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Willis, J. M., Mills, R. F., Mailloux, L. O., Graham, S. R..  2017.  Considerations for secure and resilient satellite architectures. 2017 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :16–22.

Traditionally, the focus of security and ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data in spacecraft systems has been on the ground segment and the uplink/downlink components. Although these are the most obvious attack vectors, potential security risks against the satellite's platform is also a serious concern. This paper discusses a notional satellite architecture and explores security vulnerabilities using a systems-level approach. Viewing attacks through this paradigm highlights several potential attack vectors that conventional satellite security approaches fail to consider. If left undetected, these could yield physical effects limiting the satellite's mission or performance. The approach presented aids in risk analysis and gives insight into architectural design considerations which improve the system's overall resiliency.

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Mailloux, L. O., Sargeant, B. N., Hodson, D. D., Grimaila, M. R..  2017.  System-level considerations for modeling space-based quantum key distribution architectures. 2017 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–6.

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a revolutionary technology which leverages the laws of quantum mechanics to distribute cryptographic keying material between two parties with theoretically unconditional security. Terrestrial QKD systems are limited to distances of \textbackslashtextless;200 km in both optical fiber and line-of-sight free-space configurations due to severe losses during single photon propagation and the curvature of the Earth. Thus, the feasibility of fielding a low Earth orbit (LEO) QKD satellite to overcome this limitation is being explored. Moreover, in August 2016, the Chinese Academy of Sciences successfully launched the world's first QKD satellite. However, many of the practical engineering performance and security tradeoffs associated with space-based QKD are not well understood for global secure key distribution. This paper presents several system-level considerations for modeling and studying space-based QKD architectures and systems. More specifically, this paper explores the behaviors and requirements that researchers must examine to develop a model for studying the effectiveness of QKD between LEO satellites and ground stations.

Span, M. T., Mailloux, L. O., Grimaila, M. R., Young, W. B..  2018.  A Systems Security Approach for Requirements Analysis of Complex Cyber-Physical Systems. 2018 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–8.
Today's highly interconnected and technology reliant environment places greater emphasis on the need for dependably secure systems. This work addresses this problem by detailing a systems security analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for complex cyber-physical systems. First, a readily understandable description of key architectural analysis definitions and desirable characteristics is provided along with a survey of commonly used security architecture analysis approaches. Next, a tailored version of the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is detailed in three phases which supports the development of functional-level security requirements, architectural-level engineering considerations, and design-level security criteria. In particular, these three phases are aligned with the systems and software engineering processes defined in the security processes of NIST SP 800-160. Lastly, this work is important for advancing the science of systems security by providing a viable systems security analysis approach for eliciting, defining, and analyzing traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements which support evaluation criteria that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.
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Mailloux, L. O., Span, M., Mills, R. F., Young, W..  2019.  A Top Down Approach for Eliciting Systems Security Requirements for a Notional Autonomous Space System. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–7.
Today's highly interconnected and technology reliant environment places great emphasis on the need for secure cyber-physical systems. This work addresses this need by detailing a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional space system. More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements during the conceptual stage of development. This work employs STPA-Sec in a notional space system to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specifications early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation, maintenance, or sustainment. Lastly, this approach employs a holistic viewpoint which aligns with the systems and software engineering processes as detailed in ISO/IEC/IEEE 152SS and NIST SP SOO-160 Volume 1. This work seeks to advance the science of systems security by providing insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.