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Liu, J., Xiao, K., Luo, L., Li, Y., Chen, L..  2020.  An intrusion detection system integrating network-level intrusion detection and host-level intrusion detection. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :122—129.
With the rapid development of Internet, the issue of cyber security has increasingly gained more attention. An intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an effective technique to defend cyber-attacks and reduce security losses. However, the challenge of IDS lies in the diversity of cyber-attackers and the frequently-changing data requiring a flexible and efficient solution. To address this problem, machine learning approaches are being applied in the IDS field. In this paper, we propose an efficient scalable neural-network-based hybrid IDS framework with the combination of Host-level IDS (HIDS) and Network-level IDS (NIDS). We applied the autoencoders (AE) to NIDS and designed HIDS using word embedding and convolutional neural network. To evaluate the IDS, many experiments are performed on the public datasets NSL-KDD and ADFA. It can detect many attacks and reduce the security risk with high efficiency and excellent scalability.
Zhang, Y., Liu, J., Shang, T., Wu, W..  2020.  Quantum Homomorphic Encryption Based on Quantum Obfuscation. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :2010–2015.
Homomorphic encryption enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. This leads to an important open question whether quantum computation can be delegated and verified in a non-interactive manner or not. In this paper, we affirmatively answer this question by constructing the quantum homomorphic encryption scheme with quantum obfuscation. It takes advantage of the interchangeability of the unitary operator, and exchanges the evaluation operator and the encryption operator by means of equivalent multiplication to complete homomorphic encryption. The correctness of the proposed scheme is proved theoretically. The evaluator does not know the decryption key and does not require a regular interaction with a user. Because of key transmission after quantum obfuscation, the encrypting party and the decrypting party can be different users. The output state has the property of complete mixture, which guarantees the scheme security. Moreover, the security level of the quantum homomorphic encryption scheme depends on quantum obfuscation and encryption operators.
Fan, M., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zhou, H., Luo, X., Li, S., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Liu, T..  2020.  An Empirical Evaluation of GDPR Compliance Violations in Android mHealth Apps. 2020 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :253—264.

The purpose of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to provide improved privacy protection. If an app controls personal data from users, it needs to be compliant with GDPR. However, GDPR lists general rules rather than exact step-by-step guidelines about how to develop an app that fulfills the requirements. Therefore, there may exist GDPR compliance violations in existing apps, which would pose severe privacy threats to app users. In this paper, we take mobile health applications (mHealth apps) as a peephole to examine the status quo of GDPR compliance in Android apps. We first propose an automated system, named HPDROID, to bridge the semantic gap between the general rules of GDPR and the app implementations by identifying the data practices declared in the app privacy policy and the data relevant behaviors in the app code. Then, based on HPDROID, we detect three kinds of GDPR compliance violations, including the incompleteness of privacy policy, the inconsistency of data collections, and the insecurity of data transmission. We perform an empirical evaluation of 796 mHealth apps. The results reveal that 189 (23.7%) of them do not provide complete privacy policies. Moreover, 59 apps collect sensitive data through different measures, but 46 (77.9%) of them contain at least one inconsistent collection behavior. Even worse, among the 59 apps, only 8 apps try to ensure the transmission security of collected data. However, all of them contain at least one encryption or SSL misuse. Our work exposes severe privacy issues to raise awareness of privacy protection for app users and developers.

