Visible to the public Biblio

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Sahu, Abhijeet, Goulart, Ana.  2019.  Implementation of a C-UNB Module for NS-3 and Validation for DLMS-COSEM Application Layer Protocol. 2019 IEEE ComSoc International Communications Quality and Reliability Workshop (CQR). :1-6.

The number of sensors and embedded devices in an urban area can be on the order of thousands. New low-power wide area (LPWA) wireless network technologies have been proposed to support this large number of asynchronous, low-bandwidth devices. Among them, the Cooperative UltraNarrowband (C-UNB) is a clean-slate cellular network technology to connect these devices to a remote site or data collection server. C-UNB employs small bandwidth channels, and a lightweight random access protocol. In this paper, a new application is investigated - the use of C-UNB wireless networks to support the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), in order to facilitate the communication between smart meters and utilities. To this end, we adapted a mathematical model for C-UNB, and implemented a network simulation module in NS-3 to represent C-UNB's physical and medium access control layer. For the application layer, we implemented the DLMS-COSEM protocol, or Device Language Message Specification - Companion Specification for Energy Metering. Details of the simulation module are presented and we conclude that it supports the results of the mathematical model.

Sahu, Abhijeet, Huang, Hao, Davis, Katherine, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  SCORE: A Security-Oriented Cyber-Physical Optimal Response Engine. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

Automatic optimal response systems are essential for preserving power system resilience and ensuring faster recovery from emergency under cyber compromise. Numerous research works have developed such response engine for cyber and physical system recovery separately. In this paper, we propose a novel cyber-physical decision support system, SCORE, that computes optimal actions considering pure and hybrid cyber-physical states, using Markov Decision Process (MDP). Such an automatic decision making engine can assist power system operators and network administrators to make a faster response to prevent cascading failures and attack escalation respectively. The hybrid nature of the engine makes the reward and state transition model of the MDP unique. Value iteration and policy iteration techniques are used to compute the optimal actions. Tests are performed on three and five substation power systems to recover from attacks that compromise relays to cause transmission line overflow. The paper also analyses the impact of reward and state transition model on computation. Corresponding results verify the efficacy of the proposed engine.

Sahu, Abhijeet, Davis, Katherine.  2021.  Structural Learning Techniques for Bayesian Attack Graphs in Cyber Physical Power Systems. 2021 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference (TPEC). :1–6.

Updating the structure of attack graph templates based on real-time alerts from Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), in an Industrial Control System (ICS) network, is currently done manually by security experts. But, a highly-connected smart power systems, that can inadvertently expose numerous vulnerabilities to intruders for targeting grid resilience, needs automatic fast updates on learning attack graph structures, instead of manual intervention, to enable fast isolation of compromised network to secure the grid. Hence, in this work, we develop a technique to first construct a prior Bayesian Attack Graph (BAG) based on a predefined threat model and a synthetic communication network for a cyber-physical power system. Further, we evaluate a few score-based and constraint-based structural learning algorithms to update the BAG structure based on real-time alerts, based on scalability, data dependency, time complexity and accuracy criteria.

Knesek, Kolten, Wlazlo, Patrick, Huang, Hao, Sahu, Abhijeet, Goulart, Ana, Davis, Kate.  2021.  Detecting Attacks on Synchrophasor Protocol Using Machine Learning Algorithms. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :102—107.
Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are used in power grids across North America to measure the amplitude, phase, and frequency of an alternating voltage or current. PMU's use the IEEE C37.118 protocol to send telemetry to phasor data collectors (PDC) and human machine interface (HMI) workstations in a control center. However, the C37.118 protocol utilizes the internet protocol stack without any authentication mechanism. This means that the protocol is vulnerable to false data injection (FDI) and false command injection (FCI). In order to study different scenarios in which C37.118 protocol's integrity and confidentiality can be compromised, we created a testbed that emulates a C37.118 communication network. In this testbed we conduct FCI and FDI attacks on real-time C37.118 data packets using a packet manipulation tool called Scapy. Using this platform, we generated C37.118 FCI and FDI datasets which are processed by multi-label machine learning classifier algorithms, such as Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and Naive Bayes (NB), to find out how effective machine learning can be at detecting such attacks. Our results show that the DT classifier had the best precision and recall rate.
Mao, Zeyu, Sahu, Abhijeet, Wlazlo, Patrick, Liu, Yijing, Goulart, Ana, Davis, Katherine, Overbye, Thomas J..  2021.  Mitigating TCP Congestion: A Coordinated Cyber and Physical Approach. 2021 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1–6.
The operation of the modern power grid is becoming increasingly reliant on its underlying communication network, especially within the context of the rapidly growing integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). This tight cyber-physical coupling brings uncertainties and challenges for the power grid operation and control. To help operators manage the complex cyber-physical environment, ensure the integrity, and continuity of reliable grid operation, a two-stage approach is proposed that is compatible with current ICS protocols to improve the deliverability of time critical operations. With the proposed framework, the impact Denial of Service (DoS) attack can have on a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) session could be effectively prevented and mitigated. This coordinated approach combines the efficiency of congestion window reconfiguration and the applicability of physical-only mitigation approaches. By expanding the state and action space to encompass both the cyber and physical domains. This approach has been proven to outperform the traditional, physical-only method, in multiple network congested scenarios that were emulated in a real-time cyber-physical testbed.