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Sharma, Prince, Shukla, Shailendra, Vasudeva, Amol.  2020.  Trust-based Incentive for Mobile Offloaders in Opportunistic Networks. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :872—877.
Mobile data offloading using opportunistic network has recently gained its significance to increase mobile data needs. Such offloaders need to be properly incentivized to encourage more and more users to act as helpers in such networks. The extent of help offered by mobile data offloading alternatives using appropriate incentive mechanisms is significant in such scenarios. The limitation of existing incentive mechanisms is that they are partial in implementation while most of them use third party intervention based derivation. However, none of the papers considers trust as an essential factor for incentive distribution. Although few works contribute to the trust analysis, but the implementation is limited to offloading determination only while the incentive is independent of trust. We try to investigate if trust could be related to the Nash equilibrium based incentive evaluation. Our analysis results show that trust-based incentive distribution encourages more than 50% offloaders to act positively and contribute successfully towards efficient mobile data offloading. We compare the performance of our algorithm with literature based salary-bonus scheme implementation and get optimum incentive beyond 20% dependence over trust-based output.
Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  Efficient Modeling of IEC-61850 Logical Nodes in IEDs for Scalability in CPS Security Testbed. 2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.

Though the deep penetration of cyber systems across the smart grid sub-domains enrich the operation of the wide-area protection, control, and smart grid applications, the stochastic nature of cyber-attacks by adversaries inflict their performance and the system operation. Various hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted to evaluate the cyberattack dynamics and power system perturbations for robust wide-area protection algorithms. However, physical resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and have limited many of the CPS testbeds to either small-scale HIL environment or complete simulation environments. This paper proposes a meticulous design and efficient modeling of IEC-61850 logical nodes in physical relays to simulate large-scale grid models in a HIL real-time digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems for wide-area power system applications. The proposed meticulous design includes multi-breaker emulation in the physical relays, which extends the capacity of a physical relay to accommodate more number of CPS interfaces in the HIL CPS security testbed environment. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the real-time performance of ten simultaneous IEEE-39 CPS grid models. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% real-time performance with zero overruns, and low latency while receiving and executing control signals from physical SEL relays via IEC-61850 and DNP-3 protocols to real-time digital simulator, substation remote terminal unit (RTU) software and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software at control center.

