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Wang, Z., Hu, H., Zhang, C..  2017.  On achieving SDN controller diversity for improved network security using coloring algorithm. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1270–1275.

The SDN (Software Defined Networking) paradigm rings flexibility to the network management and is an enabler to offer huge opportunities for network programmability. And, to solve the scalability issue raised by the centralized architecture of SDN, multi-controllers deployment (or distributed controllers system) is envisioned. In this paper, we focus on increasing the diversity of SDN control plane so as to enhance the network security. Our goal is to limit the ability of a malicious controller to compromise its neighboring controllers, and by extension, the rest of the controllers. We investigate a heterogeneous Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model to evaluate the security performance and propose a coloring algorithm to increase the diversity based on community detection. And the simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm can reduce infection rate in control plane and our work shows that diversity must be introduced in network design for network security.

Han, K., Li, S., Wang, Z., Yang, X..  2018.  Actuator deception attack detection and estimation for a class of nonlinear systems. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :5675–5680.
In this paper, an novel active safety monitoring system is constructed for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems. The considered nonlinear system is subjected to unknown inputs, external disturbances, and possible unknown deception attacks, simultaneously. In order to secure the safety of control systems, an active attack estimator composed of state/output estimator, attack detector and attack/attacker action estimator is constructed to monitor the system running status. The analysis and synthesis of attack estimator is performed in the H∞performance optimization manner. The off-line calculation and on-line application of active attack estimator are summarized simultaneously. The effectiveness of the proposed results is finally verified by an numerical example.
Wang, Z., Wang, Y., Dong, B., Pracheta, S., Hamlen, K., Khan, L..  2020.  Adaptive Margin Based Deep Adversarial Metric Learning. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :100—108.

In the past decades, learning an effective distance metric between pairs of instances has played an important role in the classification and retrieval task, for example, the person identification or malware retrieval in the IoT service. The core motivation of recent efforts focus on improving the metric forms, and already showed promising results on the various applications. However, such models often fail to produce a reliable metric on the ambiguous test set. It happens mainly due to the sampling process of the training set, which is not representative of the distribution of the negative samples, especially the examples that are closer to the boundary of different categories (also called hard negative samples). In this paper, we focus on addressing such problems and propose an adaptive margin deep adversarial metric learning (AMDAML) framework. It exploits numerous common negative samples to generate potential hard (adversarial) negatives and applies them to facilitate robust metric learning. Apart from the previous approaches that typically depend on the search or data augmentation to find hard negative samples, the generation of adversarial negative instances could avoid the limitation of domain knowledge and constraint pairs' amount. Specifically, in order to prevent over fitting or underfitting during the training step, we propose an adaptive margin loss that preserves a flexible margin between the negative (include the adversarial and original) and positive samples. We simultaneously train both the adversarial negative generator and conventional metric objective in an adversarial manner and learn the feature representations that are more precise and robust. The experimental results on practical data sets clearly demonstrate the superiority of AMDAML to representative state-of-the-art metric learning models.

