Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-02-15
Omori, T., Isono, Y., Kondo, K., Akamine, Y., Kidera, S..  2020.  k-Space Decomposition Based Super-resolution Three-dimensional Imaging Method for Millimeter Wave Radar. 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20). :1–6.
Millimeter wave imaging radar is indispensible for collision avoidance of self-driving system, especially in optically blurred visions. The range points migration (RPM) is one of the most promising imaging algorithms, which provides a number of advantages from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in terms of accuracy, computational complexity, and potential for multifunctional imaging. The inherent problem in the RPM is that it suffers from lower angular resolution in narrower frequency band even if higher frequency e.g. millimeter wave, signal is exploited. To address this problem, the k-space decomposition based RPM has been developed. This paper focuses on the experimental validation of this method using the X-band or millimeter wave radar system, and demonstrated that our method significantly enhances the reconstruction accuracy in three-dimensional images for the two simple spheres and realistic vehicle targets.
2021-01-11
Gautam, A., Singh, S..  2020.  A Comparative Analysis of Deep Learning based Super-Resolution Techniques for Thermal Videos. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :919—925.

Video streams acquired from thermal cameras are proven to be beneficial in diverse number of fields including military, healthcare, law enforcement, and security. Despite the hype, thermal imaging is increasingly affected by poor resolution, where it has expensive optical sensors and inability to attain optical precision. In recent years, deep learning based super-resolution algorithms are developed to enhance the video frame resolution at high accuracy. This paper presents a comparative analysis of super resolution (SR) techniques based on deep neural networks (DNN) that are applied on thermal video dataset. SRCNN, EDSR, Auto-encoder, and SRGAN are also discussed and investigated. Further the results on benchmark thermal datasets including FLIR, OSU thermal pedestrian database and OSU color thermal database are evaluated and analyzed. Based on the experimental results, it is concluded that, SRGAN has delivered a superior performance on thermal frames when compared to other techniques and improvements, which has the ability to provide state-of-the art performance in real time operations.

2020-09-14
Anselmi, Nicola, Poli, Lorenzo, Oliveri, Giacomo, Rocca, Paolo, Massa, Andrea.  2019.  Dealing with Correlation and Sparsity for an Effective Exploitation of the Compressive Processing in Electromagnetic Inverse Problems. 2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). :1–4.
In this paper, a novel method for tomographic microwave imaging based on the Compressive Processing (CP) paradigm is proposed. The retrieval of the dielectric profiles of the scatterers is carried out by efficiently solving both the sampling and the sensing problems suitably formulated under the first order Born approximation. Selected numerical results are presented in order to show the improvements provided by the CP with respect to conventional compressive sensing (CSE) approaches.
Wang, Lizhi, Xiong, Zhiwei, Huang, Hua, Shi, Guangming, Wu, Feng, Zeng, Wenjun.  2019.  High-Speed Hyperspectral Video Acquisition By Combining Nyquist and Compressive Sampling. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 41:857–870.
We propose a novel hybrid imaging system to acquire 4D high-speed hyperspectral (HSHS) videos with high spatial and spectral resolution. The proposed system consists of two branches: one branch performs Nyquist sampling in the temporal dimension while integrating the whole spectrum, resulting in a high-frame-rate panchromatic video; the other branch performs compressive sampling in the spectral dimension with longer exposures, resulting in a low-frame-rate hyperspectral video. Owing to the high light throughput and complementary sampling, these two branches jointly provide reliable measurements for recovering the underlying HSHS video. Moreover, the panchromatic video can be used to learn an over-complete 3D dictionary to represent each band-wise video sparsely, thanks to the inherent structural similarity in the spectral dimension. Based on the joint measurements and the self-adaptive dictionary, we further propose a simultaneous spectral sparse (3S) model to reinforce the structural similarity across different bands and develop an efficient computational reconstruction algorithm to recover the HSHS video. Both simulation and hardware experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that hyperspectral videos can be acquired at a frame rate up to 100fps with commodity optical elements and under ordinary indoor illumination.
Wang, Hui, Yan, Qiurong, Li, Bing, Yuan, Chenglong, Wang, Yuhao.  2019.  Sampling Time Adaptive Single-Photon Compressive Imaging. IEEE Photonics Journal. 11:1–10.
We propose a time-adaptive sampling method and demonstrate a sampling-time-adaptive single-photon compressive imaging system. In order to achieve self-adapting adjustment of sampling time, the theory of threshold of light intensity estimation accuracy is deduced. According to this threshold, a sampling control module, based on field-programmable gate array, is developed. Finally, the advantage of the time-adaptive sampling method is proved experimentally. Imaging performance experiments show that the time-adaptive sampling method can automatically adjust the sampling time for the change of light intensity of image object to obtain an image with better quality and avoid speculative selection of sampling time.
2020-02-26
Shi, Qihang, Vashistha, Nidish, Lu, Hangwei, Shen, Haoting, Tehranipoor, Bahar, Woodard, Damon L, Asadizanjani, Navid.  2019.  Golden Gates: A New Hybrid Approach for Rapid Hardware Trojan Detection Using Testing and Imaging. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :61–71.