Wang, Xiaoyu, Gao, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Guangna, Guo, Mingxi.  2020.  Prediction of Optimal Power Allocation for Enhancing Security-Reliability Tradeoff with the Application of Artificial Neural Networks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Technology, Information Science and Communications (CTISC). :40–45.
In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in order to improve both secure and reliable performance in the wireless two-hop threshold-selection decode-and-forward (DF) relaying networks, which is so crucial to set a threshold value related the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the source signal at relay nodes for perfect decoding. We adapt the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiving SNR from the direct and relaying paths both at the destination and at the eavesdropper. Particularly worth mentioning is that the closed expression form of outage probability and intercept probability is driven, which can quantify the security and reliability, respectively. We also make endeavors to utilize a metric to tradeoff the security and the reliability (SRT) and find out the relevance between them in the balanced case. But beyond that, in the pursuit of tradeoff performance, power allocation tends to depend on the threshold value. In other words, it provides a new method optimizing total power to the source and the relay by the threshold value. The results are obtained from analysis, confirmed by simulation, and predicted by artificial neural networks (ANNs), which is trained with back propagation (BP) algorithm, and thus the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.
Kuhn, C., Beck, M., Strufe, T..  2020.  Breaking and (Partially) Fixing Provably Secure Onion Routing. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :168–185.
After several years of research on onion routing, Camenisch and Lysyanskaya, in an attempt at rigorous analysis, defined an ideal functionality in the universal composability model, together with properties that protocols have to meet to achieve provable security. A whole family of systems based their security proofs on this work. However, analyzing HORNET and Sphinx, two instances from this family, we show that this proof strategy is broken. We discover a previously unknown vulnerability that breaks anonymity completely, and explain a known one. Both should not exist if privacy is proven correctly.In this work, we analyze and fix the proof strategy used for this family of systems. After proving the efficacy of the ideal functionality, we show how the original properties are flawed and suggest improved, effective properties in their place. Finally, we discover another common mistake in the proofs. We demonstrate how to avoid it by showing our improved properties for one protocol, thus partially fixing the family of provably secure onion routing protocols.
Ekşim, A., Demirci, T..  2020.  Ultimate Secrecy in Cooperative and Multi-hop Wireless Communications. 2020 XXXIIIrd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science. :1–4.
In this work, communication secrecy in cooperative and multi-hop wireless communications for various radio frequencies are examined. Attenuation lines and ranges of both detection and ultimate secrecy regions were calculated for cooperative communication channel and multi-hop channel with various number of hops. From results, frequency ranges with the highest potential to apply bandwidth saving method known as frequency reuse were determined and compared to point-to-point channel. Frequencies with the highest attenuation were derived and their ranges of both detection and ultimate secrecy are calculated. Point-to-point, cooperative and multi-hop channels were compared in terms of ultimate secrecy ranges. Multi-hop channel measurements were made with different number of hops and the relation between the number of hops and communication security is examined. Ultimate secrecy ranges were calculated up to 1 Terahertz and found to be less than 13 meters between 550-565 GHz frequency range. Therefore, for short-range wireless communication systems such as indoor and in-device communication systems (board-to-board or chip-to-chip communications), it is shown that various bands in the Terahertz band can be used to reuse the same frequency in different locations to obtain high security and high bandwidth.
Fajri, M., Hariyanto, N., Gemsjaeger, B..  2020.  Automatic Protection Implementation Considering Protection Assessment Method of DER Penetration for Smart Distribution Network. 2020 International Conference on Technology and Policy in Energy and Electric Power (ICT-PEP). :323—328.
Due to geographical locations of Indonesia, some technology such as hydro and solar photovoltaics are very attractive to be used and developed. Distribution Energy Resources (DER) is the appropriate schemes implemented to achieve optimal operation respecting the location and capacity of the plant. The Gorontalo sub-system network was chosen as a case study considering both of micro-hydro and PV as contributed to supply the grid. The needs of a smart electrical system are required to improve reliability, power quality, and adaptation to any circumstances during DER application. While the topology was changing over time, intermittent of DER output and bidirectional power flow can be overcome with smart grid systems. In this study, an automation algorithm has been conducted to aid the engineers in solving the protection problems caused by DER implementation. The Protection Security Assessment (PSA) method is used to evaluate the state of the protection system. Determine the relay settings using an adaptive rule-based method on expert systems. The application with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed to make user easier to get the specific relay settings and locations which are sensitive, fast, reliable, and selective.
Salib, E. H., Aboutabl, M. S..  2020.  Hands-on Undergraduate Labs on Anonymity Cryptographic Algorithms. 2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—9.

This is an innovative practice full paper. In past projects, we have successfully used a private TOR (anonymity network) platform that enabled our students to explore the end-to-end inner workings of the TOR anonymity network through a number of controlled hands-on lab assignments. These have saisfied the needs of curriculum focusing on networking functions and algorithms. To be able to extend the use and application of the private TOR platform into cryptography courses, there is a desperate need to enhance the platform to allow the development of hands-on lab assignments on the cryptographic algorithms and methods utilized in the creation of TOR secure connections and end-to-end circuits for anonymity.In tackling this challenge, and since TOR is open source software, we identify the cryptographic functions called by the TOR algorithms in the process of establishing TLS connections and creating end-to-end TOR circuits as well tearing them down. We instrumented these functions with the appropriate code to log the cryptographic keys dynamically created at all nodes involved in the creation of the end to end circuit between the Client and the exit relay (connected to the target server).We implemented a set of pedagogical lab assignments on a private TOR platform and present them in this paper. Using these assignments, students are able to investigate and validate the cryptographic procedures applied in the establishment of the initial TLS connection, the creation of the first leg of a TOR circuit, as well as extending the circuit through additional relays (at least two relays). More advanced assignments are created to challenge the students to unwrap the traffic sent from the Client to the exit relay at all onion skin layers and compare it with the actual traffic delivered to the target server.

Makarfi, A. U., Rabie, K. M., Kaiwartya, O., Li, X., Kharel, R..  2020.  Physical Layer Security in Vehicular Networks with Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces. 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—6.

