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Skoberne, N., Maennel, O., Phillips, I., Bush, R., Zorz, J., Ciglaric, M..  2014.  IPv4 Address Sharing Mechanism Classification and Tradeoff Analysis. Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on. 22:391-404.

The growth of the Internet has made IPv4 addresses a scarce resource. Due to slow IPv6 deployment, IANA-level IPv4 address exhaustion was reached before the world could transition to an IPv6-only Internet. The continuing need for IPv4 reachability will only be supported by IPv4 address sharing. This paper reviews ISP-level address sharing mechanisms, which allow Internet service providers to connect multiple customers who share a single IPv4 address. Some mechanisms come with severe and unpredicted consequences, and all of them come with tradeoffs. We propose a novel classification, which we apply to existing mechanisms such as NAT444 and DS-Lite and proposals such as 4rd, MAP, etc. Our tradeoff analysis reveals insights into many problems including: abuse attribution, performance degradation, address and port usage efficiency, direct intercustomer communication, and availability.