Feng, Y., Sun, G., Liu, Z., Wu, C., Zhu, X., Wang, Z., Wang, B..  2020.  Attack Graph Generation and Visualization for Industrial Control Network. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7655–7660.
Attack graph is an effective way to analyze the vulnerabilities for industrial control networks. We develop a vulnerability correlation method and a practical visualization technology for industrial control network. First of all, we give a complete attack graph analysis for industrial control network, which focuses on network model and vulnerability context. Particularly, a practical attack graph algorithm is proposed, including preparing environments and vulnerability classification and correlation. Finally, we implement a three-dimensional interactive attack graph visualization tool. The experimental results show validation and verification of the proposed method.
Shi, T., Shi, W., Wang, C., Wang, Z..  2018.  Compressed Sensing based Intrusion Detection System for Hybrid Wireless Mesh Networks. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :11–15.
As wireless mesh networks (WMNs) develop rapidly, security issue becomes increasingly important. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the crucial ways to detect attacks. However, IDS in wireless networks including WMNs brings high detection overhead, which degrades network performance. In this paper, we apply compressed sensing (CS) theory to IDS and propose a CS based IDS for hybrid WMNs. Since CS can reconstruct a sparse signal with compressive sampling, we process the detected data and construct sparse original signals. Through reconstruction algorithm, the compressive sampled data can be reconstructed and used for detecting intrusions, which reduces the detection overhead. We also propose Active State Metric (ASM) as an attack metric for recognizing attacks, which measures the activity in PHY layer and energy consumption of each node. Through intensive simulations, the results show that under 50% attack density, our proposed IDS can ensure 95% detection rate while reducing about 40% detection overhead on average.
Liu, J., Tong, X., Zhang, M., Wang, Z..  2020.  The Design of S-box Based on Combined Chaotic Map. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :350–353.
The strength of the substitution box (S-box) determines the security of the cryptographic algorithm because it's the only nonlinear component in the block cipher. Because of the disadvantages of non-uniformity sequence and limited range in the one-dimension (1D) chaotic map, this paper constructs the logistic map and the sine map into a combined chaotic map, and a new S-box construction method based on this combined chaotic map is presented. Performance tests were performed on the S-box, including nonlinearity, linear probability, differential probability, strict avalanche criterion, bits independence criterion. Compared with others S-box, this result indicates that the S-box has more excellent cryptographic performance and can be used as a nonlinear component in the lightweight block cipher algorithm.
Guo, H., Wang, Z., Wang, B., Li, X., Shila, D. M..  2020.  Fooling A Deep-Learning Based Gait Behavioral Biometric System. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :221—227.

We leverage deep learning algorithms on various user behavioral information gathered from end-user devices to classify a subject of interest. In spite of the ability of these techniques to counter spoofing threats, they are vulnerable to adversarial learning attacks, where an attacker adds adversarial noise to the input samples to fool the classifier into false acceptance. Recently, a handful of mature techniques like Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM) have been proposed to aid white-box attacks, where an attacker has a complete knowledge of the machine learning model. On the contrary, we exploit a black-box attack to a behavioral biometric system based on gait patterns, by using FGSM and training a shadow model that mimics the target system. The attacker has limited knowledge on the target model and no knowledge of the real user being authenticated, but induces a false acceptance in authentication. Our goal is to understand the feasibility of a black-box attack and to what extent FGSM on shadow models would contribute to its success. Our results manifest that the performance of FGSM highly depends on the quality of the shadow model, which is in turn impacted by key factors including the number of queries allowed by the target system in order to train the shadow model. Our experimentation results have revealed strong relationships between the shadow model and FGSM performance, as well as the effect of the number of FGSM iterations used to create an attack instance. These insights also shed light on deep-learning algorithms' model shareability that can be exploited to launch a successful attack.

Chen, Z., Jia, Z., Wang, Z., Jafar, S. A..  2020.  GCSA Codes with Noise Alignment for Secure Coded Multi-Party Batch Matrix Multiplication. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :227—232.

A secure multi-party batch matrix multiplication problem (SMBMM) is considered, where the goal is to allow a master to efficiently compute the pairwise products of two batches of massive matrices, by distributing the computation across S servers. Any X colluding servers gain no information about the input, and the master gains no additional information about the input beyond the product. A solution called Generalized Cross Subspace Alignment codes with Noise Alignment (GCSA- NA) is proposed in this work, based on cross-subspace alignment codes. The state of art solution to SMBMM is a coding scheme called polynomial sharing (PS) that was proposed by Nodehi and Maddah-Ali. GCSA-NA outperforms PS codes in several key aspects - more efficient and secure inter-server communication, lower latency, flexible inter-server network topology, efficient batch processing, and tolerance to stragglers.

Liu, Y., Yuan, X., Li, M., Zhang, W., Zhao, Q., Zhong, J., Cao, Y., Li, Y., Chen, L., Li, H. et al..  2018.  High Speed Device-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation without Detection Loophole. 2018 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.

We report a an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb × 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than 10-5.

Chang, B., Zhang, F., Chen, B., Li, Y., Zhu, W., Tian, Y., Wang, Z., Ching, A..  2018.  MobiCeal: Towards Secure and Practical Plausibly Deniable Encryption on Mobile Devices. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :454–465.