This paper studies the physical layer security (PLS) of a vehicular network employing a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS). RIS technologies are emerging as an important paradigm for the realisation of smart radio environments, where large numbers of small, low-cost and passive elements, reflect the incident signal with an adjustable phase shift without requiring a dedicated energy source. Inspired by the promising potential of RIS-based transmission, we investigate two vehicular network system models: One with vehicle-to-vehicle communication with the source employing a RIS-based access point, and the other model in the form of a vehicular adhoc network (VANET), with a RIS-based relay deployed on a building. Both models assume the presence of an eavesdropper to investigate the average secrecy capacity of the considered systems. Monte-Carlo simulations are provided throughout to validate the results. The results show that performance of the system in terms of the secrecy capacity is affected by the location of the RIS-relay and the number of RIS cells. The effect of other system parameters such as source power and eavesdropper distances are also studied.

Enkhtaivan, B., Inoue, A..  2020.  Mediating Data Trustworthiness by Using Trusted Hardware between IoT Devices and Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :314–318.
In recent years, with the progress of data analysis methods utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, concepts of smart cities collecting data from IoT devices and creating values by analyzing it have been proposed. However, making sure that the data is not tampered with is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to utilize blockchain technology to record and trace the history of the data. Park and Kim proposed ensuring the trustworthiness of the data by utilizing an IoT device with a trusted execution environment (TEE). Also, Guan et al. proposed authenticating an IoT device and mediating data using a TEE. For the authentication, they use the physically unclonable function of the IoT device. Usually, IoT devices suffer from the lack of resources necessary for creating transactions for the blockchain ledger. In this paper, we present a secure protocol in which a TEE acts as a proxy to the IoT devices and creates the necessary transactions for the blockchain. We use an authenticated encryption method on the data transmission between the IoT device and TEE to authenticate the device and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the data generated by the IoT devices.
Ge, K., He, Y..  2020.  Detection of Sybil Attack on Tor Resource Distribution. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :328–332.
Tor anonymous communication system's resource publishing is vulnerable to enumeration attacks. Zhao determines users who requested resources are unavailable as suspicious malicious users, and gradually reduce the scope of suspicious users through several stages to reduce the false positive rate. However, it takes several stages to distinguish users. Although this method successfully detects the malicious user, the malicious user has acquired many resources in the previous stages, which reduce the availability of the anonymous communication system. This paper proposes a detection method based on Integer Linear Program to detect malicious users who perform enumeration attacks on resources in the process of resource distribution. First, we need construct a bipartite graph between the unavailable resources and the users who requested for these resources in the anonymous communication system; next we use Integer Linear Program to find the minimum malicious user set. We simulate the resource distribution process through computer program, we perform an experimental analysis of the method in this paper is carried out. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the method in this paper is above 80%, when the unavailable resources in the system account for no more than 50%. It is about 10% higher than Zhao's method.
More, P. H., Dongre, M. M..  2019.  Partially Predictable Vehicular Ad-hoc Network: Trustworthiness and Security. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
VANET is an emerging technology incorporating ad hoc network to accomplish intelligent communications between vehicles, improvement in road traffic efficiency and safety. In some situations movement of vehicles is in a certain range, over particular distance or just in a specific tendency. Such a network can be called as incompletely or partially predictable network. An efficient use of such network, position and motion of nodes as well as relative history in big data is an open issue in vehicular ad hoc network. A hybrid protocol which provides secure and trustworthiness evaluation based routing can be used in VANET. Here Secure Trustworthiness Evaluation Based Routing Protocol is implemented using NS2 software. Its performance is very good in terms of the Average End to End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio and Normalized Routing Overhead.
Naik, D., Nikita, De, T..  2018.  Congestion aware traffic grooming in elastic optical and WiMAX network. 2018 Technologies for Smart-City Energy Security and Power (ICSESP). :1—9.

In recent years, integration of Passive Optical Net-work(PON) and WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access Network) network is attracting huge interest among many researchers. The continuous demand for large bandwidths with wider coverage area are the key drivers to this technology. This integration has led to high speed and cost efficient solution for internet accessibility. This paper investigates the issues related to traffic grooming, routing and resource allocation in the hybrid networks. The Elastic Optical Network forms Backbone and is integrated with WiMAX. In this novel approach, traffic grooming is carried out using light trail technique to minimize the bandwidth blocking ratio and also reduce the network resource consumption. The simulation is performed on different network topologies, where in the traffic is routed through three modes namely the pure Wireless Network, the Wireless-Optical/Optical-Wireless Network, the pure Optical Network keeping the network congestion in mind. The results confirm reduction in bandwidth blocking ratio in all the given networks coupled with minimum network resource utilization.

Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2019.  Efficient Modeling of HIL Multi-Grid System for Scalability Concurrency in CPS Security Testbed. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Cyber-event-triggered power grid blackout compels utility operators to intensify cyber-aware and physics-constrained recovery and restoration process. Recently, coordinated cyber attacks on the Ukrainian grid witnessed such a cyber-event-triggered power system blackout. Various cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted with multitude designs to analyze such interdependent events and evaluate remedy measures. However, resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and multi-grid isolated models (concurrency) under a single real-time execution environment for the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS security testbeds. This paper proposes a meticulous design and effective modeling for simulating large-scale grid models and multi-grid isolated models in a HIL realtime digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the realtime performance of a Texas-2000 bus US synthetic grid model and concurrency by the real-time performance of simultaneous ten IEEE-39 bus grid models and an IEEE-118 bus grid model. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% realtime performance with zero overruns, low latency while receiving and executing control signals from SEL Relays via IEC-61850 protocol and low latency while computing and transmitting grid data streams including stability measures via IEEE C37.118 synchrophasor data protocol to SEL Phasor Data Concentrators.
Ameli, Amir, Hooshyar, Ali, El-Saadany, Ehab F..  2019.  Development of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:305—318.
The application of line current differential relays (LCDRs) to protect transmission lines has recently proliferated. However, the reliance of LCDRs on digital communication channels has raised growing cyber-security concerns. This paper investigates the impacts of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) on the performance of LCDRs. It also develops coordinated attacks that involve multiple components, including LCDRs, and can cause false line tripping. Additionally, this paper proposes a technique for detecting FDIAs against LCDRs and differentiating them from actual faults in two-terminal lines. In this method, when an LCDR detects a fault, instead of immediately tripping the line, it calculates and measures the superimposed voltage at its local terminal, using the proposed positive-sequence (PS) and negative-sequence (NS) submodules. To calculate this voltage, the LCDR models the protected line in detail and replaces the rest of the system with a Thevenin equivalent that produces accurate responses at the line terminals. Afterwards, remote current measurement is utilized by the PS and NS submodules to compute each sequence's superimposed voltage. A difference between the calculated and the measured superimposed voltages in any sequence reveals that the remote current measurements are not authentic. Thus, the LCDR's trip command is blocked. The effectiveness of the proposed method is corroborated using simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system. The performance of the proposed method is also tested using an OPAL real-time simulator.
Pham-Thi-Dan, Ngoc, Do-Dac, Thiem, Ho-Van, Khuong, Vo-Que, Son, Pham-Ngoc, Son.  2019.  On Security Capability of Cooperative Communications in Energy Scavenging Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC). :89—93.
In this paper, secrecy outage probability (SOP) of cooperative communications in ESCRNs is numerically evaluated by the recommended precise closed-form formula which is corroborated by numerous computer simulations. Results expose that the relay's location, energy scavenging time, message recovering time, and power division for energy scavenging and message recovering dramatically impact the SOP of the cooperative communications in ESCRNs. Moreover, results infer that the SOP is constant either in energy scavenging non-cognitive networks (ES-nonCRNs) or in ESCRNs with infinite power transmitters.
Pham-Thi-Dan, Ngoc, Ho-Van, Khuong, Do-Dac, Thiem, Vo-Que, Son, Pham-Ngoc, Son.  2019.  Security Analysis for Cognitive Radio Network with Energy Scavenging Capable Relay over Nakagami-m Fading Channels. 2019 International Symposium on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISEE). :68—72.
In this paper, we propose an exact closed-form expression of secrecy outage probability (SOP) for underlay cognitive network with energy scavenging capable relay over Nakagami-m fading channels and under both (maximum transmit and interference) power constraints. Various results validated the proposed expression and shed insights into the security performance of this network in key specifications.
Torabi, Mohammad, Pouri, Alireza Baghaei.  2019.  Physical Layer Security of a Two-Hop Mixed RF-FSO System in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2019 2nd West Asian Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (WACOWC). :167—170.
In this paper, the physical layer (PHY)security performance of a dual-hop cooperative relaying in a cognitive-radio system in the presence of an eavesdropper is investigated. The dual-hop transmission is composed of an asymmetric radio frequency (RF)link and a free space optical (FSO)link. In the considered system, an unlicensed secondary user (SU)uses the spectrum which is shared by a licensed primary user (PU)in a controlled manner to keep the interference at PU receiver, below a predefined value. Furthermore, among M available relays, one relay with the best end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR)is selected for transmission. It is assumed that all of the RF links follow Rayleigh fading and all of the FSO links follow Gamma-Gamma distribution. Simulations results for some important security metrics, such as the average secrecy capacity (SC), and secrecy outage probability (SOP)are presented, where some practical issues of FSO links such as atmospheric turbulence, and pointing errors are taken into consideration.
Isnan Imran, Muh. Ikhdar, Putrada, Aji Gautama, Abdurohman, Maman.  2019.  Detection of Near Field Communication (NFC) Relay Attack Anomalies in Electronic Payment Cases using Markov Chain. 2019 Fourth International Conference on Informatics and Computing (ICIC). :1–4.
Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short- range wireless communication technology that supports several features, one of which is an electronic payment. NFC works at a limited distance to exchange information. In terms of security, NFC technology has a gap for attackers to carry out attacks by forwarding information illegally using the target NFC network. A relay attack that occurs due to the theft of some data by an attacker by utilizing close communication from NFC is one of them. Relay attacks can cause a lot of loss in terms of material sacrifice. It takes countermeasures to overcome the problem of electronic payments with NFC technology. Detection of anomalous data is one way that can be done. In an attack, several abnormalities can be detected which can be used to prevent an attack. Markov Chain is one method that can be used to detect relay attacks that occur in electronic payments using NFC. The result shows Markov chain can detect anomalies in relay attacks in the case of electronic payment.
Brewer, John N., Dimitoglou, George.  2019.  Evaluation of Attack Vectors and Risks in Automobiles and Road Infrastructure. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :84—89.

