Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Forte, D.  [Clear All Filters]
Ganji, F., Amir, S., Tajik, S., Forte, D., Seifert, J.-P..  2020.  Pitfalls in Machine Learning-based Adversary Modeling for Hardware Systems. 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :514—519.

The concept of the adversary model has been widely applied in the context of cryptography. When designing a cryptographic scheme or protocol, the adversary model plays a crucial role in the formalization of the capabilities and limitations of potential attackers. These models further enable the designer to verify the security of the scheme or protocol under investigation. Although being well established for conventional cryptanalysis attacks, adversary models associated with attackers enjoying the advantages of machine learning techniques have not yet been developed thoroughly. In particular, when it comes to composed hardware, often being security-critical, the lack of such models has become increasingly noticeable in the face of advanced, machine learning-enabled attacks. This paper aims at exploring the adversary models from the machine learning perspective. In this regard, we provide examples of machine learning-based attacks against hardware primitives, e.g., obfuscation schemes and hardware root-of-trust, claimed to be infeasible. We demonstrate that this assumption becomes however invalid as inaccurate adversary models have been considered in the literature.

Nahiyan, A., Sadi, M., Vittal, R., Contreras, G., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2017.  Hardware Trojan Detection through Information Flow Security Verification. 2017 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1–10.

Semiconductor design houses are increasingly becoming dependent on third party vendors to procure intellectual property (IP) and meet time-to-market constraints. However, these third party IPs cannot be trusted as hardware Trojans can be maliciously inserted into them by untrusted vendors. While different approaches have been proposed to detect Trojans in third party IPs, their limitations have not been extensively studied. In this paper, we analyze the limitations of the state-of-the-art Trojan detection techniques and demonstrate with experimental results how to defeat these detection mechanisms. We then propose a Trojan detection framework based on information flow security (IFS) verification. Our framework detects violation of IFS policies caused by Trojans without the need of white-box knowledge of the IP. We experimentally validate the efficacy of our proposed technique by accurately identifying Trojans in the trust-hub benchmarks. We also demonstrate that our technique does not share the limitations of the previously proposed Trojan detection techniques.

Contreras, G. K., Nahiyan, A., Bhunia, S., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2017.  Security vulnerability analysis of design-for-test exploits for asset protection in SoCs. 2017 22nd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). :617–622.

SoCs implementing security modules should be both testable and secure. Oversights in a design's test structure could expose internal modules creating security vulnerabilities during test. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a novel automated security vulnerability analysis framework to identify violations of confidentiality, integrity, and availability policies caused by test structures and designer oversights during SoC integration. Results demonstrate existing information leakage vulnerabilities in implementations of various encryption algorithms and secure microprocessors. These can be exploited to obtain secret keys, control finite state machines, or gain unauthorized access to memory read/write functions.

Xiao, K., Forte, D., Jin, Y., Karri, R., Bhunia, S., Tehranipoor, M..  2016.  Hardware Trojans: Lessons Learned After One Decade of Research. ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.. 22:6:1–6:23.

Given the increasing complexity of modern electronics and the cost of fabrication, entities from around the globe have become more heavily involved in all phases of the electronics supply chain. In this environment, hardware Trojans (i.e., malicious modifications or inclusions made by untrusted third parties) pose major security concerns, especially for those integrated circuits (ICs) and systems used in critical applications and cyber infrastructure. While hardware Trojans have been explored significantly in academia over the last decade, there remains room for improvement. In this article, we examine the research on hardware Trojans from the last decade and attempt to capture the lessons learned. A comprehensive adversarial model taxonomy is introduced and used to examine the current state of the art. Then the past countermeasures and publication trends are categorized based on the adversarial model and topic. Through this analysis, we identify what has been covered and the important problems that are underinvestigated. We also identify the most critical lessons for those new to the field and suggest a roadmap for future hardware Trojan research.

Xiao, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M. M..  2015.  Efficient and secure split manufacturing via obfuscated built-in self-authentication. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :14–19.

