideal for real-time low-power smart video surveillance applications.

Xu, Kun, Bao, Xinzhong, Tao, Qiuyan.  2015.  Research on income distribution model of supply chain financing based on third-party trading platform. 2015 International Conference on Logistics, Informatics and Service Sciences (LISS). :1–6.

The stability and effectiveness of supply chain financing union are directly affected by income fluctuation and unequal distribution problems, subsequently making the economic interests of the involved parties impacted. In this paper, the incomes of the parties in the union were distributed using Shapley value from the perspective of cooperative game under the background of the supply chain financing based on third-party trading platform, and then correction factors were weighted by introducing risk correction factors and combining with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), in order to improve the original model. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme was proved using example.

Xu, L., Chen, L., Gao, Z., Chang, Y., Iakovou, E., Shi, W..  2018.  Binding the Physical and Cyber Worlds: A Blockchain Approach for Cargo Supply Chain Security Enhancement. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–5.

Maritime transportation plays a critical role for the U.S. and global economies, and has evolved into a complex system that involves a plethora of supply chain stakeholders spread around the globe. The inherent complexity brings huge security challenges including cargo loss and high burdens in cargo inspection against illicit activities and potential terrorist attacks. The emerging blockchain technology provides a promising tool to build a unified maritime cargo tracking system critical for cargo security. However, most existing efforts focus on transportation data itself, while ignoring how to bind the physical cargo movements and information managed by the system consistently. This can severely undermine the effectiveness of securing cargo transportation. To fulfill this gap, we propose a binding scheme leveraging a novel digital identity management mechanism. The digital identity management mechanism maps the best practice in the physical world to the cyber world and can be seamlessly integrated with a blockchain-based cargo management system.

Xu, Lai, Yu, Rongwei, Wang, Lina, Liu, Weijie.  2019.  Memway: in-memorywaylaying acceleration for practical rowhammer attacks against binaries. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 24:535—545.

The Rowhammer bug is a novel micro-architectural security threat, enabling powerful privilege-escalation attacks on various mainstream platforms. It works by actively flipping bits in Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells with unprivileged instructions. In order to set up Rowhammer against binaries in the Linux page cache, the Waylaying algorithm has previously been proposed. The Waylaying method stealthily relocates binaries onto exploitable physical addresses without exhausting system memory. However, the proof-of-concept Waylaying algorithm can be easily detected during page cache eviction because of its high disk I/O overhead and long running time. This paper proposes the more advanced Memway algorithm, which improves on Waylaying in terms of both I/O overhead and speed. Running time and disk I/O overhead are reduced by 90% by utilizing Linux tmpfs and inmemory swapping to manage eviction files. Furthermore, by combining Memway with the unprivileged posix fadvise API, the binary relocation step is made 100 times faster. Equipped with our Memway+fadvise relocation scheme, we demonstrate practical Rowhammer attacks that take only 15-200 minutes to covertly relocate a victim binary, and less than 3 seconds to flip the target instruction bit.