We introduce MobiCeal, the first practical Plausibly Deniable Encryption (PDE) system for mobile devices that can defend against strong coercive multi-snapshot adversaries, who may examine the storage medium of a user's mobile device at different points of time and force the user to decrypt data. MobiCeal relies on "dummy write" to obfuscate the differences between multiple snapshots of storage medium due to existence of hidden data. By incorporating PDE in block layer, MobiCeal supports a broad deployment of any block-based file systems on mobile devices. More importantly, MobiCeal is secure against side channel attacks which pose a serious threat to existing PDE schemes. A proof of concept implementation of MobiCeal is provided on an LG Nexus 4 Android phone using Android 4.2.2. It is shown that the performance of MobiCeal is significantly better than prior PDE systems against multi-snapshot adversaries.

Xie, J., Chen, Y., Wang, L., Wang, Z..  2020.  A Network Covert Timing Channel Detection Method Based on Chaos Theory and Threshold Secret Sharing. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:2380—2384.

Network covert timing channel(NCTC) is a process of transmitting hidden information by means of inter-packet delay (IPD) of legitimate network traffic. Their ability to evade traditional security policies makes NCTCs a grave security concern. However, a robust method that can be used to detect a large number of NCTCs is missing. In this paper, a NCTC detection method based on chaos theory and threshold secret sharing is proposed. Our method uses chaos theory to reconstruct a high-dimensional phase space from one-dimensional time series and extract the unique and stable channel traits. Then, a channel identifier is constructed using the secret reconstruction strategy from threshold secret sharing to realize the mapping of the channel features to channel identifiers. Experimental results show that the approach can detect varieties of NCTCs with a guaranteed true positive rate and greatly improve the versatility and robustness.

Ma, X., Sun, X., Cheng, L., Guo, X., Liu, X., Wang, Z..  2019.  Parameter Setting of New Energy Sources Generator Rapid Frequency Response in Northwest Power Grid Based on Multi-Frequency Regulation Resources Coordinated Controlling. 2019 IEEE 8th International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (APAP). :218—222.
Since 2016, the northwest power grid has organized new energy sources to participate in the rapid frequency regulation research and carried out pilot test work at the sending end large power grid. The experimental results show that new energy generator has the ability to participate in the grid's rapid frequency regulation, and its performance is better than that of conventional power supply units. This paper analyses the requirements for fast frequency control of the sending end large power grid in northwest China, and proposes the segmented participation indexes of photovoltaic and wind power in the frequency regulation of power grids. In accordance with the idea of "clear responsibilities, various types of unit coordination", the parameter setting of new energy sources rapid frequency regulation is completed based on the coordinated control based on multi-frequency regulation resources in northwest power grid. The new energy fast frequency regulation model was established, through the PSASP power grid stability simulation program and the large-scale power grid stability simulation analysis was completed. The simulation results show that the wind power and photovoltaic adopting differential rapid frequency regulation parameters can better utilize the rapid frequency regulation capability of various types of power sources, realize the coordinated rapid frequency regulation of all types of units, and effectively improve the frequency security prevention and control level of the sending end large power grid.
Zheng, T., Liu, H., Wang, Z., Yang, Q., Wang, H..  2020.  Physical-Layer Security with Finite Blocklength over Slow Fading Channels. 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :314–319.
This paper studies physical-layer security over slow fading channels, considering the impact of finite-blocklength secrecy coding. A comprehensive analysis and optimization framework is established to investigate the secrecy throughput (ST) of a legitimate user pair coexisting with an eavesdropper. Specifically, we devise both adaptive and non-adaptive optimization schemes to maximize the ST, where we derive optimal parameters including the transmission policy, blocklength, and code rates based on the instantaneous and statistical channel state information of the legitimate pair, respectively. Various important insights are provided. In particular, 1) increasing blocklength improves both reliability and secrecy with our transmission policy; 2) ST monotonically increases with blocklength; 3) ST initially increases and then decreases with secrecy rate, and there exists a critical secrecy rate that maximizes the ST. Numerical results are presented to verify theoretical findings.
Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Xie, Z., Zhao, N., Chen, J., Zhang, W., Sui, K., Pei, D..  2020.  Practical and White-Box Anomaly Detection through Unsupervised and Active Learning. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—9.

