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Markwood, Ian D., Liu, Yao.  2016.  Vehicle Self-Surveillance: Sensor-Enabled Automatic Driver Recognition. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :425–436.

Motor vehicles are widely used, quite valuable, and often targeted for theft. Preventive measures include car alarms, proximity control, and physical locks, which can be bypassed if the car is left unlocked, or if the thief obtains the keys. Reactive strategies like cameras, motion detectors, human patrolling, and GPS tracking can monitor a vehicle, but may not detect car thefts in a timely manner. We propose a fast automatic driver recognition system that identifies unauthorized drivers while overcoming the drawbacks of previous approaches. We factor drivers' trips into elemental driving events, from which we extract their driving preference features that cannot be exactly reproduced by a thief driving away in the stolen car. We performed real world evaluation using the driving data collected from 31 volunteers. Experiment results show we can distinguish the current driver as the owner with 97% accuracy, while preventing impersonation 91% of the time.

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Li, Mengyuan, Meng, Yan, Liu, Junyi, Zhu, Haojin, Liang, Xiaohui, Liu, Yao, Ruan, Na.  2016.  When CSI Meets Public WiFi: Inferring Your Mobile Phone Password via WiFi Signals. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1068–1079.

In this study, we present WindTalker, a novel and practical keystroke inference framework that allows an attacker to infer the sensitive keystrokes on a mobile device through WiFi-based side-channel information. WindTalker is motivated from the observation that keystrokes on mobile devices will lead to different hand coverage and the finger motions, which will introduce a unique interference to the multi-path signals and can be reflected by the channel state information (CSI). The adversary can exploit the strong correlation between the CSI fluctuation and the keystrokes to infer the user's number input. WindTalker presents a novel approach to collect the target's CSI data by deploying a public WiFi hotspot. Compared with the previous keystroke inference approach, WindTalker neither deploys external devices close to the target device nor compromises the target device. Instead, it utilizes the public WiFi to collect user's CSI data, which is easy-to-deploy and difficult-to-detect. In addition, it jointly analyzes the traffic and the CSI to launch the keystroke inference only for the sensitive period where password entering occurs. WindTalker can be launched without the requirement of visually seeing the smart phone user's input process, backside motion, or installing any malware on the tablet. We implemented Windtalker on several mobile phones and performed a detailed case study to evaluate the practicality of the password inference towards Alipay, the largest mobile payment platform in the world. The evaluation results show that the attacker can recover the key with a high successful rate.

Meng, Yan, Wang, Zichang, Zhang, Wei, Wu, Peilin, Zhu, Haojin, Liang, Xiaohui, Liu, Yao.  2018.  WiVo: Enhancing the Security of Voice Control System via Wireless Signal in IoT Environment. Proceedings of the Eighteenth ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. :81–90.
With the prevalent of smart devices and home automations, voice command has become a popular User Interface (UI) channel in the IoT environment. Although Voice Control System (VCS) has the advantages of great convenience, it is extremely vulnerable to the spoofing attack (e.g., replay attack, hidden/inaudible command attack) due to its broadcast nature. In this study, we present WiVo, a device-free voice liveness detection system based on the prevalent wireless signals generated by IoT devices without any additional devices or sensors carried by the users. The basic motivation of WiVo is to distinguish the authentic voice command from a spoofed one via its corresponding mouth motions, which can be captured and recognized by wireless signals. To achieve this goal, WiVo builds a theoretical model to characterize the correlation between wireless signal dynamics and the user's voice syllables. WiVo extracts the unique features from both voice and wireless signals, and then calculates the consistency between these different types of signals in order to determine whether the voice command is generated by the authentic user of VCS or an adversary. To evaluate the effectiveness of WiVo, we build a testbed based on Samsung SmartThings framework and include WiVo as a new application, which is expected to significantly enhance the security of the existing VCS. We have evaluated WiVo with 6 participants and different voice commands. Experimental evaluation results demonstrate that WiVo achieves the overall 99% detection rate with 1% false accept rate and has a low latency.