Xu, Lei, Yuan, Xingliang, Steinfeld, Ron, Wang, Cong, Xu, Chungen.  2019.  Multi-Writer Searchable Encryption: An LWE-Based Realization and Implementation. Proceedings of the 2019 ACM Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :122–133.
Multi-Writer Searchable Encryption, also known as public-key encryption with keyword search(PEKS), serves a wide spectrum of data sharing applications. It allows users to search over encrypted data encrypted via different keys. However, most of the existing PEKS schemes are built on classic security assumptions, which are proven to be untenable to overcome the threats of quantum computers. To address the above problem, in this paper, we propose a lattice-based searchable encryption scheme from the learning with errors (LWE) hardness assumption. Specifically, we observe that the keys of each user in a basic scheme are composed of large-sized matrices and basis of the lattice. To reduce the complexity of key management, our scheme is designed to enable users to directly use their identity for data encryption. We present several optimization techniques for implementation to make our design nearly practical. For completeness, we conduct rigorous security, complexity, and parameter analysis on our scheme, and perform comprehensive evaluations at a commodity machine. With a scenario of 100 users, the cost of key generation for each user is 125s, and the cost of searching a document with 1000 keywords is 13.4ms.
Xu, Lei, Gao, Zhimin, Fan, Xinxin, Chen, Lin, Kim, Hanyee, Suh, Taeweon, Shi, Weidong.  2020.  Blockchain Based End-to-End Tracking System for Distributed IoT Intelligence Application Security Enhancement. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1028–1035.
IoT devices provide a rich data source that is not available in the past, which is valuable for a wide range of intelligence applications, especially deep neural network (DNN) applications that are data-thirsty. An established DNN model provides useful analysis results that can improve the operation of IoT systems in turn. The progress in distributed/federated DNN training further unleashes the potential of integration of IoT and intelligence applications. When a large number of IoT devices are deployed in different physical locations, distributed training allows training modules to be deployed to multiple edge data centers that are close to the IoT devices to reduce the latency and movement of large amounts of data. In practice, these IoT devices and edge data centers are usually owned and managed by different parties, who do not fully trust each other or have conflicting interests. It is hard to coordinate them to provide end-to-end integrity protection of the DNN construction and application with classical security enhancement tools. For example, one party may share an incomplete data set with others, or contribute a modified sub DNN model to manipulate the aggregated model and affect the decision-making process. To mitigate this risk, we propose a novel blockchain based end-to-end integrity protection scheme for DNN applications integrated with an IoT system in the edge computing environment. The protection system leverages a set of cryptography primitives to build a blockchain adapted for edge computing that is scalable to handle a large number of IoT devices. The customized blockchain is integrated with a distributed/federated DNN to offer integrity and authenticity protection services.
Xu, M., Huber, M., Sun, Z., England, P., Peinado, M., Lee, S., Marochko, A., Mattoon, D., Spiger, R., Thom, S..  2019.  Dominance as a New Trusted Computing Primitive for the Internet of Things. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1415–1430.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as one of the dominant computing paradigms of this decade. Applications range from in-home entertainment to large-scale industrial deployments such as controlling assembly lines and monitoring traffic. While IoT devices are in many respects similar to traditional computers, user expectations and deployment scenarios as well as cost and hardware constraints are sufficiently different to create new security challenges as well as new opportunities. This is especially true for large-scale IoT deployments in which a central entity deploys and controls a large number of IoT devices with minimal human interaction. Like traditional computers, IoT devices are subject to attack and compromise. Large IoT deployments consisting of many nearly identical devices are especially attractive targets. At the same time, recovery from root compromise by conventional means becomes costly and slow, even more so if the devices are dispersed over a large geographical area. In the worst case, technicians have to travel to all devices and manually recover them. Data center solutions such as the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) which rely on separate service processors and network connections are not only not supported by existing IoT hardware, but are unlikely to be in the foreseeable future due to the cost constraints of mainstream IoT devices. This paper presents CIDER, a system that can recover IoT devices within a short amount of time, even if attackers have taken root control of every device in a large deployment. The recovery requires minimal manual intervention. After the administrator has identified the compromise and produced an updated firmware image, he/she can instruct CIDER to force the devices to reset and to install the patched firmware on the devices. We demonstrate the universality and practicality of CIDER by implementing it on three popular IoT platforms (HummingBoard Edge, Raspberry Pi Compute Module 3 and Nucleo-L476RG) spanning the range from high to low end. Our evaluation shows that the performance overhead of CIDER is generally negligible.
Xu, Meng, Kashyap, Sanidhya, Zhao, Hanqing, Kim, Taesoo.  2020.  Krace: Data Race Fuzzing for Kernel File Systems. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1643—1660.
Data races occur when two threads fail to use proper synchronization when accessing shared data. In kernel file systems, which are highly concurrent by design, data races are common mistakes and often wreak havoc on the users, causing inconsistent states or data losses. Prior fuzzing practices on file systems have been effective in uncovering hundreds of bugs, but they mostly focus on the sequential aspect of file system execution and do not comprehensively explore the concurrency dimension and hence, forgo the opportunity to catch data races.In this paper, we bring coverage-guided fuzzing to the concurrency dimension with three new constructs: 1) a new coverage tracking metric, alias coverage, specially designed to capture the exploration progress in the concurrency dimension; 2) an evolution algorithm for generating, mutating, and merging multi-threaded syscall sequences as inputs for concurrency fuzzing; and 3) a comprehensive lockset and happens-before modeling for kernel synchronization primitives for precise data race detection. These components are integrated into Krace, an end-to-end fuzzing framework that has discovered 23 data races in ext4, btrfs, and the VFS layer so far, and 9 are confirmed to be harmful.
Xu, Mengmeng, Zhu, Hai, Wang, Juanjuan, Xu, Hengzhou.  2019.  Dynamic and Disjoint Routing Mechanism for Protecting Source Location Privacy in WSNs. 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :310–314.
In this paper, we investigate the protection mechanism of source location privacy, in which back-tracing attack is performed by an adversary. A dynamic and disjoint routing mechanism (DDRM) is proposed to achieve a strong protection for source location privacy in an energy-efficient manner. Specially, the selection of intermediate node renders the message transmission randomly and flexibly. By constructing k disjoint paths, an adversary could not receive sufficient messages to locate the source node. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
Xu, P., Miao, Q., Liu, T., Chen, X..  2015.  Multi-direction Edge Detection Operator. 2015 11th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :187—190.

