Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Govindarasu, Manimaran  [Clear All Filters]
2021-09-16
Singh, Vivek Kumar, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  A Novel Architecture for Attack-Resilient Wide-Area Protection and Control System in Smart Grid. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :41–47.
Wide-area protection and control (WAPAC) systems are widely applied in the energy management system (EMS) that rely on a wide-area communication network to maintain system stability, security, and reliability. As technology and grid infrastructure evolve to develop more advanced WAPAC applications, however, so do the attack surfaces in the grid infrastructure. This paper presents an attack-resilient system (ARS) for the WAPAC cybersecurity by seamlessly integrating the network intrusion detection system (NIDS) with intrusion mitigation and prevention system (IMPS). In particular, the proposed NIDS utilizes signature and behavior-based rules to detect attack reconnaissance, communication failure, and data integrity attacks. Further, the proposed IMPS applies state transition-based mitigation and prevention strategies to quickly restore the normal grid operation after cyberattacks. As a proof of concept, we validate the proposed generic architecture of ARS by performing experimental case study for wide-area protection scheme (WAPS), one of the critical WAPAC applications, and evaluate the proposed NIDS and IMPS components of ARS in a cyber-physical testbed environment. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting and mitigating different classes of cyberattacks while supporting an alert visualization dashboard to provide an accurate situational awareness in real-time.
2021-05-25
Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  Next-Generation CPS Testbed-based Grid Exercise - Synthetic Grid, Attack, and Defense Modeling. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :92—98.
Quasi-Realistic cyber-physical system (QR-CPS) testbed architecture and operational environment are critical for testing and validating various cyber attack-defense algorithms for the wide-area resilient power systems. These QR-CPS testbed environments provide a realistic platform for conducting the Grid Exercise (GridEx), CPS security training, and attack-defense exercise at a broader scale for the cybersecurity of Energy Delivery Systems. The NERC has established a tabletop based GridEx platform for the North American power utilities to demonstrate how they would respond to and recover from cyber threats and incidents. The NERC-GridEx is a bi-annual activity with tabletop attack injects and incidence response management. There is a significant need to build a testbed-based hands-on GridEx for the utilities by leveraging the CPS testbeds, which imitates the pragmatic CPS grid environment. We propose a CPS testbed-based Quasi-Realistic Grid Exercise (QR-GridEx), which is a model after the NERC's tabletop GridEx. We have designed the CPS testbed-based QR-GridEx into two parts. Part-I focuses on the modeling of synthetic grid models for the utilities, including SCADA and WAMS communications, and attack-and-defense software systems; and the Part-II focuses on the incident response management and risk-based CPS grid investment strategies. This paper presents the Part-I of the CPS testbed-based QRGridEx, which includes modeling of the synthetic grid models in the real-time digital simulator, stealthy, and coordinated cyberattack vectors, and integration of intrusion/anomaly detection systems. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate the testbed-based QR-GridEx for a Texas-2000 bus US synthetic grid model and the IEEE-39 bus grid models. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% real-time performance with zero overruns for grid impact characteristics against stealthy and coordinated cyberattack vectors.
Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  Efficient Modeling of IEC-61850 Logical Nodes in IEDs for Scalability in CPS Security Testbed. 2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.

Though the deep penetration of cyber systems across the smart grid sub-domains enrich the operation of the wide-area protection, control, and smart grid applications, the stochastic nature of cyber-attacks by adversaries inflict their performance and the system operation. Various hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted to evaluate the cyberattack dynamics and power system perturbations for robust wide-area protection algorithms. However, physical resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and have limited many of the CPS testbeds to either small-scale HIL environment or complete simulation environments. This paper proposes a meticulous design and efficient modeling of IEC-61850 logical nodes in physical relays to simulate large-scale grid models in a HIL real-time digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems for wide-area power system applications. The proposed meticulous design includes multi-breaker emulation in the physical relays, which extends the capacity of a physical relay to accommodate more number of CPS interfaces in the HIL CPS security testbed environment. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the real-time performance of ten simultaneous IEEE-39 CPS grid models. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% real-time performance with zero overruns, and low latency while receiving and executing control signals from physical SEL relays via IEC-61850 and DNP-3 protocols to real-time digital simulator, substation remote terminal unit (RTU) software and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software at control center.

2020-10-06
Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2019.  Efficient Modeling of HIL Multi-Grid System for Scalability Concurrency in CPS Security Testbed. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Cyber-event-triggered power grid blackout compels utility operators to intensify cyber-aware and physics-constrained recovery and restoration process. Recently, coordinated cyber attacks on the Ukrainian grid witnessed such a cyber-event-triggered power system blackout. Various cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted with multitude designs to analyze such interdependent events and evaluate remedy measures. However, resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and multi-grid isolated models (concurrency) under a single real-time execution environment for the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS security testbeds. This paper proposes a meticulous design and effective modeling for simulating large-scale grid models and multi-grid isolated models in a HIL realtime digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the realtime performance of a Texas-2000 bus US synthetic grid model and concurrency by the real-time performance of simultaneous ten IEEE-39 bus grid models and an IEEE-118 bus grid model. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% realtime performance with zero overruns, low latency while receiving and executing control signals from SEL Relays via IEC-61850 protocol and low latency while computing and transmitting grid data streams including stability measures via IEEE C37.118 synchrophasor data protocol to SEL Phasor Data Concentrators.
2020-07-16
Singh, Vivek Kumar, Govindarasu, Manimaran, Porschet, Donald, Shaffer, Edward, Berman, Morris.  2019.  Distributed Power System Simulation using Cyber-Physical Testbed Federation: Architecture, Modeling, and Evaluation. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:26—32.

Development of an attack-resilient smart grid depends heavily on the availability of a representative environment, such as a Cyber Physical Security (CPS) testbed, to accelerate the transition of state-of-the-art research work to industry deployment by experimental testing and validation. There is an ongoing initiative to develop an interconnected federated testbed to build advanced computing systems and integrated data sharing networks. In this paper, we present a distributed simulation for power system using federated testbed in the context of Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) cyber-physical security. In particular, we have applied the transmission line modeling (TLM) technique to split a first order two-bus system into two subsystems: source and load subsystems, which are running in geographically dispersed simulators, while exchanging system variables over the internet. We have leveraged the resources available at Iowa State University's Power Cyber Laboratory (ISU PCL) and the US Army Research Laboratory (US ARL) to perform the distributed simulation, emulate substation and control center networks, and further implement a data integrity attack and physical disturbances targeting WAMS application. Our experimental results reveal the computed wide-area network latency; and model validation errors. Further, we also discuss the high-level conceptual architecture, inspired by NASPInet, necessary for developing the CPS testbed federation.