# Biblio

The increased power capacity and networking requirements in Extremely Fast Charging (XFC) systems for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the resulting increase in the adversarial attack surface call for security measures to be taken in the involved cyber-physical system (CPS). Within this system, the security of the BEV's battery management system (BMS) is of critical importance as the BMS is the first line of defense between the vehicle and the charge station. This study proposes an optimal control and moving-target defense (MTD) based novel approach for the security of the vehicle BMS) focusing on the charging process, during which a compromised vehicle may contaminate the XFC station and the whole grid. This paper is part of our ongoing research, which is one of the few, if not the first, reported studies in the literature on security-hardened BMS, aiming to increase the security and performance of operations between the charging station, the BMS and the battery system of electric vehicles. The developed MTD based switching strategy makes use of redundancies in the controller and feedback design. The performed simulations demonstrate an increased unpredictability and acceptable charging performance under adversarial attacks.

The massive integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power systems is a major challenge but it also provides new opportunities for network operation. For example, with a large amount of RES available at HV subtransmission level, it is possible to exploit them as controlling resources in islanding conditions. Thus, a procedure for off-line evaluation of islanded operation feasibility in the presence of RES is proposed. The method finds which generators and loads remain connected after islanding to balance the island's real power maximizing the amount of supplied load and assuring the network's long-term security. For each possible islanding event, the set of optimal control actions (load/generation shedding) to apply in case of actual islanding, is found. The procedure is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Problem (MINLP) and is solved using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Results, including dynamic simulations, are shown for a representative HV subtransmission grid.

The CPS standard can be more objective to evaluate the effect of control behavior in each control area on the interconnected power grid. The CPS standard is derived from statistical methods emphasizing the long-term control performance of AGC, which is beneficial to the frequency control of the power grid by mutual support between the various power grids in the case of an accident. Moreover, CPS standard reduces the wear of the equipment caused by the frequent adjustment of the AGC unit. The key is to adjust the AGC control strategy to meet the performance of CPS standard. This paper proposed a dynamic optimal CPS control methodology for interconnected power systems based on model predictive control which can achieve optimal control under the premise of meeting the CPS standard. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified by simulation examples.

A general approach to the synthesis of the conditionally unstable fuzzy controller is introduced in this paper. This approach allows tuning the output signal of the system for both fast and smooth transient. Fuzzy logic allows combining the properties of several strategies of system tuning dependent on the state of the system. The utilization of instability allows achieving faster transient when the error of the system output is beyond the predefined value. Later the system roots are smoothly moved to the left-hand side of the complex s-plane due to the change of the membership function values. The results of the proposed approaches are compared with the results obtained using traditional methods of controller synthesis.

In this paper, based on the Hamiltonian, an alternative interpretation about the iterative adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach from the perspective of optimization is developed for discrete time nonlinear dynamic systems. The role of the Hamiltonian in iterative ADP is explained. The resulting Hamiltonian driven ADP is able to evaluate the performance with respect to arbitrary admissible policies, compare two different admissible policies and further improve the given admissible policy. The convergence of the Hamiltonian ADP to the optimal policy is proven. Implementation of the Hamiltonian-driven ADP by neural networks is discussed based on the assumption that each iterative policy and value function can be updated exactly. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the presented Hamiltonian-driven ADP.

With the continuous development of mobile based Wireless technologies, Bluetooth plays a vital role in smart-phone Era. In such scenario, the security measures are needed to be enhanced for Bluetooth. We propose a Node Energy Based Virus Propagation Model (NBV) for Bluetooth. The algorithm works with key features of node capacity and node energy in Bluetooth network. This proposed NBV model works along with E-mail worm Propagation model. Finally, this work simulates and compares the virus propagation with respect to Node Energy and network traffic.

This paper formulates a power system related optimal control problem, motivated by potential cyber-attacks on grid control systems, and ensuing defensive response to such attacks. The problem is formulated as a standard nonlinear program in the GAMS optimization environment, with system dynamics discretized over a short time horizon providing constraint equations, which are then treated via waveform relaxation. Selection of objective function and additional decision variables is explored first for identifying grid vulnerability to cyber-attacks that act by modifying feedback control system parameters. The resulting decisions for the attacker are then fixed, and the optimization problem is modified with a new objective function and decision variables, to explore a defender's possible response to such attacks.

