Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Clark, A.  [Clear All Filters]
2019-03-28
Sahabandu, D., Xiao, B., Clark, A., Lee, S., Lee, W., Poovendran, R..  2018.  DIFT Games: Dynamic Information Flow Tracking Games for Advanced Persistent Threats. 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :1136-1143.
Dynamic Information Flow Tracking (DIFT) has been proposed to detect stealthy and persistent cyber attacks that evade existing defenses such as firewalls and signature-based antivirus systems. A DIFT defense taints and tracks suspicious information flows across the network in order to identify possible attacks, at the cost of additional memory overhead for tracking non-adversarial information flows. In this paper, we present the first analytical model that describes the interaction between DIFT and adversarial information flows, including the probability that the adversary evades detection and the performance overhead of the defense. Our analytical model consists of a multi-stage game, in which each stage represents a system process through which the information flow passes. We characterize the optimal strategies for both the defense and adversary, and derive efficient algorithms for computing the strategies. Our results are evaluated on a realworld attack dataset obtained using the Refinable Attack Investigation (RAIN) framework, enabling us to draw conclusions on the optimal adversary and defense strategies, as well as the effect of valid information flows on the interaction between adversary and defense.
2015-04-30
Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.

Lee, P., Clark, A., Bushnell, L., Poovendran, R..  2014.  A Passivity Framework for Modeling and Mitigating Wormhole Attacks on Networked Control Systems. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on. 59:3224-3237.

Networked control systems consist of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate via a wireless network. The use of an open wireless medium and unattended deployment leaves these systems vulnerable to intelligent adversaries whose goal is to disrupt the system performance. In this paper, we study the wormhole attack on a networked control system, in which an adversary establishes a link between two geographically distant regions of the network by using either high-gain antennas, as in the out-of-band wormhole, or colluding network nodes as in the in-band wormhole. Wormholes allow the adversary to violate the timing constraints of real-time control systems by first creating low-latency links, which attract network traffic, and then delaying or dropping packets. Since the wormhole attack reroutes and replays valid messages, it cannot be detected using cryptographic mechanisms alone. We study the impact of the wormhole attack on the network flows and delays and introduce a passivity-based control-theoretic framework for modeling and mitigating the wormhole attack. We develop this framework for both the in-band and out-of-band wormhole attacks as well as complex, hereto-unreported wormhole attacks consisting of arbitrary combinations of in-and out-of band wormholes. By integrating existing mitigation strategies into our framework, we analyze the throughput, delay, and stability properties of the overall system. Through simulation study, we show that, by selectively dropping control packets, the wormhole attack can cause disturbances in the physical plant of a networked control system, and demonstrate that appropriate selection of detection parameters mitigates the disturbances due to the wormhole while satisfying the delay constraints of the physical system.