Liu, J., Tong, X., Zhang, M., Wang, Z..  2020.  The Design of S-box Based on Combined Chaotic Map. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :350–353.
The strength of the substitution box (S-box) determines the security of the cryptographic algorithm because it's the only nonlinear component in the block cipher. Because of the disadvantages of non-uniformity sequence and limited range in the one-dimension (1D) chaotic map, this paper constructs the logistic map and the sine map into a combined chaotic map, and a new S-box construction method based on this combined chaotic map is presented. Performance tests were performed on the S-box, including nonlinearity, linear probability, differential probability, strict avalanche criterion, bits independence criterion. Compared with others S-box, this result indicates that the S-box has more excellent cryptographic performance and can be used as a nonlinear component in the lightweight block cipher algorithm.
Dong, X., Kang, Q., Yao, Q., Lu, D., Xu, Y., Liu, J..  2020.  Towards Primary User Sybil-proofness for Online Spectrum Auction in Dynamic Spectrum Access. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1439–1448.
Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is a promising platform to solve the spectrum shortage problem, in which auction based mechanisms have been extensively studied due to good spectrum allocation efficiency and fairness. Recently, Sybil attacks were introduced in DSA, and Sybil-proof spectrum auction mechanisms have been proposed, which guarantee that each single secondary user (SU) cannot obtain a higher utility under more than one fictitious identities. However, existing Sybil-poof spectrum auction mechanisms achieve only Sybil-proofness for SUs, but not for primary users (PUs), and simulations show that a cheating PU in those mechanisms can obtain a higher utility by Sybil attacks. In this paper, we propose TSUNAMI, the first Truthful and primary user Sybil-proof aUctioN mechAnisM for onlIne spectrum allocation. Specifically, we compute the opportunity cost of each SU and screen out cost-efficient SUs to participate in spectrum allocation. In addition, we present a bid-independent sorting method and a sequential matching approach to achieve primary user Sybil-proofness and 2-D truthfulness, which means that each SU or PU can gain her maximal utility by bidding with her true valuation of spectrum. We evaluate the performance and validate the desired properties of our proposed mechanism through extensive simulations.
Fan, M., Luo, X., Liu, J., Wang, M., Nong, C., Zheng, Q., Liu, T..  2019.  Graph Embedding Based Familial Analysis of Android Malware using Unsupervised Learning. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :771—782.

The rapid growth of Android malware has posed severe security threats to smartphone users. On the basis of the familial trait of Android malware observed by previous work, the familial analysis is a promising way to help analysts better focus on the commonalities of malware samples within the same families, thus reducing the analytical workload and accelerating malware analysis. The majority of existing approaches rely on supervised learning and face three main challenges, i.e., low accuracy, low efficiency, and the lack of labeled dataset. To address these challenges, we first construct a fine-grained behavior model by abstracting the program semantics into a set of subgraphs. Then, we propose SRA, a novel feature that depicts the similarity relationships between the Structural Roles of sensitive API call nodes in subgraphs. An SRA is obtained based on graph embedding techniques and represented as a vector, thus we can effectively reduce the high complexity of graph matching. After that, instead of training a classifier with labeled samples, we construct malware link network based on SRAs and apply community detection algorithms on it to group the unlabeled samples into groups. We implement these ideas in a system called GefDroid that performs Graph embedding based familial analysis of AnDroid malware using unsupervised learning. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate GefDroid on three datasets with ground truth. The results show that GefDroid can achieve high agreements (0.707-0.883 in term of NMI) between the clustering results and the ground truth. Furthermore, GefDroid requires only linear run-time overhead and takes around 8.6s to analyze a sample on average, which is considerably faster than the previous work.

Huang, S., Chen, Q., Chen, Z., Chen, L., Liu, J., Yang, S..  2019.  A Test Cases Generation Technique Based on an Adversarial Samples Generation Algorithm for Image Classification Deep Neural Networks. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :520–521.

With widely applied in various fields, deep learning (DL) is becoming the key driving force in industry. Although it has achieved great success in artificial intelligence tasks, similar to traditional software, it has defects that, once it failed, unpredictable accidents and losses would be caused. In this paper, we propose a test cases generation technique based on an adversarial samples generation algorithm for image classification deep neural networks (DNNs), which can generate a large number of good test cases for the testing of DNNs, especially in case that test cases are insufficient. We briefly introduce our method, and implement the framework. We conduct experiments on some classic DNN models and datasets. We further evaluate the test set by using a coverage metric based on states of the DNN.