The evolution of smart automobiles and vehicles within the Internet of Things (IoT) - particularly as that evolution leads toward a proliferation of completely autonomous vehicles - has sparked considerable interest in the subject of vehicle/automotive security. While the attack surface is wide, there are patterns of exploitable vulnerabilities. In this study we reviewed, classified according to their attack surface and evaluated some of the common vehicle and infrastructure attack vectors identified in the literature. To remediate these attack vectors, specific technical recommendations have been provided as a way towards secure deployments of smart automobiles and transportation infrastructures.

Basyoni, Lamiaa, Erbad, Aiman, Alsabah, Mashael, Fetais, Noora, Guizani, Mohsen.  2019.  Empirical Performance Evaluation of QUIC Protocol for Tor Anonymity Network. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :635—642.
Tor's anonymity network is one of the most widely used anonymity networks online, it consists of thousands of routers run by volunteers. Tor preserves the anonymity of its users by relaying the traffic through a number of routers (called onion routers) forming a circuit. The current design of Tor's transport layer suffers from a number of problems affecting the performance of the network. Several researches proposed changes in the transport design in order to eliminate the effect of these problems and improve the performance of Tor's network. In this paper. we propose "QuicTor", an improvement to the transport layer of Tor's network by using Google's protocol "QUIC" instead of TCP. QUIC was mainly developed to eliminate TCP's latency introduced from the handshaking delays and the head-of-line blocking problem. We provide an empirical evaluation of our proposed design and compare it to two other proposed designs, IMUX and PCTCP. We show that QuicTor significantly enhances the performance of Tor's network.
Hasani, Abbas, Haghjoo, Farhad, Bak, Claus Leth, Faria da Silva, Filipe.  2019.  Performance Evaluation of Some Industrial Loss of Field Protection Schemes Using a Realistic Model in The RTDS. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—5.

Loss of field (LOF) relay, with ANSI code 40, is one of the most important protection functions for synchronous generators in power plants. Although many LOF protection schemes have been presented in the literature during the last decades, a few numbers of them such as impedance and admittance based schemes are accepted by the industry. This paper explores and compares the performances of some industrial LOF protection schemes through simulation studies and from speed, reliability and security viewpoints. The simulation studies are carried out in the real-time-digital-simulator, where a realistic power generation unit is developed by employing the phase domain model of synchronous generator. Using such a realistic system, various types of LOF events can be simulated in accordance with IEEE Standard C37.102-2006, so that the performance of any method can be evaluated through careful LOF studies.

