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A
Krishnan, Sanjay, Franklin, Michael J., Goldberg, Ken, Wang, Jiannan, Wu, Eugene.  2016.  ActiveClean: An Interactive Data Cleaning Framework For Modern Machine Learning. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. :2117–2120.

Databases can be corrupted with various errors such as missing, incorrect, or inconsistent values. Increasingly, modern data analysis pipelines involve Machine Learning, and the effects of dirty data can be difficult to debug.Dirty data is often sparse, and naive sampling solutions are not suited for high-dimensional models. We propose ActiveClean, a progressive framework for training Machine Learning models with data cleaning. Our framework updates a model iteratively as the analyst cleans small batches of data, and includes numerous optimizations such as importance weighting and dirty data detection. We designed a visual interface to wrap around this framework and demonstrate ActiveClean for a video classification problem and a topic modeling problem.

D
Chu, Xu, Ilyas, Ihab F., Krishnan, Sanjay, Wang, Jiannan.  2016.  Data Cleaning: Overview and Emerging Challenges. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. :2201–2206.

Detecting and repairing dirty data is one of the perennial challenges in data analytics, and failure to do so can result in inaccurate analytics and unreliable decisions. Over the past few years, there has been a surge of interest from both industry and academia on data cleaning problems including new abstractions, interfaces, approaches for scalability, and statistical techniques. To better understand the new advances in the field, we will first present a taxonomy of the data cleaning literature in which we highlight the recent interest in techniques that use constraints, rules, or patterns to detect errors, which we call qualitative data cleaning. We will describe the state-of-the-art techniques and also highlight their limitations with a series of illustrative examples. While traditionally such approaches are distinct from quantitative approaches such as outlier detection, we also discuss recent work that casts such approaches into a statistical estimation framework including: using Machine Learning to improve the efficiency and accuracy of data cleaning and considering the effects of data cleaning on statistical analysis.

P
Krishnan, Sanjay, Wang, Jiannan, Franklin, Michael J., Goldberg, Ken, Kraska, Tim.  2016.  PrivateClean: Data Cleaning and Differential Privacy. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. :937–951.

Recent advances in differential privacy make it possible to guarantee user privacy while preserving the main characteristics of the data. However, most differential privacy mechanisms assume that the underlying dataset is clean. This paper explores the link between data cleaning and differential privacy in a framework we call PrivateClean. PrivateClean includes a technique for creating private datasets of numerical and discrete-valued attributes, a formalism for privacy-preserving data cleaning, and techniques for answering sum, count, and avg queries after cleaning. We show: (1) how the degree of privacy affects subsequent aggregate query accuracy, (2) how privacy potentially amplifies certain types of errors in a dataset, and (3) how this analysis can be used to tune the degree of privacy. The key insight is to maintain a bipartite graph relating dirty values to clean values and use this graph to estimate biases due to the interaction between cleaning and privacy. We validate these results on four datasets with a variety of well-studied cleaning techniques including using functional dependencies, outlier filtering, and resolving inconsistent attributes.

Krishnan, Sanjay, Wang, Jiannan, Franklin, Michael J., Goldberg, Ken, Kraska, Tim.  2016.  PrivateClean: Data Cleaning and Differential Privacy. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data. :937–951.

Recent advances in differential privacy make it possible to guarantee user privacy while preserving the main characteristics of the data. However, most differential privacy mechanisms assume that the underlying dataset is clean. This paper explores the link between data cleaning and differential privacy in a framework we call PrivateClean. PrivateClean includes a technique for creating private datasets of numerical and discrete-valued attributes, a formalism for privacy-preserving data cleaning, and techniques for answering sum, count, and avg queries after cleaning. We show: (1) how the degree of privacy affects subsequent aggregate query accuracy, (2) how privacy potentially amplifies certain types of errors in a dataset, and (3) how this analysis can be used to tune the degree of privacy. The key insight is to maintain a bipartite graph relating dirty values to clean values and use this graph to estimate biases due to the interaction between cleaning and privacy. We validate these results on four datasets with a variety of well-studied cleaning techniques including using functional dependencies, outlier filtering, and resolving inconsistent attributes.

T
Krishnan, Sanjay, Haas, Daniel, Franklin, Michael J., Wu, Eugene.  2016.  Towards Reliable Interactive Data Cleaning: A User Survey and Recommendations. Proceedings of the Workshop on Human-In-the-Loop Data Analytics. :9:1–9:5.

Data cleaning is frequently an iterative process tailored to the requirements of a specific analysis task. The design and implementation of iterative data cleaning tools presents novel challenges, both technical and organizational, to the community. In this paper, we present results from a user survey (N = 29) of data analysts and infrastructure engineers from industry and academia. We highlight three important themes: (1) the iterative nature of data cleaning, (2) the lack of rigor in evaluating the correctness of data cleaning, and (3) the disconnect between the analysts who query the data and the infrastructure engineers who design the cleaning pipelines. We conclude by presenting a number of recommendations for future work in which we envision an interactive data cleaning system that accounts for the observed challenges.