The threats of reverse-engineering, IP piracy, and hardware Trojan insertion in the semiconductor supply chain are greater today than ever before. Split manufacturing has emerged as a viable approach to protect integrated circuits (ICs) fabricated in untrusted foundries, but has high cost and/or high performance overhead. Furthermore, split manufacturing cannot fully prevent untargeted hardware Trojan insertions. In this paper, we propose to insert additional functional circuitry called obfuscated built-in self-authentication (OBISA) in the chip layout with split manufacturing process, in order to prevent reverse-engineering and further prevent hardware Trojan insertion. Self-tests are performed to authenticate the trustworthiness of the OBISA circuitry. The OBISA circuit is connected to original design in order to increase the strength of obfuscation, thereby allowing a higher layer split and lower overall cost. Additional fan-outs are created in OBISA circuitry to improve obfuscation without losing testability. Our proposed gating mechanism and net selection method can ensure negligible overhead in terms of area, timing, and dynamic power. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique in several benchmark circuits.

Yang, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2015.  An RFID-based technology for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and Traceability. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–6.

The vulnerabilities in today's supply chain have raised serious concerns about the security and trustworthiness of electronic components and systems. Testing for device provenance, detection of counterfeit integrated circuits/systems, and traceability are challenging issues to address. In this paper, we develop a novel RFID-based system suitable for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and System Traceability called CST. CST is composed of different types of on-chip sensors and in-system structures that provide the information needed to detect multiple counterfeit IC types (recycled, cloned, etc.), verify the authenticity of the system with some degree of confidence, and track/identify boards. Central to CST is an RFID tag employed as storage and a channel to read the information from different types of chips on the printed circuit board (PCB) in both power-off and power-on scenarios. Simulations and experimental results using Spartan 3E FPGAs demonstrate the effectiveness of this system. The efficiency of the radio frequency (RF) communication has also been verified via a PCB prototype with a printed slot antenna.

Yang, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M. M..  2015.  Protecting endpoint devices in IoT supply chain. 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :351–356.

The Internet of Things (IoT), an emerging global network of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure, is transforming how we live and work by increasing the connectedness of people and things on a scale that was once unimaginable. In addition to increased communication efficiency between connected objects, the IoT also brings new security and privacy challenges. Comprehensive measures that enable IoT device authentication and secure access control need to be established. Existing hardware, software, and network protection methods, however, are designed against fraction of real security issues and lack the capability to trace the provenance and history information of IoT devices. To mitigate this shortcoming, we propose an RFID-enabled solution that aims at protecting endpoint devices in IoT supply chain. We take advantage of the connection between RFID tag and control chip in an IoT device to enable data transfer from tag memory to centralized database for authentication once deployed. Finally, we evaluate the security of our proposed scheme against various attacks.

Tehranipoor, M., Forte, D..  2014.  Tutorial T4: All You Need to Know about Hardware Trojans and Counterfeit ICs. VLSI Design and 2014 13th International Conference on Embedded Systems, 2014 27th International Conference on. :9-10.

The migration from a vertical to horizontal business model has made it easier to introduce hardware Trojans and counterfeit electronic parts into the electronic component supply chain. Hardware Trojans are malicious modifications made to original IC designs that reduce system integrity (change functionality, leak private data, etc.). Counterfeit parts are often below specification and/or of substandard quality. The existence of Trojans and counterfeit parts creates risks for the life-critical systems and infrastructures that incorporate them including automotive, aerospace, military, and medical systems. In this tutorial, we will cover: (i) Background and motivation for hardware Trojan and counterfeit prevention/detection; (ii) Taxonomies related to both topics; (iii) Existing solutions; (iv) Open challenges; (v) New and unified solutions to address these challenges.

Chongxi Bao, Forte, D., Srivastava, A..  2014.  On application of one-class SVM to reverse engineering-based hardware Trojan detection. Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), 2014 15th International Symposium on. :47-54.

Due to design and fabrication outsourcing to foundries, the problem of malicious modifications to integrated circuits known as hardware Trojans has attracted attention in academia as well as industry. To reduce the risks associated with Trojans, researchers have proposed different approaches to detect them. Among these approaches, test-time detection approaches have drawn the greatest attention and most approaches assume the existence of a “golden model”. Prior works suggest using reverse-engineering to identify such Trojan-free ICs for the golden model but they did not state how to do this efficiently. In this paper, we propose an innovative and robust reverseengineering approach to identify the Trojan-free ICs. We adapt a well-studied machine learning method, one-class support vector machine, to solve our problem. Simulation results using state-of-the-art tools on several publicly available circuits show that our approach can detect hardware Trojans with high accuracy rate across different modeling and algorithm parameters.