Due to the noise in the images, the edges extracted from these noisy images are always discontinuous and inaccurate by traditional operators. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes multi-direction edge detection operator to detect edges from noisy images. The new operator is designed by introducing the shear transformation into the traditional operator. On the one hand, the shear transformation can provide a more favorable treatment for directions, which can make the new operator detect edges in different directions and overcome the directional limitation in the traditional operator. On the other hand, all the single pixel edge images in different directions can be fused. In this case, the edge information can complement each other. The experimental results indicate that the new operator is superior to the traditional ones in terms of the effectiveness of edge detection and the ability of noise rejection.

Xu, P., Chen, L., Jiang, Y., Sun, Q., Chen, H..  2020.  Research on Sensitivity Audit Scheme of Encrypted Data in Power Business. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :6–10.

With the rapid progress of informatization construction in power business, data resource has become the basic strategic resource of the power industry and innovative element in power production. The security protection of data in power business is particularly important in the informatization construction of power business. In order to implement data security protection, transparent encryption is one of the fifteen key technical standards in the Construction Guideline of the Standard Network Data Security System. However, data storage in the encrypted state is bound to affect the security audit of data to a certain extent. Based on this problem, this paper proposes a scheme to audit the sensitivity of the power business data under the protection of encryption to achieve an efficient sensitivity audit of ciphertext data with the premise of not revealing the decryption key or data information. Through a security demonstration, this paper fully proves that this solution is secure under the known plaintext attacks.

Xu, Peng, Li, Jingnan, Wang, Wei, Jin, Hai.  2016.  Anonymous Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption with Constant Decryption Complexity and Strong Security. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :223–233.

Anonymous Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption (AIBBE) allows a sender to broadcast a ciphertext to multi-receivers, and keeps receivers' anonymity. The existing AIBBE schemes fail to achieve efficient decryption or strong security, like the constant decryption complexity, the security under the adaptive attack, or the security in the standard model. Hence, we propose two new AIBBE schemes to overcome the drawbacks of previous schemes in the state-of-art. The biggest contribution in our work is the proposed AIBBE scheme with constant decryption complexity and the provable security under the adaptive attack in the standard model. This scheme should be the first one to obtain advantages in all above mentioned aspects, and has sufficient contribution in theory due to its strong security. We also propose another AIBBE scheme in the Random Oracle (RO) model, which is of sufficient interest in practice due to our experiment.

Xu, Peng, Xu, Jun, Wang, Wei, Jin, Hai, Susilo, Willy, Zou, Deqing.  2016.  Generally Hybrid Proxy Re-Encryption: A Secure Data Sharing Among Cryptographic Clouds. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :913–918.

Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE) is a favorable primitive to realize a cryptographic cloud with secure and flexible data sharing mechanism. A number of PRE schemes with versatile capabilities have been proposed for different applications. The secure data sharing can be internally achieved in each PRE scheme. But no previous work can guarantee the secure data sharing among different PRE schemes in a general manner. Moreover, it is challenging to solve this problem due to huge differences among the existing PRE schemes in their algebraic systems and public-key types. To solve this problem more generally, this paper uniforms the definitions of the existing PRE and Public Key Encryption (PKE) schemes, and further uniforms their security definitions. Then taking any uniformly defined PRE scheme and any uniformly defined PKE scheme as two building blocks, this paper constructs a Generally Hybrid Proxy Re-Encryption (GHPRE) scheme with the idea of temporary public and private keys to achieve secure data sharing between these two underlying schemes. Since PKE is a more general definition than PRE, the proposed GHPRE scheme also is workable between any two PRE schemes. Moreover, the proposed GHPRE scheme can be transparently deployed even if the underlying PRE schemes are implementing.

