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Enkhtaivan, B., Inoue, A..  2020.  Mediating Data Trustworthiness by Using Trusted Hardware between IoT Devices and Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :314–318.
In recent years, with the progress of data analysis methods utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, concepts of smart cities collecting data from IoT devices and creating values by analyzing it have been proposed. However, making sure that the data is not tampered with is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to utilize blockchain technology to record and trace the history of the data. Park and Kim proposed ensuring the trustworthiness of the data by utilizing an IoT device with a trusted execution environment (TEE). Also, Guan et al. proposed authenticating an IoT device and mediating data using a TEE. For the authentication, they use the physically unclonable function of the IoT device. Usually, IoT devices suffer from the lack of resources necessary for creating transactions for the blockchain ledger. In this paper, we present a secure protocol in which a TEE acts as a proxy to the IoT devices and creates the necessary transactions for the blockchain. We use an authenticated encryption method on the data transmission between the IoT device and TEE to authenticate the device and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the data generated by the IoT devices.
Huang, H., Zhou, S., Lin, J., Zhang, K., Guo, S..  2020.  Bridge the Trustworthiness Gap amongst Multiple Domains: A Practical Blockchain-based Approach. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
In isolated network domains, global trustworthiness (e.g., consistent network view) is critical to the multiple-domain business partners who aim to perform the trusted corporations depending on each isolated network view. However, to achieve such global trustworthiness across distributed network domains is a challenge. This is because when multiple-domain partners are required to exchange their local domain views with each other, it is difficult to ensure the data trustworthiness among them. In addition, the isolated domain view in each partner is prone to be destroyed by malicious falsification attacks. To this end, we propose a blockchain-based approach that can ensure the trustworthiness among multiple-party domains. In this paper, we mainly present the design and implementation of the proposed trustworthiness-protection system. A cloud-based prototype and a local testbed are developed based on Ethereum. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed prototype and testbed.
Sun, M., Li, M., Gerdes, R..  2018.  Truth-Aware Optimal Decision-Making Framework with Driver Preferences for V2V Communications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-9.

In Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications, malicious actors may spread false information to undermine the safety and efficiency of the vehicular traffic stream. Thus, vehicles must determine how to respond to the contents of messages which maybe false even though they are authenticated in the sense that receivers can verify contents were not tampered with and originated from a verifiable transmitter. Existing solutions to find appropriate actions are inadequate since they separately address trust and decision, require the honest majority (more honest ones than malicious), and do not incorporate driver preferences in the decision-making process. In this work, we propose a novel trust-aware decision-making framework without requiring an honest majority. It securely determines the likelihood of reported road events despite the presence of false data, and consequently provides the optimal decision for the vehicles. The basic idea of our framework is to leverage the implied effect of the road event to verify the consistency between each vehicle's reported data and actual behavior, and determine the data trustworthiness and event belief by integrating the Bayes' rule and Dempster Shafer Theory. The resulting belief serves as inputs to a utility maximization framework focusing on both safety and efficiency. This framework considers the two basic necessities of the Intelligent Transportation System and also incorporates drivers' preferences to decide the optimal action. Simulation results show the robustness of our framework under the multiple-vehicle attack, and different balances between safety and efficiency can be achieved via selecting appropriate human preference factors based on the driver's risk-taking willingness.

Thuraisingham, B., Kantarcioglu, M., Hamlen, K., Khan, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Oates, T., Bertino, E..  2016.  A Data Driven Approach for the Science of Cyber Security: Challenges and Directions. 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :1–10.

This paper describes a data driven approach to studying the science of cyber security (SoS). It argues that science is driven by data. It then describes issues and approaches towards the following three aspects: (i) Data Driven Science for Attack Detection and Mitigation, (ii) Foundations for Data Trustworthiness and Policy-based Sharing, and (iii) A Risk-based Approach to Security Metrics. We believe that the three aspects addressed in this paper will form the basis for studying the Science of Cyber Security.

Tang, Lu-An, Han, Jiawei, Jiang, Guofei.  2014.  Mining sensor data in cyber-physical systems. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 19:225-234.

A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) integrates physical devices (i.e., sensors) with cyber (i.e., informational) components to form a context sensitive system that responds intelligently to dynamic changes in real-world situations. Such a system has wide applications in the scenarios of traffic control, battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, and so on. A core element of CPS is the collection and assessment of information from noisy, dynamic, and uncertain physical environments integrated with many types of cyber-space resources. The potential of this integration is unbounded. To achieve this potential the raw data acquired from the physical world must be transformed into useable knowledge in real-time. Therefore, CPS brings a new dimension to knowledge discovery because of the emerging synergism of the physical and the cyber. The various properties of the physical world must be addressed in information management and knowledge discovery. This paper discusses the problems of mining sensor data in CPS: With a large number of wireless sensors deployed in a designated area, the task is real time detection of intruders that enter the area based on noisy sensor data. The framework of IntruMine is introduced to discover intruders from untrustworthy sensor data. IntruMine first analyzes the trustworthiness of sensor data, then detects the intruders' locations, and verifies the detections based on a graph model of the relationships between sensors and intruders.