Visible to the public Biblio

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Riya, S. S., Lalu, V..  2020.  Stable cryptographic key generation using SRAM based Physical Unclonable Function. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :653—657.
Physical unclonable functions(PUFs) are widely used as hardware root-of-trust to secure IoT devices, data and services. A PUF exploits inherent randomness introduced during manufacturing to give a unique digital fingerprint. Static Random-Access Memory (SRAM) based PUFs can be used as a mature technology for authentication. An SRAM with a number of SRAM cells gives an unrepeatable and random pattern of 0's and 1's during power on. As it is a unique pattern, it can be called as SRAM fingerprint and can be used as a PUF. The chance of producing more number of same values (either zero or one) is higher during power on. If a particular value present at almost all the cell during power on, it will lead to the dominance of either zero or one in the cryptographic key sequence. As the cryptographic key is generated by randomly taking address location of SRAM cells, (the subset of power on values of all the SRAM cells)the probability of occurring the same sequence most of the time is higher. In order to avoid that situation, SRAM should have to produce an equal number of zeros and ones during power on. SRAM PUF is implemented in Cadence Virtuoso tool. To generate equal zeros and ones during power on, variations can be done in the physical dimensions and to increase the stability body biasing can be effectively done.
Kang, E., Schobbens, P..  2020.  InFoCPS: Integrating Formal Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems with Energy Prognostics. 2020 9th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1—5.
This paper is related to dissemination and exploitation of the InFoCPS PhD research project: Failure of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) may cause extensive damage. Safety standards emphasize the use of formal analysis in CPS development processes. Performance degradation assessment and estimation of lifetime of energy storage (electric batteries) are vital in supporting maintenance decisions and guaranteeing CPS reliability. Existing formal analysis techniques mainly focus on specifying energy constraints in simplified manners and checking whether systems operate within given energy bounds. Leading to overlooked energy features that impede development of trustworthy CPS. Prognostics and health management (PHM) estimate energy uncertainty and predict remaining life of systems. We aim to utilize PHM techniques to rigorously model dynamic energy behaviors; resulting models are amenable to formal analysis. This project will increase the degree of maintenance of CPS while (non)-functional requirements are preserved correctly.
Cao, S., Zou, J., Du, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Successive Framework: Enabling Accurate Identification and Secure Storage for Data in Smart Grid. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Due to malicious eavesdropping, forgery as well as other risks, it is challenging to dispose and store collected power data from smart grid in secure manners. Blockchain technology has become a novel method to solve the above problems because of its de-centralization and tamper-proof characteristics. It is especially well known that data stored in blockchain cannot be changed, so it is vital to seek out perfect mechanisms to ensure that data are compliant with high quality (namely, accuracy of the power data) before being stored in blockchain. This will help avoid losses due to low-quality data modification or deletion as needed in smart grid. Thus, we apply the parallel vision theory on the identification of meter readings to realize accurate power data. A cloud-blockchain fusion model (CBFM) is proposed for the storage of accurate power data, allowing for secure conducting of flexible transactions. Only power data calculated by parallel visual system instead of image data collected originally via robot would be stored in blockchain. Hence, we define the quality assurance before data uploaded to blockchain and security guarantee after data stored in blockchain as a successive framework, which is a brand new solution to manage efficiency and security as a whole for power data and data alike in other scenes. Security analysis and performance evaluations are performed, which prove that CBFM is highly secure and efficient impressively.
Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
Cheng, D., Zhou, X., Ding, Z., Wang, Y., Ji, M..  2019.  Heterogeneity Aware Workload Management in Distributed Sustainable Datacenters. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 30:375–387.
The tremendous growth of cloud computing and large-scale data analytics highlight the importance of reducing datacenter power consumption and environmental impact of brown energy. While many Internet service operators have at least partially powered their datacenters by green energy, it is challenging to effectively utilize green energy due to the intermittency of renewable sources, such as solar or wind. We find that the geographical diversity of internet-scale services can be carefully scheduled to improve the efficiency of applying green energy in datacenters. In this paper, we propose a holistic heterogeneity-aware cloud workload management approach, sCloud, that aims to maximize the system goodput in distributed self-sustainable datacenters. sCloud adaptively places the transactional workload to distributed datacenters, allocates the available resource to heterogeneous workloads in each datacenter, and migrates batch jobs across datacenters, while taking into account the green power availability and QoS requirements. We formulate the transactional workload placement as a constrained optimization problem that can be solved by nonlinear programming. Then, we propose a batch job migration algorithm to further improve the system goodput when the green power supply varies widely at different locations. Finally, we extend sCloud by integrating a flexible batch job manager to dynamically control the job execution progress without violating the deadlines. We have implemented sCloud in a university cloud testbed with real-world weather conditions and workload traces. Experimental results demonstrate sCloud can achieve near-to-optimal system performance while being resilient to dynamic power availability. sCloud with the flexible batch job management approach outperforms a heterogeneity-oblivious approach by 37 percent in improving system goodput and 33 percent in reducing QoS violations.
Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
Zaman, M., Sengupta, A., Liu, D., Sinanoglu, O., Makris, Y., Rajendran, J. J. V..  2018.  Towards provably-secure performance locking. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1592–1597.
Locking the functionality of an integrated circuit (IC) thwarts attacks such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, hardware Trojans, overbuilding, and counterfeiting. Although functional locking has been extensively investigated, locking the performance of an IC has been little explored. In this paper, we develop provably-secure performance locking, where only on applying the correct key the IC shows superior performance; for an incorrect key, the performance of the IC degrades significantly. This leads to a new business model, where the companies can design a single IC capable of different performances for different users. We develop mathematical definitions of security and theoretically, and experimentally prove the security against the state-of-the-art-attacks. We implemented performance locking on a FabScalar microprocessor, achieving a degradation in instructions per clock cycle (IPC) of up to 77% on applying an incorrect key, with an overhead of 0.6%, 0.2%, and 0% for area, power, and delay, respectively.
Wu, Chengjun, Shan, Weiwei, Xu, Jiaming.  2019.  Dynamic Adaptation of Approximate Bit-width for CNNs based on Quantitative Error Resilience. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures (NANOARCH). :1—6.

