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Hynes, E., Flynn, R., Lee, B., Murray, N..  2020.  An Evaluation of Lower Facial Micro Expressions as an Implicit QoE Metric for an Augmented Reality Procedure Assistance Application. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
Augmented reality (AR) has been identified as a key technology to enhance worker utility in the context of increasing automation of repeatable procedures. AR can achieve this by assisting the user in performing complex and frequently changing procedures. Crucial to the success of procedure assistance AR applications is user acceptability, which can be measured by user quality of experience (QoE). An active research topic in QoE is the identification of implicit metrics that can be used to continuously infer user QoE during a multimedia experience. A user's QoE is linked to their affective state. Affective state is reflected in facial expressions. Emotions shown in micro facial expressions resemble those expressed in normal expressions but are distinguished from them by their brief duration. The novelty of this work lies in the evaluation of micro facial expressions as a continuous QoE metric by means of correlation analysis to the more traditional and accepted post-experience self-reporting. In this work, an optimal Rubik's Cube solver AR application was used as a proof of concept for complex procedure assistance. This was compared with a paper-based procedure assistance control. QoE expressed by affect in normal and micro facial expressions was evaluated through correlation analysis with post-experience reports. The results show that the AR application yielded higher task success rates and shorter task durations. Micro facial expressions reflecting disgust correlated moderately to the questionnaire responses for instruction disinterest in the AR application.