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Choi, Jong-Young, Park, Jiwoong, Lim, Sung-Hwa, Ko, Young-Bae.  2022.  A RSSI-Based Mesh Routing Protocol based IEEE 802.11p/WAVE for Smart Pole Networks. 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :1—5.
This paper proposes a RSSI-based routing protocol for smart pole mesh networks equipped with multiple IEEE 802.11p/WAVE radios. In the IEEE 802.11p based multi-radio multi-channel environments, the performance of traditional mesh routing protocols is severely degraded because of metric measurement overhead. The periodic probe messages for measuring the quality of each channel incurs a large overhead due to the channel switching delay. To solve such an overhead problem, we introduce a routing metric that estimates expected transmission time and proposes a light-weight channel allocation algorithm based on RSSI value only. We evaluate the performance of the proposed solution through simulation experiments with NS-3. Simulation results show that it can improve the network performance in terms of latency and throughput, compared to the legacy WCETT routing scheme.
Illi, Elmehdi, Pandey, Anshul, Bariah, Lina, Singh, Govind, Giacalone, Jean-Pierre, Muhaidat, Sami.  2022.  Physical Layer Continuous Authentication for Wireless Mesh Networks: An Experimental Study. 2022 IEEE International Mediterranean Conference on Communications and Networking (MeditCom). :136—141.
This paper investigates the robustness of the received signal strength (RSS)-based physical layer authentication (PLA) for wireless mesh networks, through experimental results. Specifically, we develop a secure wireless mesh networking framework and apply the RSS-based PLA scheme, with the aim to perform continuous authentication. The mesh setup comprises three Raspberry-PI4 computing nodes (acting as Alice, Bob, and Eve) and a server. The server role is to perform the initial authentication when a new node joins the mesh network. After that, the legitimate nodes in the mesh network perform continuous authentication, by leveraging the RSS feature of wireless signals. In particular, Bob tries to authenticate Alice in the presence of Eve. The performance of the presented framework is quantified through extensive experimental results in an outdoor environment, where various nodes' positions, relative distances, and pedestrian speeds scenarios are considered. The obtained results demonstrate the robustness of the underlying model, where an authentication rate of 99% for the static case can be achieved. Meanwhile, at the pedestrian speed, the authentication rate can drop to 85%. On the other hand, the detection rate improves when the distance between the legitimate and wiretap links is large (exceeds 20 meters) or when Alice and Eve are moving in different mobility patterns.
Nihtilä, Timo, Berg, Heikki.  2022.  Energy Consumption of DECT-2020 NR Mesh Networks. 2022 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit). :196—201.
ETSI DECT-2020 New Radio (NR) is a new flexible radio interface targeted to support a broad range of wireless Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Recent reports have shown that DECT-2020 NR achieves good delay performance and it has been shown to fulfill both massive machine-type communications (mMTC) and ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC) requirements for 5th generation (5G) networks. A unique aspect of DECT-2020 as a 5G technology is that it is an autonomous wireless mesh network (WMN) protocol where the devices construct and uphold the network independently without the need for base stations or core network architecture. Instead, DECT-2020 NR relies on part of the network devices taking the role of a router to relay data through the network. This makes deployment of a DECT-2020 NR network affordable and extremely easy, but due to the nature of the medium access protocol, the routing responsibility adds an additional energy consumption burden to the nodes, who in the IoT domain are likely to be equipped with a limited battery capacity. In this paper, we analyze by system level simulations the energy consumption of DECT-2020 NR networks with different network sizes and topologies and how the reported low latencies can be upheld given the energy constraints of IoT devices.
Kalafatidis, Sarantis, Demiroglou, Vassilis, Mamatas, Lefteris, Tsaoussidis, Vassilis.  2022.  Experimenting with an SDN-Based NDN Deployment over Wireless Mesh Networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2022 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1—6.
Internet of Things (IoT) evolution calls for stringent communication demands, including low delay and reliability. At the same time, wireless mesh technology is used to extend the communication range of IoT deployments, in a multi-hop manner. However, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are facing link failures due to unstable topologies, resulting in unsatisfied IoT requirements. Named-Data Networking (NDN) can enhance WMNs to meet such IoT requirements, thanks to the content naming scheme and in-network caching, but necessitates adaptability to the challenging conditions of WMNs.In this work, we argue that Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is an ideal solution to fill this gap and introduce an integrated SDN-NDN deployment over WMNs involving: (i) global view of the network in real-time; (ii) centralized decision making; and (iii) dynamic NDN adaptation to network changes. The proposed system is deployed and evaluated over the wiLab.1 Fed4FIRE+ test-bed. The proof-of-concept results validate that the centralized control of SDN effectively supports the NDN operation in unstable topologies with frequent dynamic changes, such as the WMNs.
Macabale, Nemesio A..  2022.  On the Stability of Load Adaptive Routing Over Wireless Community Mesh and Sensor Networks. 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :21—26.