As an emerging paradigm for energy-efficiency design, approximate computing can reduce power consumption through simplification of logic circuits. Although calculation errors are caused by approximate computing, their impacts on the final results can be negligible in some error resilient applications, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Therefore, approximate computing has been applied to CNNs to reduce the high demand for computing resources and energy. Compared with the traditional method such as reducing data precision, this paper investigates the effect of approximate computing on the accuracy and power consumption of CNNs. To optimize the approximate computing technology applied to CNNs, we propose a method for quantifying the error resilience of each neuron by theoretical analysis and observe that error resilience varies widely across different neurons. On the basic of quantitative error resilience, dynamic adaptation of approximate bit-width and the corresponding configurable adder are proposed to fully exploit the error resilience of CNNs. Experimental results show that the proposed method further improves the performance of power consumption while maintaining high accuracy. By adopting the optimal approximate bit-width for each layer found by our proposed algorithm, dynamic adaptation of approximate bit-width reduces power consumption by more than 30% and causes less than 1% loss of the accuracy for LeNet-5.

Khatamifard, S. Karen, Wang, Longfei, Das, Amitabh, Kose, Selcuk, Karpuzcu, Ulya R..  2019.  POWERT Channels: A Novel Class of Covert CommunicationExploiting Power Management Vulnerabilities. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :291—303.