To ensure quality of service and user experience, large Internet companies often monitor various Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of their systems so that they can detect anomalies and identify failure in real time. However, due to a large number of various KPIs and the lack of high-quality labels, existing KPI anomaly detection approaches either perform well only on certain types of KPIs or consume excessive resources. Therefore, to realize generic and practical KPI anomaly detection in the real world, we propose a KPI anomaly detection framework named iRRCF-Active, which contains an unsupervised and white-box anomaly detector based on Robust Random Cut Forest (RRCF), and an active learning component. Specifically, we novelly propose an improved RRCF (iRRCF) algorithm to overcome the drawbacks of applying original RRCF in KPI anomaly detection. Besides, we also incorporate the idea of active learning to make our model benefit from high-quality labels given by experienced operators. We conduct extensive experiments on a large-scale public dataset and a private dataset collected from a large commercial bank. The experimental resulta demonstrate that iRRCF-Active performs better than existing traditional statistical methods, unsupervised learning methods and supervised learning methods. Besides, each component in iRRCF-Active has also been demonstrated to be effective and indispensable.

Zhang, J., Tang, Z., Li, R., Chen, X., Gong, X., Fang, D., Wang, Z..  2017.  Protect Sensitive Information against Channel State Information Based Attacks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). 2:203–210.

Channel state information (CSI) has been recently shown to be useful in performing security attacks in public WiFi environments. By analyzing how CSI is affected by the finger motions, CSI-based attacks can effectively reconstruct text-based passwords and locking patterns. This paper presents WiGuard, a novel system to protect sensitive on-screen gestures in a public place. Our approach carefully exploits the WiFi channel interference to introduce noise into the attacker's CSI measurement to reduce the success rate of the attack. Our approach automatically detects when a CSI-based attack happens. We evaluate our approach by applying it to protect text-based passwords and pattern locks on mobile devices. Experimental results show that our approach is able to reduce the success rate of CSI attacks from 92% to 42% for text-based passwords and from 82% to 22% for pattern lock.

Zimba, A., Wang, Z., Chen, H..  2017.  Reasoning Crypto Ransomware Infection Vectors with Bayesian Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :149–151.

Ransomware techniques have evolved over time with the most resilient attacks making data recovery practically impossible. This has driven countermeasures to shift towards recovery against prevention but in this paper, we model ransomware attacks from an infection vector point of view. We follow the basic infection chain of crypto ransomware and use Bayesian network statistics to infer some of the most common ransomware infection vectors. We also employ the use of attack and sensor nodes to capture uncertainty in the Bayesian network.

Yu, Z., Du, H., Xiao, D., Wang, Z., Han, Q., Guo, B..  2018.  Recognition of Human Computer Operations Based on Keystroke Sensing by Smartphone Microphone. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 5:1156–1168.

Human computer operations such as writing documents and playing games have become popular in our daily lives. These activities (especially if identified in a non-intrusive manner) can be used to facilitate context-aware services. In this paper, we propose to recognize human computer operations through keystroke sensing with a smartphone. Specifically, we first utilize the microphone embedded in a smartphone to sense the input audio from a computer keyboard. We then identify keystrokes using fingerprint identification techniques. The determined keystrokes are then corrected with a word recognition procedure, which utilizes the relations of adjacent letters in a word. Finally, by fusing both semantic and acoustic features, a classification model is constructed to recognize four typical human computer operations: 1) chatting; 2) coding; 3) writing documents; and 4) playing games. We recruited 15 volunteers to complete these operations, and evaluated the proposed approach from multiple aspects in realistic environments. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our approach.

