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Johnson, Pontus, Lagerström, Robert, Ekstedt, Mathias.  2018.  A Meta Language for Threat Modeling and Attack Simulations. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :38:1-38:8.

Attack simulations may be used to assess the cyber security of systems. In such simulations, the steps taken by an attacker in order to compromise sensitive system assets are traced, and a time estimate may be computed from the initial step to the compromise of assets of interest. Attack graphs constitute a suitable formalism for the modeling of attack steps and their dependencies, allowing the subsequent simulation. To avoid the costly proposition of building new attack graphs for each system of a given type, domain-specific attack languages may be used. These languages codify the generic attack logic of the considered domain, thus facilitating the modeling, or instantiation, of a specific system in the domain. Examples of possible cyber security domains suitable for domain-specific attack languages are generic types such as cloud systems or embedded systems but may also be highly specialized kinds, e.g. Ubuntu installations; the objects of interest as well as the attack logic will differ significantly between such domains. In this paper, we present the Meta Attack Language (MAL), which may be used to design domain-specific attack languages such as the aforementioned. The MAL provides a formalism that allows the semi-automated generation as well as the efficient computation of very large attack graphs. We declare the formal background to MAL, define its syntax and semantics, exemplify its use with a small domain-specific language and instance model, and report on the computational performance.

K
Korman, Matus, Välja, Margus, Björkman, Gunnar, Ekstedt, Mathias, Vernotte, Alexandre, Lagerström, Robert.  2017.  Analyzing the Effectiveness of Attack Countermeasures in a SCADA System. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids. :73–78.

The SCADA infrastructure is a key component for power grid operations. Securing the SCADA infrastructure against cyber intrusions is thus vital for a well-functioning power grid. However, the task remains a particular challenge, not the least since not all available security mechanisms are easily deployable in these reliability-critical and complex, multi-vendor environments that host modern systems alongside legacy ones, to support a range of sensitive power grid operations. This paper examines how effective a few countermeasures are likely to be in SCADA environments, including those that are commonly considered out of bounds. The results show that granular network segmentation is a particularly effective countermeasure, followed by frequent patching of systems (which is unfortunately still difficult to date). The results also show that the enforcement of a password policy and restrictive network configuration including whitelisting of devices contributes to increased security, though best in combination with granular network segmentation.

U
Udd, Robert, Asplund, Mikael, Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin, Kazemtabrizi, Mehrdad, Ekstedt, Mathias.  2016.  Exploiting Bro for Intrusion Detection in a SCADA System. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security. :44–51.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that run our critical infrastructure are increasingly run with Internet-based protocols and devices for remote monitoring. The embedded nature of the components involved, and the legacy aspects makes adding new security mechanisms in an efficient manner far from trivial. In this paper we study an anomaly detection based approach that enables detecting zero-day malicious threats and benign malconfigurations and mishaps. The approach builds on an existing platform (Bro) that lends itself to modular addition of new protocol parsers and event handling mechanisms. As an example we have shown an application of the technique to the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol and tested the anomaly detector with mixed results. The detection accuracy and false positive rate, as well as real-time response was adequate for 3 of our 4 created attacks. We also discovered some additional work that needs to be done to an existing protocol parser to extend its reach.