To be able to meet demanding application performance requirements within a tight power budget, runtime power management must track hardware activity at a very fine granularity in both space and time. This gives rise to sophisticated power management algorithms, which need the underlying system to be both highly observable (to be able to sense changes in instantaneous power demand timely) and controllable (to be able to react to changes in instantaneous power demand timely). The end goal is allocating the power budget, which itself represents a very critical shared resource, in a fair way among active tasks of execution. Fundamentally, if not carefully managed, any system-wide shared resource can give rise to covert communication. Power budget does not represent an exception, particularly as systems are becoming more and more observable and controllable. In this paper, we demonstrate how power management vulnerabilities can enable covert communication over a previously unexplored, novel class of covert channels which we will refer to as POWERT channels. We also provide a comprehensive characterization of the POWERT channel capacity under various sharing and activity scenarios. Our analysis based on experiments on representative commercial systems reveal a peak channel capacity of 121.6 bits per second (bps).

Wang, Jihe, Zhang, Meng, Qiu, Meikang.  2018.  A Diffusional Schedule for Traffic Reducing on Network-on-Chip. 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :206—210.
pubcrawl, Network on Chip Security, Scalability, resiliency, resilience, metrics, Tasks on NoC (Network-on-Chip) are less efficient because of long-distance data synchronization. An inefficient task schedule strategy can lead to a large number of remote data accessing that ruins the speedup of parallel execution of multiple tasks. Thus, we propose an energy efficient task schedule to reduce task traffic with a diffusional pattern. The task mapping algorithm can optimize traffic distribution by limit tasks into a small area to reduce NoC activities. Comparing to application-layer optimization, our task mapping can obtain 20% energy saving and 15% latency reduction on average.
liu, Shidong, Bu, Xiande.  2019.  Performance Modeling and Assessment of Unified Video Surveillance System Based on Ubiquitous SG-eIoT. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :238–243.
Video surveillance system is an important application system on the ubiquitous SG-eIoT. A comparative analysis of the traditional video surveillance scheme and the unified video surveillance solution in the eIoT environment is made. Network load and service latency parameters under the two schemes are theoretically modeled and simulated. Combined with the simulation results, the corresponding suggestions for the access of video terminals in the ubiquitous eIoT are given.
Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Countermeasure of Lightweight Physical Unclonable Function Against Side-Channel Attack. 2019 Cybersecurity and Cyberforensics Conference (CCC). :30–34.

In industrial internet of things, various devices are connected to external internet. For the connected devices, the authentication is very important in the viewpoint of security; therefore, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have attracted attention as authentication techniques. On the other hand, the risk of modeling attacks on PUFs, which clone the function of PUFs mathematically, is pointed out. Therefore, a resistant-PUF such as a lightweight PUF has been proposed. However, new analytical methods (side-channel attacks: SCAs), which use side-channel information such as power or electromagnetic waves, have been proposed. The countermeasure method has also been proposed; however, an evaluation using actual devices has not been studied. Since PUFs use small production variations, the implementation evaluation is very important. Therefore, this study proposes a SCA countermeasure of the lightweight PUF. The proposed method is based on the previous studies, and maintains power consumption consistency during the generation of response. In experiments using a field programmable gate array, the measured power consumption was constant regardless of output values of the PUF could be confirmed. Then, experimental results showed that the predicted rate of the response was about 50 %, and the proposed method had a tamper resistance against SCAs.