Wang, Z., Chen, L..  2020.  Re-encrypted Data Access Control Scheme Based on Blockchain. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1757–1764.
Nowadays, massive amounts of data are stored in the cloud, how to access control the cloud data has become a prerequisite for protecting the security of cloud data. In order to address the problems of centralized control and privacy protection in current access control, we propose an access control scheme based on the blockchain and re-encryption technology, namely PERBAC-BC scheme. The access control policy is managed by the decentralized and immutability characteristics of blockchain, while the re-encryption is protected by the trusted computing characteristic of blockchain and the privacy is protected by the identity re-encryption technology. The overall structure diagram and detailed execution flow of the scheme are given in this paper. Experimental results show that, compared with the traditional hybrid encryption scheme, the time and space consumption is less when the system is expanded. Then, the time and space performance of each part of the scheme is simulated, and the security of blockchain is proved. The results also show that the time and space performance of the scheme are better and the security is stronger, which has certain stability and expandability.
Zhang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, S..  2020.  Research and Implementation on an Efficient Public Key Encryption Algorithm with Keyword Search Scheme. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :314–319.
With the rapid development of network storage service, a number of companies and individuals have stored data on a third-party server. Encryption is an effective means of protecting the confidentiality and privacy of data, but retrieval on the encrypted data is a very difficult task. Thus, searchable encryption has become a hot topic in recent years. The paper first introduces the existing searchable encryption algorithms. Then studies the new PEKS scheme (NPEKS) and analyzes its performance and efficiency. In the end, based on NPEKS, introduced attribute encryption, designed a scheme which is suitable for corporate cloud storage environment. This scheme not only has the advantages of simplicity and efficiency, but also can realize the secret retrieval of the third-party data. Experiments show that comparing with existing PEKS schemes and other improved schemes, this scheme has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, its security is the same as existing PEKS schemes.
Cao, B., Wang, Z., Shi, H., Yin, Y..  2015.  Research and practice on Aluminum Industry 4.0. 2015 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP). :517–521.

This paper presents a six-layer Aluminum Industry 4.0 architecture for the aluminum production and full lifecycle supply chain management. It integrates a series of innovative technologies, including the IoT sensing physical system, industrial cloud platform for data management, model-driven and big data driven analysis & decision making, standardization & securitization intelligent control and management, as well as visual monitoring and backtracking process etc. The main relevant control models are studied. The applications of real-time accurate perception & intelligent decision technology in the aluminum electrolytic industry are introduced.

Nan, L., Zeng, X., Wang, Z., Du, Y., Li, W..  2017.  Research of a reconfigurable coarse-grained cryptographic processing unit based on different operation similar structure. 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on ASIC (ASICON). :191–194.

This paper proposed a feedback shift register structure which can be split, it is based on a research of operating characteristics about 70 kinds of cryptographic algorithms and the research shows that the “different operations similar structure” reconfigurable design is feasible. Under the configuration information, the proposed structure can implement the multiplication in finite field GF(2n), the multiply/divide linear feedback shift register and other operations. Finally, this paper did a logic synthesis based on 55nm CMOS standard-cell library and the results show that the proposed structure gets a hardware resource saving of nearly 32%, the average power consumption saving of nearly 55% without the critical delay increasing significantly. Therefore, the “different operations similar structure” reconfigurable design is a new design method and the proposed feedback shift register structure can be an important processing unit for coarse-grained reconfigurable cryptologic array.

Yuan, Y., Huo, L., Wang, Z., Hogrefe, D..  2018.  Secure APIT Localization Scheme Against Sybil Attacks in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Access. 6:27629–27636.
For location-aware applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), it is important to ensure that sensor nodes can get correct locations in a hostile WSNs. Sybil attacks, which are vital threats in WSNs, especially in the distributed WSNs. They can forge one or multiple identities to decrease the localization accuracy, or sometimes to collapse the whole localization systems. In this paper, a novel lightweight sybilfree (SF)-APIT algorithm is presented to solve the problem of sybil attacks in APIT localization scheme, which is a popular range-free method and performs at individual node in a purely distributed fashion. The proposed SF-APIT scheme requires minimal overhead for wireless devices and works well based on the received signal strength. Simulations demonstrate that SF-APIT is an effective scheme in detecting and defending against sybil attacks with a high detection rate in distributed wireless localization schemes.
Xin, Wei, Wang, M., Shao, Shuai, Wang, Z., Zhang, Tao.  2015.  A variant of schnorr signature scheme for path-checking in RFID-based supply chains. 2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD). :2608–2613.

The RFID technology has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and brings convenience to supply chain management. In this paper, we concentrate on designing path-checking protocols to check the valid paths in supply chains. By entering a valid path, the check reader can distinguish whether the tags have gone through the path or not. Based on modified schnorr signature scheme, we provide a path-checking method to achieve multi-signatures and final verification. In the end, we conduct security and privacy analysis to the scheme.