Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Vaikuntanathan, Vinod  [Clear All Filters]
2016
Brakerski, Zvika, Vaikuntanathan, Vinod, Wee, Hoeteck, Wichs, Daniel.  2016.  Obfuscating Conjunctions Under Entropic Ring LWE. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science. :147–156.
We show how to securely obfuscate conjunctions, which are functions f(x1,...,xn) = ∧i∈I yi where I ⊆ [n] and each literal yi is either just xi or ¬ xi e.g., f(xi,...,x\_n) = xi ⊆ ¬ x3 ⊆ ¬ x7 ... ⊆ x\\textbackslashvphantom\n-1. Whereas prior work of Brakerski and Rothblum (CRYPTO 2013) showed how to achieve this using a non-standard object called cryptographic multilinear maps, our scheme is based on an "entropic" variant of the Ring Learning with Errors (Ring LWE) assumption. As our core tool, we prove that hardness assumptions on the recent multilinear map construction of Gentry, Gorbunov and Halevi (TCC 2015) can be established based on entropic Ring LWE. We view this as a first step towards proving the security of additional mutlilinear map based constructions, and in particular program obfuscators, under standard assumptions. Our scheme satisfies virtual black box (VBB) security, meaning that the obfuscated program reveals nothing more than black-box access to f as an oracle, at least as long as (essentially) the conjunction is chosen from a distribution having sufficient entropy.
Kumaresan, Ranjit, Vaikuntanathan, Vinod, Vasudevan, Prashant Nalini.  2016.  Improvements to Secure Computation with Penalties. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :406–417.

Motivated by the impossibility of achieving fairness in secure computation [Cleve, STOC 1986], recent works study a model of fairness in which an adversarial party that aborts on receiving output is forced to pay a mutually predefined monetary penalty to every other party that did not receive the output. These works show how to design protocols for secure computation with penalties that tolerate an arbitrary number of corruptions. In this work, we improve the efficiency of protocols for secure computation with penalties in a hybrid model where parties have access to the "claim-or-refund" transaction functionality. Our first improvement is for the ladder protocol of Bentov and Kumaresan (Crypto 2014) where we improve the dependence of the script complexity of the protocol (which corresponds to miner verification load and also space on the blockchain) on the number of parties from quadratic to linear (and in particular, is completely independent of the underlying function). Our second improvement is for the see-saw protocol of Kumaresan et al. (CCS 2015) where we reduce the total number of claim-or-refund transactions and also the script complexity from quadratic to linear in the number of parties. We also present a 'dual-mode' protocol that offers different guarantees depending on the number of corrupt parties: (1) when s

Kumaresan, Ranjit, Vaikuntanathan, Vinod, Vasudevan, Prashant Nalini.  2016.  Improvements to Secure Computation with Penalties. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :406–417.

Motivated by the impossibility of achieving fairness in secure computation [Cleve, STOC 1986], recent works study a model of fairness in which an adversarial party that aborts on receiving output is forced to pay a mutually predefined monetary penalty to every other party that did not receive the output. These works show how to design protocols for secure computation with penalties that tolerate an arbitrary number of corruptions. In this work, we improve the efficiency of protocols for secure computation with penalties in a hybrid model where parties have access to the "claim-or-refund" transaction functionality. Our first improvement is for the ladder protocol of Bentov and Kumaresan (Crypto 2014) where we improve the dependence of the script complexity of the protocol (which corresponds to miner verification load and also space on the blockchain) on the number of parties from quadratic to linear (and in particular, is completely independent of the underlying function). Our second improvement is for the see-saw protocol of Kumaresan et al. (CCS 2015) where we reduce the total number of claim-or-refund transactions and also the script complexity from quadratic to linear in the number of parties.

2018
Liu, Tianren, Vaikuntanathan, Vinod.  2018.  Breaking the Circuit-Size Barrier in Secret Sharing. Proceedings of the 50th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing. :699-708.
We study secret sharing schemes for general (non-threshold) access structures. A general secret sharing scheme for n parties is associated to a monotone function F:\0,1\n$\rightarrow$\0,1\. In such a scheme, a dealer distributes shares of a secret s among n parties. Any subset of parties T $\subseteq$ [n] should be able to put together their shares and reconstruct the secret s if F(T)=1, and should have no information about s if F(T)=0. One of the major long-standing questions in information-theoretic cryptography is to minimize the (total) size of the shares in a secret-sharing scheme for arbitrary monotone functions F. There is a large gap between lower and upper bounds for secret sharing. The best known scheme for general F has shares of size 2n-o(n), but the best lower bound is $Ømega$(n2/logn). Indeed, the exponential share size is a direct result of the fact that in all known secret-sharing schemes, the share size grows with the size of a circuit (or formula, or monotone span program) for F. Indeed, several researchers have suggested the existence of a representation size barrier which implies that the right answer is closer to the upper bound, namely, 2n-o(n). In this work, we overcome this barrier by constructing a secret sharing scheme for any access structure with shares of size 20.994n and a linear secret sharing scheme for any access structure with shares of size 20.999n. As a contribution of independent interest, we also construct a secret sharing scheme with shares of size 2Õ($\surd$n) for 2n n/2 monotone access structures, out of a total of 2n n/2$\cdot$ (1+O(logn/n)) of them. Our construction builds on recent works that construct better protocols for the conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) problem.