Alioto, Massimo, Taneja, Sachin.  2019.  Enabling Ubiquitous Hardware Security via Energy-Efficient Primitives and Systems : (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC). :1–8.
Security down to hardware (HW) has become a fundamental requirement in highly-connected and ubiquitously deployed systems, as a result of the recent discovery of a wide range of vulnerabilities in commercial devices, as well as the affordability of several attacks that were traditionally considered unlikely. HW security is now a fundamental requirement in view of the massive attack surface that they expose, and the substantial power penalty entailed by solutions at higher levels of abstraction.In large-scale networks of connected devices, attacks need to be counteracted at low cost down to individual nodes, which need to be identified or authenticated securely, and protect confidentiality and integrity of the data that is sensed, stored, processed and wirelessly exchanged. In many security-sensitive applications, physical attacks against individual chips need to be counteracted to truly enable an end-to-end chain of trust from nodes to cloud and actuation (i.e., always-on security). These requirements have motivated the on-going global research and development effort to assure hardware security at low cost and power penalty down to low-end devices (i.e., ubiquitous security).This paper provides a fresh overview of the fundamentals, the design requirements and the state of the art in primitives for HW security. Challenges and future directions are discussed using recent silicon demonstrations as case studies.
Taneja, Shubbhi, Zhou, Yi, Chavan, Ajit, Qin, Xiao.  2019.  Improving Energy Efficiency of Hadoop Clusters using Approximate Computing. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :206–211.
There is an ongoing search for finding energy-efficient solutions in multi-core computing platforms. Approximate computing is one such solution leveraging the forgiving nature of applications to improve the energy efficiency at different layers of the computing platform ranging from applications to hardware. We are interested in understanding the benefits of approximate computing in the realm of Apache Hadoop and its applications. A few mechanisms for introducing approximation in programming models include sampling input data, skipping selective computations, relaxing synchronization, and user-defined quality-levels. We believe that it is straightforward to apply the aforementioned mechanisms to conserve energy in Hadoop clusters as well. The emerging trend of approximate computing motivates us to systematically investigate thermal profiling of approximate computing strategies in this research. In particular, we design a thermal-aware approximate computing framework called tHadoop2, which is an extension of tHadoop proposed by Chavan et al. We investigated the thermal behavior of a MapReduce application called Pi running on Hadoop clusters by varying two input parameters - number of maps and number of sampling points per map. Our profiling results show that Pi exhibits inherent resilience in terms of the number of precision digits present in its value.
Tenentes, Vasileios, Das, Shidhartha, Rossi, Daniele, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M..  2019.  Run-time Detection and Mitigation of Power-Noise Viruses. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :275–280.
Power-noise viruses can be used as denial-of-service attacks by causing voltage emergencies in multi-core microprocessors that may lead to data corruptions and system crashes. In this paper, we present a run-time system for detecting and mitigating power-noise viruses. We present voltage noise data from a power-noise virus and benchmarks collected from an Arm multi-core processor, and we observe that the frequency of voltage emergencies is dramatically increasing during the execution of power-noise attacks. Based on this observation, we propose a regression model that allows for a run-time estimation of the severity of voltage emergencies by monitoring the frequency of voltage emergencies and the operating frequency of the microprocessor. For mitigating the problem, during the execution of critical tasks that require protection, we propose a system which periodically evaluates the severity of voltage emergencies and adapts its operating frequency in order to honour a predefined severity constraint. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed run-time system.
Bousselham, Mhidi, Benamar, Nabil, Addaim, Adnane.  2019.  A new Security Mechanism for Vehicular Cloud Computing Using Fog Computing System. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS). :1–4.

Recently Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) has become an attractive solution that support vehicle's computing and storing service requests. This computing paradigm insures a reduced energy consumption and low traffic congestion. Additionally, VCC has emerged as a promising technology that provides a virtual platform for processing data using vehicles as infrastructures or centralized data servers. However, vehicles are deployed in open environments where they are vulnerable to various types of attacks. Furthermore, traditional cryptographic algorithms failed in insuring security once their keys compromised. In order to insure a secure vehicular platform, we introduce in this paper a new decoy technology DT and user behavior profiling (UBP) as an alternative solution to overcome data security, privacy and trust in vehicular cloud servers using a fog computing architecture. In the case of a malicious behavior, our mechanism shows a high efficiency by delivering decoy files in such a way making the intruder unable to differentiate between the original and decoy file.

Wang, C., Zhao, S., Wang, X., Luo, M., Yang, M..  2018.  A Neural Network Trojan Detection Method Based on Particle Swarm Optimization. 2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT). :1-3.

Hardware Trojans (HTs) are malicious modifications of the original circuits intended to leak information or cause malfunction. Based on the Side Channel Analysis (SCA) technology, a set of hardware Trojan detection platform is designed for RTL circuits on the basis of HSPICE power consumption simulation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm is used to reduce the dimension of power consumption data. An intelligent neural networks (NN) algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is introduced to achieve HTs recognition. Experimental results show that the detection accuracy of PSO NN method is much better than traditional BP NN method.

