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Conference Paper
Wang, B., Dou, Y., Sang, Y., Zhang, Y., Huang, J..  2020.  IoTCMal: Towards A Hybrid IoT Honeypot for Capturing and Analyzing Malware. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—7.

Nowadays, the emerging Internet-of-Things (IoT) emphasize the need for the security of network-connected devices. Additionally, there are two types of services in IoT devices that are easily exploited by attackers, weak authentication services (e.g., SSH/Telnet) and exploited services using command injection. Based on this observation, we propose IoTCMal, a hybrid IoT honeypot framework for capturing more comprehensive malicious samples aiming at IoT devices. The key novelty of IoTC-MAL is three-fold: (i) it provides a high-interactive component with common vulnerable service in real IoT device by utilizing traffic forwarding technique; (ii) it also contains a low-interactive component with Telnet/SSH service by running in virtual environment. (iii) Distinct from traditional low-interactive IoT honeypots[1], which only analyze family categories of malicious samples, IoTCMal primarily focuses on homology analysis of malicious samples. We deployed IoTCMal on 36 VPS1 instances distributed in 13 cities of 6 countries. By analyzing the malware binaries captured from IoTCMal, we discover 8 malware families controlled by at least 11 groups of attackers, which mainly launched DDoS attacks and digital currency mining. Among them, about 60% of the captured malicious samples ran in ARM or MIPs architectures, which are widely used in IoT devices.