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Hussein, A., Elhajj, I. H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2016.  SDN Security Plane: An Architecture for Resilient Security Services. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering Workshop (IC2EW). :54–59.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is the new promise towards an easily configured and remotely controlled network. Based on Centralized control, SDN technology has proved its positive impact on the world of network communications from different aspects. Security in SDN, as in traditional networks, is an essential feature that every communication system should possess. In this paper, we propose an SDN security design approach, which strikes a good balance between network performance and security features. We show how such an approach can be used to prevent DDoS attacks targeting either the controller or the different hosts in the network, and how to trace back the source of the attack. The solution lies in introducing a third plane, the security plane, in addition to the data plane, which is responsible for forwarding data packets between SDN switches, and parallel to the control plane, which is responsible for rule and data exchange between the switches and the SDN controller. The security plane is designed to exchange security-related data between a third party agent on the switch and a third party software module alongside the controller. Our evaluation shows the capability of the proposed system to enforce different levels of real-time user-defined security with low overhead and minimal configuration.

Hussein, A., Elhajj, I. H., Chehab, A., Kayssi, A..  2017.  SDN VANETs in 5G: An architecture for resilient security services. 2017 Fourth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :67–74.

Vehicular ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) have been promoted as a key technology that can provide a wide variety of services such as traffic management, passenger safety, as well as travel convenience and comfort. VANETs are now proposed to be part of the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) technology, integrated with Software Defined Networking (SDN), as key enabler of 5G. The technology of fog computing in 5G turned out to be an adequate solution for faster processing in delay sensitive application, such as VANETs, being a hybrid solution between fully centralized and fully distributed networks. In this paper, we propose a three-way integration between VANETs, SDN, and 5G for a resilient VANET security design approach, which strikes a good balance between network, mobility, performance and security features. We show how such an approach can secure VANETs from different types of attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) targeting either the controllers or the vehicles in the network, and how to trace back the source of the attack. Our evaluation shows the capability of the proposed system to enforce different levels of real-time user-defined security, while maintaining low overhead and minimal configuration.

Hussein, A., Salman, O., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I., Kayssi, A..  2019.  Machine Learning for Network Resiliency and Consistency. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :146–153.

Being able to describe a specific network as consistent is a large step towards resiliency. Next to the importance of security lies the necessity of consistency verification. Attackers are currently focusing on targeting small and crutial goals such as network configurations or flow tables. These types of attacks would defy the whole purpose of a security system when built on top of an inconsistent network. Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) are playing a key role in ensuring a fast responce to the large number of evolving threats. Software Defined Networking (SDN), being centralized by design, offers a global overview of the network. Robustness and adaptability are part of a package offered by programmable networking, which drove us to consider the integration between both AI and SDN. The general goal of our series is to achieve an Artificial Intelligence Resiliency System (ARS). The aim of this paper is to propose a new AI-based consistency verification system, which will be part of ARS in our future work. The comparison of different deep learning architectures shows that Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) give the best results with an accuracy of 99.39% on our dataset and 96% on our consistency test scenario.

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Wang, M., Hussein, A., Rojas, R. F., Shafi, K., Abbass, H. A..  2018.  EEG-Based Neural Correlates of Trust in Human-Autonomy Interaction. 2018 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :350–357.
This paper aims at identifying the neural correlates of human trust in autonomous systems using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Quantifying the relationship between trust and brain activities allows for real-time assessment of human trust in automation. This line of effort contributes to the design of trusted autonomous systems, and more generally, modeling the interaction in human-autonomy interaction. To study the correlates of trust, we use an investment game in which artificial agents with different levels of trustworthiness are employed. We collected EEG signals from 10 human subjects while they are playing the game; then computed three types of features from these signals considering the signal time-dependency, complexity and power spectrum using an autoregressive model (AR), sample entropy and Fourier analysis, respectively. Results of a mixed model analysis showed significant correlation between human trust and EEG features from certain electrodes. The frontal and the occipital area are identified as the predominant brain areas correlated with trust.