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Jeon, Joohyung, Kim, Junhui, Kim, Joongheon, Kim, Kwangsoo, Mohaisen, Aziz, Kim, Jong-Kook.  2019.  Privacy-Preserving Deep Learning Computation for Geo-Distributed Medical Big-Data Platforms. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks – Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :3–4.
This paper proposes a distributed deep learning framework for privacy-preserving medical data training. In order to avoid patients' data leakage in medical platforms, the hidden layers in the deep learning framework are separated and where the first layer is kept in platform and others layers are kept in a centralized server. Whereas keeping the original patients' data in local platforms maintain their privacy, utilizing the server for subsequent layers improves learning performance by using all data from each platform during training.
Mohaisen, Aziz, Al-Ibrahim, Omar, Kamhoua, Charles, Kwiat, Kevin, Njilla, Laurent.  2017.  Rethinking Information Sharing for Threat Intelligence. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM/IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Web Systems and Technologies. :6:1–6:7.

In the past decade, the information security and threat landscape has grown significantly making it difficult for a single defender to defend against all attacks at the same time. This called for introducing information sharing, a paradigm in which threat indicators are shared in a community of trust to facilitate defenses. Standards for representation, exchange, and consumption of indicators are proposed in the literature, although various issues are undermined. In this paper, we take the position of rethinking information sharing for actionable intelligence, by highlighting various issues that deserve further exploration. We argue that information sharing can benefit from well-defined use models, threat models, well-understood risk by measurement and robust scoring, well-understood and preserved privacy and quality of indicators and robust mechanism to avoid free riding behavior of selfish agents. We call for using the differential nature of data and community structures for optimizing sharing designs and structures.

Saad, Muhammad, Khormali, Aminollah, Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  Dine and Dash: Static, Dynamic, and Economic Analysis of In-Browser Cryptojacking. 2019 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime). :1—12.

Cryptojacking is the permissionless use of a target device to covertly mine cryptocurrencies. With cryptojacking attackers use malicious JavaScript codes to force web browsers into solving proof-of-work puzzles, thus making money by exploiting resources of the website visitors. To understand and counter such attacks, we systematically analyze the static, dynamic, and economic aspects of in-browser cryptojacking. For static analysis, we perform content-, currency-, and code-based categorization of cryptojacking samples to 1) measure their distribution across websites, 2) highlight their platform affinities, and 3) study their code complexities. We apply unsupervised learning to distinguish cryptojacking scripts from benign and other malicious JavaScript samples with 96.4% accuracy. For dynamic analysis, we analyze the effect of cryptojacking on critical system resources, such as CPU and battery usage. Additionally, we perform web browser fingerprinting to analyze the information exchange between the victim node and the dropzone cryptojacking server. We also build an analytical model to empirically evaluate the feasibility of cryptojacking as an alternative to online advertisement. Our results show a large negative profit and loss gap, indicating that the model is economically impractical. Finally, by leveraging insights from our analyses, we build countermeasures for in-browser cryptojacking that improve upon the existing remedies.

Saad, Muhammad, Cook, Victor, Nguyen, Lan, Thai, My T., Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  Partitioning Attacks on Bitcoin: Colliding Space, Time, and Logic. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1175—1187.
Bitcoin is the leading example of a blockchain application that facilitates peer-to-peer transactions without the need for a trusted intermediary. This paper considers possible attacks related to the decentralized network architecture of Bitcoin. We perform a data driven study of Bitcoin and present possible attacks based on spatial and temporal characteristics of its network. Towards that, we revisit the prior work, dedicated to the study of centralization of Bitcoin nodes over the Internet, through a fine-grained analysis of network distribution, and highlight the increasing centralization of the Bitcoin network over time. As a result, we show that Bitcoin is vulnerable to spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal, and logical partitioning attacks with an increased attack feasibility due to network dynamics. We verify our observations by simulating attack scenarios and the implications of each attack on the Bitcoin . We conclude with suggested countermeasures.
Saad, Muhammad, Anwar, Afsah, Ahmad, Ashar, Alasmary, Hisham, Yuksel, Murat, Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  RouteChain: Towards Blockchain-Based Secure and Efficient BGP Routing. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :210–218.

Routing on the Internet is defined among autonomous systems (ASes) based on a weak trust model where it is assumed that ASes are honest. While this trust model strengthens the connectivity among ASes, it results in an attack surface which is exploited by malicious entities to hijacking routing paths. One such attack is known as the BGP prefix hijacking, in which a malicious AS broadcasts IP prefixes that belong to a target AS, thereby hijacking its traffic. In this paper, we proposeRouteChain: a blockchain-based secure BGP routing system that counters BGP hijacking and maintains a consistent view of the Internet routing paths. Towards that, we leverage provenance assurance and tamper-proof properties of blockchains to augment trust among ASes. We group ASes based on their geographical (network) proximity and construct a bihierarchical blockchain model that detects false prefixes prior to their spread over the Internet. We validate strengths of our design by simulations and show its effectiveness by drawing a case study with the Youtube hijacking of 2008. Our proposed scheme is a standalone service that can be incrementally deployed without the need of a central authority.

Wang, An, Mohaisen, Aziz, Chen, Songqing.  2019.  XLF: A Cross-layer Framework to Secure the Internet of Things (IoT). 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1830–1839.
The burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT) has offered unprecedented opportunities for innovations and applications that are continuously changing our life. At the same time, the large amount of pervasive IoT applications have posed paramount threats to the user's security and privacy. While a lot of efforts have been dedicated to deal with such threats from the hardware, the software, and the applications, in this paper, we argue and envision that more effective and comprehensive protection for IoT systems can only be achieved via a cross-layer approach. As such, we present our initial design of XLF, a cross-layer framework towards this goal. XLF can secure the IoT systems not only from each individual layer of device, network, and service, but also through the information aggregation and correlation of different layers.