Hardware Trojans are malicious modifications on integrated circuits (IC), which pose a grave threat to the security of modern military and commercial systems. Existing methods of detecting hardware Trojans are plagued by the inability of detecting all Trojans, reliance on golden chip that might not be available, high time cost, and low accuracy. In this paper, we present Golden Gates, a novel detection method designed to achieve a comparable level of accuracy to full reverse engineering, yet paying only a fraction of its cost in time. The proposed method inserts golden gate circuits (GGC) to achieve superlative accuracy in the classification of all existing gate footprints using rapid scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backside ultra thinning. Possible attacks against GGC as well as malicious modifications on interconnect layers are discussed and addressed with secure built-in exhaustive test infrastructure. Evaluation with real SEM images demonstrate high classification accuracy and resistance to attacks of the proposed technique.

2018-08-23
Ji, X., Yao, X., Tadayon, M. A., Mohanty, A., Hendon, C. P., Lipson, M..  2017.  High confinement and low loss Si3N4waveguides for miniaturizing optical coherence tomography. 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.

We show high confinement thermally tunable, low loss (0.27 ± 0.04 dB/cm) Si3N4waveguides that are 42 cm long. We show that this platform can enable the miniaturization of traditionally bulky active OCT components.

2018-02-02
Bruel, P., Chalamalasetti, S. R., Dalton, C., Hajj, I. El, Goldman, A., Graves, C., Hwu, W. m, Laplante, P., Milojicic, D., Ndu, G. et al..  2017.  Generalize or Die: Operating Systems Support for Memristor-Based Accelerators. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Rebooting Computing (ICRC). :1–8.

The deceleration of transistor feature size scaling has motivated growing adoption of specialized accelerators implemented as GPUs, FPGAs, ASICs, and more recently new types of computing such as neuromorphic, bio-inspired, ultra low energy, reversible, stochastic, optical, quantum, combinations, and others unforeseen. There is a tension between specialization and generalization, with the current state trending to master slave models where accelerators (slaves) are instructed by a general purpose system (master) running an Operating System (OS). Traditionally, an OS is a layer between hardware and applications and its primary function is to manage hardware resources and provide a common abstraction to applications. Does this function, however, apply to new types of computing paradigms? This paper revisits OS functionality for memristor-based accelerators. We explore one accelerator implementation, the Dot Product Engine (DPE), for a select pattern of applications in machine learning, imaging, and scientific computing and a small set of use cases. We explore typical OS functionality, such as reconfiguration, partitioning, security, virtualization, and programming. We also explore new types of functionality, such as precision and trustworthiness of reconfiguration. We claim that making an accelerator, such as the DPE, more general will result in broader adoption and better utilization.

2017-10-19
Bianco, Federica B., Koonin, Steven E., Mydlarz, Charlie, Sharma, Mohit S..  2016.  Hypertemporal Imaging of NYC Grid Dynamics: Short Paper. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Built Environments. :61–64.
Hypertemporal visible imaging of an urban lightscape can reveal the phase of the electrical grid granular to individual housing units. In contrast to in-situ monitoring or metering, this method offers broad, persistent, real-time, and non-permissive coverage through a single camera sited at an urban vantage point. Rapid changes in the phase of individual housing units signal changes in load (e.g., appliances turning on and off), while slower building- or neighborhood-level changes can indicate the health of distribution transformers. We demonstrate the concept by observing the 120 Hz flicker of lights across a NYC skyline. A liquid crystal shutter driven at 119.75 Hz down-converts the flicker to 0.25 Hz, which is imaged at a 4 Hz cadence by an inexpensive CCD camera; the grid phase of each source is determined by analysis of its sinusoidal light curve over an imaging "burst" of some 25 seconds. Analysis of bursts taken at \textbackslashtextasciitilde 15 minute cadence over several hours demonstrates both the stability and variation of phases of halogen, incandescent, and some fluorescent lights. Correlation of such results with ground-truth data will validate a method that could be applied to better monitor electricity consumption and distribution in both developed and developing cities.
2017-03-08
Moradi, M., Falahati, A., Shahbahrami, A., Zare-Hassanpour, R..  2015.  Improving visual quality in wireless capsule endoscopy images with contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. 2015 2nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (IPRIA). :1–5.

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a noninvasive device for detection of gastrointestinal problems especially small bowel diseases, such as polyps which causes gastrointestinal bleeding. The quality of WCE images is very important for diagnosis. In this paper, a new method is proposed to improve the quality of WCE images. In our proposed method for improving the quality of WCE images, Removing Noise and Contrast Enhancement (RNCE) algorithm is used. The algorithm have been implemented and tested on some real images. Quality metrics used for performance evaluation of the proposed method is Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Edge Strength Similarity for Image (ESSIM). The results obtained from SSIM, PSNR and ESSIM indicate that the implemented RNCE method improve the quality of WCE images significantly.

2017-02-21
X. Li, J. D. Haupt.  2015.  "Outlier identification via randomized adaptive compressive sampling". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :3302-3306.

This paper examines the problem of locating outlier columns in a large, otherwise low-rank, matrix. We propose a simple two-step adaptive sensing and inference approach and establish theoretical guarantees for its performance. Our results show that accurate outlier identification is achievable using very few linear summaries of the original data matrix - as few as the squared rank of the low-rank component plus the number of outliers, times constant and logarithmic factors. We demonstrate the performance of our approach experimentally in two stylized applications, one motivated by robust collaborative filtering tasks, and the other by saliency map estimation tasks arising in computer vision and automated surveillance.