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Zhao, Zengzhen, Guan, Qingxiao, Zhao, Xianfeng.  2016.  Constructing Near-optimal Double-layered Syndrome-Trellis Codes for Spatial Steganography. Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security. :139–148.

In this paper, we present a new kind of near-optimal double-layered syndrome-trellis codes (STCs) for spatial domain steganography. The STCs can hide longer message or improve the security with the same-length message comparing to the previous double-layered STCs. In our scheme, according to the theoretical deduction we can more precisely divide the secret payload into two parts which will be embedded in the first layer and the second layer of the cover respectively with binary STCs. When embed the message, we encourage to realize the double-layered embedding by ±1 modifications. But in order to further decrease the modifications and improve the time efficient, we allow few pixels to be modified by ±2. Experiment results demonstrate that while applying this double-layered STCs to the adaptive steganographic algorithms, the embedding modifications become more concentrative and the number decreases, consequently the security of steganography is improved.