Hu, Y., Li, X., Liu, J., Ding, H., Gong, Y., Fang, Y..  2018.  Mitigating Traffic Analysis Attack in Smartphones with Edge Network Assistance. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

With the growth of smartphone sales and app usage, fingerprinting and identification of smartphone apps have become a considerable threat to user security and privacy. Traffic analysis is one of the most common methods for identifying apps. Traditional countermeasures towards traffic analysis includes traffic morphing and multipath routing. The basic idea of multipath routing is to increase the difficulty for adversary to eavesdrop all traffic by splitting traffic into several subflows and transmitting them through different routes. Previous works in multipath routing mainly focus on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) or Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). In this paper, we propose a multipath routing scheme for smartphones with edge network assistance to mitigate traffic analysis attack. We consider an adversary with limited capability, that is, he can only intercept the traffic of one node following certain attack probability, and try to minimize the traffic an adversary can intercept. We formulate our design as a flow routing optimization problem. Then a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, we present the simulation results for our scheme and justify that our scheme can effectively protect smartphones from traffic analysis attack.

Wang, M., Yang, Y., Zhu, M., Liu, J..  2018.  CAPTCHA Identification Based on Convolution Neural Network. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :364–368.
The CAPTCHA is an effective method commonly used in live interactive proofs on the Internet. The widely used CAPTCHAs are text-based schemes. In this paper, we document how we have broken such text-based scheme used by a website CAPTCHA. We use the sliding window to segment 1001 pieces of CAPTCHA to get 5900 images with single-character useful information, a total of 25 categories. In order to make the convolution neural network learn more image features, we augmented the data set to get 129924 pictures. The data set is trained and tested in AlexNet and GoogLeNet to get the accuracy of 87.45% and 98.92%, respectively. The experiment shows that the optimized network parameters can make the accuracy rate up to 92.7% in AlexNet and 98.96% in GoogLeNet.
Chen, L., Liu, J., Ha, W..  2018.  Cloud Service Risk in the Smart Grid. 2018 14th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :242–244.

Smart grid utilizes cloud service to realize reliable, efficient, secured, and cost-effective power management, but there are a number of security risks in the cloud service of smart grid. The security risks are particularly problematic to operators of power information infrastructure who want to leverage the benefits of cloud. In this paper, security risk of cloud service in the smart grid are categorized and analyzed characteristics, and multi-layered index system of general technical risks is established, which applies to different patterns of cloud service. Cloud service risk of smart grid can evaluate according indexes.

Yang, B., Xu, G., Zeng, X., Liu, J., Zhang, Y..  2018.  A Lightweight Anonymous Mobile User Authentication Scheme for Smart Grid. 2018 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :821-827.

Smart Grid (SG) technology has been developing for years, which facilitates users with portable access to power through being applied in numerous application scenarios, one of which is the electric vehicle charging. In order to ensure the security of the charging process, users need authenticating with the smart meter for the subsequent communication. Although there are many researches in this field, few of which have endeavored to protect the anonymity and the untraceability of users during the authentication. Further, some studies consider the problem of user anonymity, but they are non-light-weight protocols, even some can not assure any fairness in key agreement. In this paper, we first points out that existing authentication schemes for Smart Grid are neither lack of critical security nor short of important property such as untraceability, then we propose a new two-factor lightweight user authentication scheme based on password and biometric. The authentication process of the proposed scheme includes four message exchanges among the user mobile, smart meter and the cloud server, and then a security one-time session key is generated for the followed communication process. Moreover, the scheme has some new features, such as the protection of the user's anonymity and untraceability. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme can resist various well-known attacks and the performance analysis shows that compared to other three schemes, our scheme is more lightweight, secure and efficient.

Yao, S., Niu, B., Liu, J..  2018.  Enhancing Sampling and Counting Method for Audio Retrieval with Time-Stretch Resistance. 2018 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Big Data (BigMM). :1–5.

An ideal audio retrieval method should be not only highly efficient in identifying an audio track from a massive audio dataset, but also robust to any distortion. Unfortunately, none of the audio retrieval methods is robust to all types of distortions. An audio retrieval method has to do with both the audio fingerprint and the strategy, especially how they are combined. We argue that the Sampling and Counting Method (SC), a state-of-the-art audio retrieval method, would be promising towards an ideal audio retrieval method, if we could make it robust to time-stretch and pitch-stretch. Towards this objective, this paper proposes a turning point alignment method to enhance SC with resistance to time-stretch, which makes Philips and Philips-like fingerprints resist to time-stretch. Experimental results show that our approach can resist to time-stretch from 70% to 130%, which is on a par to the state-of-the-art methods. It also marginally improves the retrieval performance with various noise distortions.