Fawaz, A. M., Noureddine, M. A., Sanders, W. H..  2018.  POWERALERT: Integrity Checking Using Power Measurement and a Game-Theoretic Strategy. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :514–525.
We propose POWERALERT, an efficient external integrity checker for untrusted hosts. Current attestation systems suffer from shortcomings, including requiring a complete checksum of the code segment, from being static, use of timing information sourced from the untrusted machine, or using imprecise timing information such as network round-trip time. We address those shortcomings by (1) using power measurements from the host to ensure that the checking code is executed and (2) checking a subset of the kernel space over an extended period. We compare the power measurement against a learned power model of the execution of the machine and validate that the execution was not tampered. Finally, POWERALERT randomizes the integrity checking program to prevent the attacker from adapting. We model the interaction between POWERALERT and an attacker as a time-continuous game. The Nash equilibrium strategy of the game shows that POWERALERT has two optimal strategy choices: (1) aggressive checking that forces the attacker into hiding, or (2) slow checking that minimizes cost. We implement a prototype of POWERALERT using Raspberry Pi and evaluate the performance of the integrity checking program generation.
Moons, B., Goetschalckx, K., Berckelaer, N. Van, Verhelst, M..  2017.  Minimum energy quantized neural networks. 2017 51st Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. :1921–1925.
This work targets the automated minimum-energy optimization of Quantized Neural Networks (QNNs) - networks using low precision weights and activations. These networks are trained from scratch at an arbitrary fixed point precision. At iso-accuracy, QNNs using fewer bits require deeper and wider network architectures than networks using higher precision operators, while they require less complex arithmetic and less bits per weights. This fundamental trade-off is analyzed and quantified to find the minimum energy QNN for any benchmark and hence optimize energy-efficiency. To this end, the energy consumption of inference is modeled for a generic hardware platform. This allows drawing several conclusions across different benchmarks. First, energy consumption varies orders of magnitude at iso-accuracy depending on the number of bits used in the QNN. Second, in a typical system, BinaryNets or int4 implementations lead to the minimum energy solution, outperforming int8 networks up to 2-10× at iso-accuracy. All code used for QNN training is available from
Kang, E. Y., Mu, D., Huang, L., Lan, Q..  2017.  Verification and Validation of a Cyber-Physical System in the Automotive Domain. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :326–333.
Software development for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), e.g., autonomous vehicles, requires both functional and non-functional quality assurance to guarantee that the CPS operates safely and effectively. EAST-ADL is a domain specific architectural language dedicated to safety-critical automotive embedded system design. We have previously modified EAST-ADL to include energy constraints and transformed energy-aware real-time (ERT) behaviors modeled in EAST-ADL/Stateflow into UPPAAL models amenable to formal verification. Previous work is extended in this paper by including support for Simulink and an integration of Simulink/Stateflow (S/S) within the same too lchain. S/S models are transformed, based on the extended ERT constraints with probability parameters, into verifiable UPPAAL-SMC models and integrate the translation with formal statistical analysis techniques: Probabilistic extension of EAST-ADL constraints is defined as a semantics denotation. A set of mapping rules is proposed to facilitate the guarantee of translation. Formal analysis on both functional- and non-functional properties is performed using Simulink Design Verifier and UPPAAL-SMC. Our approach is demonstrated on the autonomous traffic sign recognition vehicle case study.
Marques, J., Andrade, J., Falcao, G..  2017.  Unreliable memory operation on a convolutional neural network processor. 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Systems (SiPS). :1–6.