Autonomous active exploration requires search algorithms that can effectively balance the need for workspace coverage with energetic costs. We present a strategy for planning optimal search trajectories with respect to the distribution of expected information over a workspace. We formulate an iterative optimal control algorithm for general nonlinear dynamics, where the metric for information gain is the difference between the spatial distribution and the statistical representation of the time-averaged trajectory, i.e. ergodicity. Previous work has designed a continuous-time trajectory optimization algorithm. In this paper, we derive two discrete-time iterative trajectory optimization approaches, one based on standard first-order discretization and the other using symplectic integration. The discrete-time methods based on first-order discretization techniques are both faster than the continuous-time method in the studied examples. Moreover, we show that even for a simple system, the choice of discretization has a dramatic impact on the resulting control and state trajectories. While the standard discretization method turns unstable, the symplectic method, which is structure-preserving, achieves lower values for the objective.

The main challenge of ultra-reliable machine-to-machine (M2M) control applications is to meet the stringent timing and reliability requirements of control systems, despite the adverse properties of wireless communication for delay and packet errors, and limited battery resources of the sensor nodes. Since the transmission delay and energy consumption of a sensor node are determined by the transmission power and rate of that sensor node and the concurrently transmitting nodes, the transmission schedule should be optimized jointly with the transmission power and rate of the sensor nodes. Previously, it has been shown that the optimization of power control and rate adaptation for each node subset can be separately formulated, solved and then used in the scheduling algorithm in the optimal solution of the joint optimization of power control, rate adaptation and scheduling problem. However, the power control and rate adaptation problem has been only formulated and solved for continuous rate transmission model, in which Shannon's capacity formulation for an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) wireless channel is used in the calculation of the maximum achievable rate as a function of Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). In this paper, we formulate the power control and rate adaptation problem with the objective of minimizing the time required for the concurrent transmission of a set of sensor nodes while satisfying their transmission delay, reliability and energy consumption requirements based on the more realistic discrete rate transmission model, in which only a finite set of transmit rates are supported. We propose a polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem and prove the optimality of the proposed algorithm. We then combine it with the previously proposed scheduling algorithms and demonstrate its close to optimal performance via extensive simulations.

In this paper, we focus on the principal-agent problems in continuous time when the participants have ambiguity on the output process in the framework of g-expectation. The first best (or, risk-sharing) type is studied. The necessary condition of the optimal contract is derived by means of the optimal control theory. Finally, we present some examples to clarify our results.

In this paper, we study the problem of privacy information leakage in a smart grid. The privacy risk is assumed to be caused by an unauthorized binary hypothesis testing of the consumer's behaviour based on the smart meter readings of energy supplies from the energy provider. Another energy supplies are produced by an alternative energy source. A controller equipped with an energy storage device manages the energy inflows to satisfy the energy demand of the consumer. We study the optimal energy control strategy which minimizes the asymptotic exponential decay rate of the minimum Type II error probability in the unauthorized hypothesis testing to suppress the privacy risk. Our study shows that the cardinality of the energy supplies from the energy provider for the optimal control strategy is no more than two. This result implies a simple objective of the optimal energy control strategy. When additional side information is available for the adversary, the optimal control strategy and privacy risk are compared with the case of leaking smart meter readings to the adversary only.

In this paper, we study quasi-static manipulation of a planar kinematic chain with a fixed base in which each joint is a linearly elastic torsional spring. The shape of this chain when in static equilibrium can be represented as the solution to a discretetime optimal control problem, with boundary conditions that vary with the position and orientation of the last link. We prove that the set of all solutions to this problem is a smooth three-manifold that can be parameterized by a single chart. Empirical results in simulation show that straight-line paths in this chart are uniformly more likely to be feasible (as a function of distance) than straightline paths in the space of boundary conditions. These results, which are consistent with an analysis of visibility properties, suggest that the chart we derive is a better choice of space in which to apply a sampling-based algorithm for manipulation planning. We describe such an algorithm and show that it is easy to implement.