Bai, X., Niu, W., Liu, J., Gao, X., Xiang, Y., Liu, J..  2018.  Adversarial Examples Construction Towards White-Box Q Table Variation in DQN Pathfinding Training. 2018 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :781–787.

As a new research hotspot in the field of artificial intelligence, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has achieved certain success in various fields such as robot control, computer vision, natural language processing and so on. At the same time, the possibility of its application being attacked and whether it have a strong resistance to strike has also become a hot topic in recent years. Therefore, we select the representative Deep Q Network (DQN) algorithm in deep reinforcement learning, and use the robotic automatic pathfinding application as a countermeasure application scenario for the first time, and attack DQN algorithm against the vulnerability of the adversarial samples. In this paper, we first use DQN to find the optimal path, and analyze the rules of DQN pathfinding. Then, we propose a method that can effectively find vulnerable points towards White-Box Q table variation in DQN pathfinding training. Finally, we build a simulation environment as a basic experimental platform to test our method, through multiple experiments, we can successfully find the adversarial examples and the experimental results show that the supervised method we proposed is effective.

Chen, X., Shang, T., Kim, I., Liu, J..  2017.  A Remote Data Integrity Checking Scheme for Big Data Storage. 2017 IEEE Second International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :53–59.

In the existing remote data integrity checking schemes, dynamic update operates on block level, which usually restricts the location of the data inserted in a file due to the fixed size of a data block. In this paper, we propose a remote data integrity checking scheme with fine-grained update for big data storage. The proposed scheme achieves basic operations of insertion, modification, deletion on line level at any location in a file by designing a mapping relationship between line level update and block level update. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme supports public verification and privacy preservation. Meanwhile, it performs data integrity checking with low computation and communication cost.

Wu, F., Wang, J., Liu, J., Wang, W..  2017.  Vulnerability detection with deep learning. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1298–1302.
Vulnerability detection is an import issue in information system security. In this work, we propose the deep learning method for vulnerability detection. We present three deep learning models, namely, convolution neural network (CNN), long short term memory (LSTM) and convolution neural network — long short term memory (CNN-LSTM). In order to test the performance of our approach, we collected 9872 sequences of function calls as features to represent the patterns of binary programs during their execution. We apply our deep learning models to predict the vulnerabilities of these binary programs based on the collected data. The experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of our proposed method reaches 83.6%, which is superior to that of traditional method like multi-layer perceptron (MLP).
Wu, H., Liu, J., Liu, Y., Qiu, G., Taylor, G. A..  2017.  Power system transmission line fault diagnosis based on combined data analytics. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

As a consequence of the recent development of situational awareness technologies for smart grids, the gathering and analysis of data from multiple sources offer a significant opportunity for enhanced fault diagnosis. In order to achieve improved accuracy for both fault detection and classification, a novel combined data analytics technique is presented and demonstrated in this paper. The proposed technique is based on a segmented approach to Bayesian modelling that provides probabilistic graphical representations of both electrical power and data communication networks. In this manner, the reliability of both the data communication and electrical power networks are considered in order to improve overall power system transmission line fault diagnosis.

Baek, J., Vu, Q., Liu, J., Huang, X., Xiang, Y..  2014.  A secure cloud computing based framework for big data information management of smart grid. Cloud Computing, IEEE Transactions on. PP:1-1.

Smart grid is a technological innovation that improves efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity services. It plays a crucial role in modern energy infrastructure. The main challenges of smart grids, however, are how to manage different types of front-end intelligent devices such as power assets and smart meters efficiently; and how to process a huge amount of data received from these devices. Cloud computing, a technology that provides computational resources on demands, is a good candidate to address these challenges since it has several good properties such as energy saving, cost saving, agility, scalability, and flexibility. In this paper, we propose a secure cloud computing based framework for big data information management in smart grids, which we call “Smart-Frame.” The main idea of our framework is to build a hierarchical structure of cloud computing centers to provide different types of computing services for information management and big data analysis. In addition to this structural framework, we present a security solution based on identity-based encryption, signature and proxy re-encryption to address critical security issues of the proposed framework.