Xu, Peng, Li, Jingnan, Wang, Wei, Jin, Hai.  2016.  Anonymous Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption with Constant Decryption Complexity and Strong Security. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :223–233.
Anonymous Identity-Based Broadcast Encryption (AIBBE) allows a sender to broadcast a ciphertext to multi-receivers, and keeps receivers' anonymity. The existing AIBBE schemes fail to achieve efficient decryption or strong security, like the constant decryption complexity, the security under the adaptive attack, or the security in the standard model. Hence, we propose two new AIBBE schemes to overcome the drawbacks of previous schemes in the state-of-art. The biggest contribution in our work is the proposed AIBBE scheme with constant decryption complexity and the provable security under the adaptive attack in the standard model. This scheme should be the first one to obtain advantages in all above mentioned aspects, and has sufficient contribution in theory due to its strong security. We also propose another AIBBE scheme in the Random Oracle (RO) model, which is of sufficient interest in practice due to our experiment.
Xu, R., Naman, A. T., Mathew, R., Rüfenacht, D., Taubman, D..  2015.  Motion estimation with accurate boundaries. 2015 Picture Coding Symposium (PCS). :184–188.

This paper investigates several techniques that increase the accuracy of motion boundaries in estimated motion fields of a local dense estimation scheme. In particular, we examine two matching metrics, one is MSE in the image domain and the other one is a recently proposed multiresolution metric that has been shown to produce more accurate motion boundaries. We also examine several different edge-preserving filters. The edge-aware moving average filter, proposed in this paper, takes an input image and the result of an edge detection algorithm, and outputs an image that is smooth except at the detected edges. Compared to the adoption of edge-preserving filters, we find that matching metrics play a more important role in estimating accurate and compressible motion fields. Nevertheless, the proposed filter may provide further improvements in the accuracy of the motion boundaries. These findings can be very useful for a number of recently proposed scalable interactive video coding schemes.

Xu, S., Ouyang, Z., Feng, J..  2020.  An Improved Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization. 2020 5th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Applications (ICCIA). :19–23.
For solving multi-objective optimization problems, this paper firstly combines a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) with good convergence and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) with good distribution to construct. Thus we propose a hybrid multi-objective optimization solving algorithm. Then, we consider that the population diversity needs to be improved while applying multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) to solve the multi-objective optimization problems and an improved MOPSO algorithm is proposed. We give the distance function between the individual and the population, and the individual with the largest distance is selected as the global optimal individual to maintain population diversity. Finally, the simulation experiments are performed on the ZDT\textbackslashtextbackslashDTLZ test functions and track planning problems. The results indicate the better performance of the improved algorithms.
Xu, Shawn, Venugopalan, Subhashini, Sundararajan, Mukund.  2020.  Attribution in Scale and Space. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :9677–9686.
We study the attribution problem for deep networks applied to perception tasks. For vision tasks, attribution techniques attribute the prediction of a network to the pixels of the input image. We propose a new technique called Blur Integrated Gradients (Blur IG). This technique has several advantages over other methods. First, it can tell at what scale a network recognizes an object. It produces scores in the scale/frequency dimension, that we find captures interesting phenomena. Second, it satisfies the scale-space axioms, which imply that it employs perturbations that are free of artifact. We therefore produce explanations that are cleaner and consistent with the operation of deep networks. Third, it eliminates the need for baseline parameter for Integrated Gradients for perception tasks. This is desirable because the choice of baseline has a significant effect on the explanations. We compare the proposed technique against previous techniques and demonstrate application on three tasks: ImageNet object recognition, Diabetic Retinopathy prediction, and AudioSet audio event identification. Code and examples are at https://github.com/PAIR-code/saliency.
Xu, Shenglin, Xie, Peidai, Wang, Yongjun.  2020.  AT-ROP: Using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. 2020 International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE). :209–216.
Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is one of the most common techniques to exploit software vulnerabilities. Although many solutions to defend against ROP attacks have been proposed, they still have various drawbacks, such as requiring additional information (source code, debug symbols, etc.), increasing program running cost, and causing program instability. In this paper, we propose a method: using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. According to this method, we implemented the AT- ROP tool in a Linux 64-bit system environment. Compared to existing tools, it clears the parameter registers when the function returns. As a result, it makes the binary to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction without having to obtain the source code of the binary. We use the binary challenges in the CTF competition and the binary programs commonly used in the Linux environment to experiment. It turns out that AT-ROP can make the binary program have the ability to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction with a small increase in the size of the binary program and without affecting its normal execution.
Xu, Shouhuai.  2014.  Emergent Behavior in Cybersecurity. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :13:1–13:2.

We argue that emergent behavior is inherent to cybersecurity.

Xu, Shouhuai.  2014.  Cybersecurity Dynamics. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :14:1–14:2.

We explore the emerging field of Cybersecurity Dynamics, a candidate foundation for the Science of Cybersecurity.