Demir, Mehmet özgÜn, Alp Topal, Ozan, Dartmann, Guido, Schmeink, Anke, Ascheid, Gerd, Kurt, GüneŞ, Pusane, Ali Emre.  2019.  Using Perfect Codes in Relay Aided Networks: A Security Analysis. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are state-of-the-art communication environments that offer various applications with distinct requirements. However, security in CPS is a nonnegotiable concept, since without a proper security mechanism the applications of CPS may risk human lives, the privacy of individuals, and system operations. In this paper, we focus on PHY-layer security approaches in CPS to prevent passive eavesdropping attacks, and we propose an integration of physical layer operations to enhance security. Thanks to the McEliece cryptosystem, error injection is firstly applied to information bits, which are encoded with the forward error correction (FEC) schemes. Golay and Hamming codes are selected as FEC schemes to satisfy power and computational efficiency. Then obtained codewords are transmitted across reliable intermediate relays to the legitimate receiver. As a performance metric, the decoding frame error rate of the eavesdropper is analytically obtained for the fragmentary existence of significant noise between relays and Eve. The simulation results validate the analytical calculations, and the obtained results show that the number of low-quality channels and the selected FEC scheme affects the performance of the proposed model.

Gong, Shixun, Li, Na, Wu, Huici, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2019.  Cooperative Two-Key Generation in Source-Type Model With Partial-Trusted Helpers. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :689—694.

This paper investigates the problem of generating two secret keys (SKs) simultaneously over a five-terminal system with terminals labelled as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each of terminal 2 and terminal 3 wishes to generate an SK with terminal 1 over a public channel wiretapped by a passive eavesdropper. Terminal 4 and terminal 5 respectively act as a trusted helper and an untrusted helper to assist the SK generation. All the terminals observe correlated source sequences from discrete memoryless sources (DMS) and can exchange information over a public channel with no rate constraint that the eavesdropper has access to. Based on the considered model, key capacity region is fully characterized and a source coding scheme that can achieve the capacity region is provided. Furthermore, expression for key leakage rate is obtained to analyze the security performance of the two generated keys.

Sbai, Oussama, Elboukhari, Mohamed.  2018.  Simulation of MANET's Single and Multiple Blackhole Attack with NS-3. 2018 IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology (CiSt). :612–617.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained popularity both in research and in industrial fields. This is due to their ad hoc nature, easy deployment thanks to the lack of fixed infrastructure, self-organization of its components, dynamic topologies and the absence of any central authority for routing. However, MANETs suffer from several vulnerabilities such as battery power, limited memory space, and physical protection of network nodes. In addition, MANETs are sensitive to various attacks that threaten network security like Blackhole attack in its different implementation (single and multiple). In this article, we present the simulation results of single and multiple Blackhole attack in AODV and OLSR protocols on using NS-3.27 simulator. In this simulation, we took into consideration the density of the network described by the number of nodes included in the network, the speed of the nodes, the mobility model and even we chose the IEEE 802.11ac protocol for the pbysicallayer, in order to have a simulation, which deals with more general and more real scenarios. To be able to evaluate the impact of the attack on the network, the Packet delivery rate, Routing overhead, Throughput and Average End to End delay have been chosen as metrics for performance evaluation.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic Method to Physical Layer Security of an Amplify-and-Forward Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Secondary User to Relay. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :197—202.
In this paper, a framework for capitalizing on the potential benefits of physical layer security in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN network the sensing data from secondary users (SUs) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the help of access points (AP) as relays, and when malicious eavesdropping secondary users (SUs) are listening. We focus on the secure transmission of active SUs transmitting their sensing data to the AP. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Numerical results corroborate our analysis and show that multiple antennas at the APs can enhance the security of the AF-CSS-CRN. The obtained numerical results show that average secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC decreases when the number of AP is increased. Nevertheless, we find that an increase in the number of AP initially increases the overall average secrecy rate, with a perilous value at which the overall average secrecy rate then decreases. While increasing the number of active SUs, there is a decrease in the secrecy rate between the sensor and its correlated AP.