The evolution of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) into more complex forms of organization, with additional layers, larger convolutions and increasing connections, established the state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy errors for detection and classification challenges in images. Moreover, as they evolved to a point where Gigabytes of memory are required for their operation, we have reached a stage where it becomes fundamental to understand how their inference capabilities can be impaired if data elements somehow become corrupted in memory. This paper introduces fault-injection in these systems by simulating failing bit-cells in hardware memories brought on by relaxing the 100% reliable operation assumption. We analyze the behavior of these networks calculating inference under severe fault-injection rates and apply fault mitigation strategies to improve on the CNNs resilience. For the MNIST dataset, we show that 8x less memory is required for the feature maps memory space, and that in sub-100% reliable operation, fault-injection rates up to 10-1 (with most significant bit protection) can withstand only a 1% error probability degradation. Furthermore, considering the offload of the feature maps memory to an embedded dynamic RAM (eDRAM) system, using technology nodes from 65 down to 28 nm, up to 73 80% improved power efficiency can be obtained.

Medjek, F., Tandjaoui, D., Romdhani, I., Djedjig, N..  2017.  Performance Evaluation of RPL Protocol under Mobile Sybil Attacks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :1049–1055.

In Sybil attacks, a physical adversary takes multiple fabricated or stolen identities to maliciously manipulate the network. These attacks are very harmful for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In this paper we implemented and evaluated the performance of RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) routing protocol under mobile sybil attacks, namely SybM, with respect to control overhead, packet delivery and energy consumption. In SybM attacks, Sybil nodes take the advantage of their mobility and the weakness of RPL to handle identity and mobility, to flood the network with fake control messages from different locations. To counter these type of attacks we propose a trust-based intrusion detection system based on RPL.

Nan, L., Zeng, X., Wang, Z., Du, Y., Li, W..  2017.  Research of a reconfigurable coarse-grained cryptographic processing unit based on different operation similar structure. 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on ASIC (ASICON). :191–194.

This paper proposed a feedback shift register structure which can be split, it is based on a research of operating characteristics about 70 kinds of cryptographic algorithms and the research shows that the “different operations similar structure” reconfigurable design is feasible. Under the configuration information, the proposed structure can implement the multiplication in finite field GF(2n), the multiply/divide linear feedback shift register and other operations. Finally, this paper did a logic synthesis based on 55nm CMOS standard-cell library and the results show that the proposed structure gets a hardware resource saving of nearly 32%, the average power consumption saving of nearly 55% without the critical delay increasing significantly. Therefore, the “different operations similar structure” reconfigurable design is a new design method and the proposed feedback shift register structure can be an important processing unit for coarse-grained reconfigurable cryptologic array.

Bellizia, D., Scotti, G., Trifiletti, A..  2017.  Fully integrable current-mode feedback suppressor as an analog countermeasure against CPA attacks in 40nm CMOS technology. 2017 13th Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME). :349–352.

Security of sensible data for ultraconstrained IoT smart devices is one of the most challenging task in modern design. The needs of CPA-resistant cryptographic devices has to deal with the demanding requirements of small area and small impact on the overall power consumption. In this work, a novel current-mode feedback suppressor as on-chip analog-level CPA countermeasure is proposed. It aims to suppress differences in power consumption due to data-dependency of CMOS cryptographic devices, in order to counteract CPA attacks. The novel countermeasure is able to improve MTD of unprotected CMOS implementation of at least three orders of magnitude, providing a ×1.1 area and ×1.7 power overhead.

Rodrigues, P., Sreedharan, S., Basha, S. A., Mahesh, P. S..  2017.  Security threat identification using energy points. 2017 2nd International Conference on Anti-Cyber Crimes (ICACC). :52–54.

This research paper identifies security issues; especially energy based security attacks and enhances security of the system. It is very essential to consider Security of the system to be developed in the initial Phases of the software Cycle of Software Development (SDLC) as many billions of bucks are drained owing to security flaws in software caused due to improper or no security process. Security breaches that occur on software system are in umpteen numbers. Scientific Literature propose many solutions to overcome security issues, all security mechanisms are reactive in nature. In this paper new security solution is proposed that is proactive in nature especially for energy based denial of service attacks which is frequent in the recent past. Proposed solution is based on energy consumption by system known as energy points.