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van Kerkhoven, Jason, Charlebois, Nathaniel, Robertson, Alex, Gibson, Brydon, Ahmed, Arslan, Bouida, Zied, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2019.  IPv6-Based Smart Grid Communication over 6LoWPAN. 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.
Smart Grid is a major element of the Smart City concept that enables two-way communication of energy data between electric utilities and their consumers. These communication technologies are going through sharp modernization to meet future demand growth and to achieve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. In this paper, we implement an IPv6 based two-way communication system between the transformer agent (TA), installed at local electric transformer and various customer agents (CAs), connected to customer's smart meter. Various homes share their energy usage with the TA which in turn sends the utility's recommendations to the CAs. Raspberry Pi is used as hardware for all the CAs and the TA. We implement a self-healing mesh network between all nodes using OpenLab IEEE 802.15.4 chips and Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL), and the data is secured by RSA/AES keys. Several tests have been conducted in real environments, inside and outside of Carleton University, to test the performance of this communication network in various obstacle settings. In this paper, we highlight the details behind the implementation of this IPv6-based smart grid communication system, the related challenges, and the proposed solutions.
Gharib, Anastassia, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2021.  Security Aware Cluster Head Selection with Coverage and Energy Optimization in WSNs for IoT. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
Nodes in wireless Internet of Things (IoT) sensor networks are heterogeneous in nature. This heterogeneity can come from energy and security resources available at the node level. Besides, these resources are usually limited. Efficient cluster head (CH) selection in rounds is the key to preserving energy resources of sensor nodes. However, energy and security resources are contradictory to one another. Therefore, it is challenging to ensure CH selection with appropriate security resources without decreasing energy efficiency. Coverage and energy optimization subject to a required security level can form a solution to the aforementioned trade-off. This paper proposes a security level aware CH selection algorithm in wireless sensor networks for IoT. The proposed method considers energy and security level updates for nodes and coverage provided by associated CHs. The proposed method performs CH selection in rounds and in a centralized parallel processing way, making it applicable to the IoT scenario. The proposed algorithm is compared to existing traditional and emerging CH selection algorithms that apply security mechanisms in terms of energy and security efficiencies.
Kuri, Sajib Kumar, Islam, Tarim, Jaskolka, Jason, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2022.  A Threat Model and Security Recommendations for IoT Sensors in Connected Vehicle Networks. 2022 IEEE 95th Vehicular Technology Conference: (VTC2022-Spring). :1—5.
Intelligent transportation systems, such as connected vehicles, are able to establish real-time, optimized and collision-free communication with the surrounding ecosystem. Introducing the internet of things (IoT) in connected vehicles relies on deployment of massive scale sensors, actuators, electronic control units (ECUs) and antennas with embedded software and communication technologies. Combined with the lack of designed-in security for sensors and ECUs, this creates challenges for security engineers and architects to identify, understand and analyze threats so that actions can be taken to protect the system assets. This paper proposes a novel STRIDE-based threat model for IoT sensors in connected vehicle networks aimed at addressing these challenges. Using a reference architecture of a connected vehicle, we identify system assets in connected vehicle sub-systems such as devices and peripherals that mostly involve sensors. Moreover, we provide a prioritized set of security recommendations, with consideration to the feasibility and deployment challenges, which enables practical applicability of the developed threat model to help specify security requirements to protect critical assets within the sensor network.
AlShiab, Ismael, Leivadeas, Aris, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2021.  Virtual Sensing Networks and Dynamic RPL-Based Routing for IoT Sensing Services. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
IoT applications are quickly evolving in scope and objectives while their focus is being shifted toward supporting dynamic users’ requirements. IoT users initiate applications and expect quick and reliable deployment without worrying about the underlying complexities of the required sensing and routing resources. On the other hand, IoT sensing nodes, sinks, and gateways are heterogeneous, have limited resources, and require significant cost and installation time. Sensing network-level virtualization through virtual Sensing Networks (VSNs) could play an important role in enabling the formation of virtual groups that link the needed IoT sensing and routing resources. These VSNs can be initiated on-demand with the goal to satisfy different IoT applications’ requirements. In this context, we present a joint algorithm for IoT Sensing Resource Allocation with Dynamic Resource-Based Routing (SRADRR). The SRADRR algorithm builds on the current distinguished empowerment of sensing networks using recent standards like RPL and 6LowPAN. The proposed algorithm suggests employing the RPL standard concepts to create DODAG routing trees that dynamically adapt according to the available sensing resources and the requirements of the running and arriving applications. Our results and implementation of the SRADRR reveal promising enhancements in the overall applications deployment rate.