Wireless mesh networks are increasingly deployed as a flexible and low-cost alternative for providing wireless services for a variety of applications including community mesh networking, medical applications, and disaster ad hoc communications, sensor and IoT applications. However, challenges remain such as interference, contention, load imbalance, and congestion. To address these issues, previous work employ load adaptive routing based on load sensitive routing metrics. On the other hand, such approach does not immediately improve network performance because the load estimates used to choose routes are themselves affected by the resulting routing changes in a cyclical manner resulting to oscillation. Although this is not a new phenomenon and has been studied in wired networks, it has not been investigated extensively in wireless mesh and/or sensor networks. We present these instabilities and how they pose performance, security, and energy issues to these networks. Accordingly, we present a feedback-aware mapping system called FARM that handles these instabilities in a manner analogous to a control system with feedback control. Results show that FARM stabilizes routes that improves network performance in throughput, delay, energy efficiency, and security.
Starks, Brandon E., Robinson, Karsen, Sitaula, Binod, Chrysler, Andrew M..  2021.  Physical Layer Wireless Security Through the Rotation of Polarized Antennas. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (APS/URSI). :1483–1484.
A wireless communication system with rotating linearly polarized antennas is built and tested as a method for increasing physical layer security. Controlling the linear polarization angle from 0° to 180° yields bit error rates greater than 20% for 40° of rotation.
Fang, Xiaojie, Yin, Xinyu, Zhang, Ning, Sha, Xuejun, Zhang, Hongli, Han, Zhu.  2021.  Demonstrating Physical Layer Security Via Weighted Fractional Fourier Transform. IEEE INFOCOM 2021 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1–2.
Recently, there has been significant enthusiasms in exploiting physical (PHY-) layer characteristics for secure wireless communication. However, most existing PHY-layer security paradigms are information theoretical methodologies, which are infeasible to real and practical systems. In this paper, we propose a weighted fractional Fourier transform (WFRFT) pre-coding scheme to enhance the security of wireless transmissions against eavesdropping. By leveraging the concept of WFRFT, the proposed scheme can easily change the characteristics of the underlying radio signals to complement and secure upper-layer cryptographic protocols. We demonstrate a running prototype based on the LTE-framework. First, the compatibility between the WFRFT pre-coding scheme and the conversational LTE architecture is presented. Then, the security mechanism of the WFRFT pre-coding scheme is demonstrated. Experimental results validate the practicability and security performance superiority of the proposed scheme.
Manikandan, T.T., Sukumaran, Rajeev, Christhuraj, M.R., Saravanan, M..  2020.  Adopting Stochastic Network Calculus as Mathematical Theory for Performance Analysis of Underwater Wireless Communication Networks. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :436—441.
Underwater Wireless Communication Network (UWCN) is highly emerging in recent times due to the broad variety of underwater applications ranging from disaster prediction, environmental resource monitoring, military security surveillance and assisted navigation. Since the kind of accuracy these applications demands from the dynamic underwater environment is really high, so there is a need for effective way of study underwater communication networks. Usually underwater networks can be studied with the help of actual underwater testbed or with the model of the underwater network. Studying the underwater system with the actual underwater testbed is costly. The effective way of analysis can be done by creating a mathematical model of underwater systems. Queuing theory is one of the most popular mathematical theories used for conventional circuit switched networks whereas it can’t be applied for modeling modern packet switched networks which has high variability compared to that of circuit switched networks. So this paper presents Stochastic Network Calculus (SNC) as the mathematical theory for modeling underwater communication networks. Underlying principles and basic models provided by SNC for analyzing the performance graduates of UWCN is discussed in detail for the benefit of researchers looking for the effective mathematical theory for modeling the system in the domain of underwater communication.
Nassar, Reem, Elhajj, Imad, Kayssi, Ayman, Salam, Samer.  2021.  Identifying NAT Devices to Detect Shadow IT: A Machine Learning Approach. 2021 IEEE/ACS 18th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—7.
Network Address Translation (NAT) is an address remapping technique placed at the borders of stub domains. It is present in almost all routers and CPEs. Most NAT devices implement Port Address Translation (PAT), which allows the mapping of multiple private IP addresses to one public IP address. Based on port number information, PAT matches the incoming traffic to the corresponding "hidden" client. In an enterprise context, and with the proliferation of unauthorized wired and wireless NAT routers, NAT can be used for re-distributing an Intranet or Internet connection or for deploying hidden devices that are not visible to the enterprise IT or under its oversight, thus causing a problem known as shadow IT. Thus, it is important to detect NAT devices in an intranet to prevent this particular problem. Previous methods in identifying NAT behavior were based on features extracted from traffic traces per flow. In this paper, we propose a method to identify NAT devices using a machine learning approach from aggregated flow features. The approach uses multiple statistical features in addition to source and destination IPs and port numbers, extracted from passively collected traffic data. We also use aggregated features extracted within multiple window sizes and feed them to a machine learning classifier to study the effect of timing on NAT detection. Our approach works completely passively and achieves an accuracy of 96.9% when all features are utilized.
Shi, Yongpeng, Gao, Ya, Xia, Yujie.  2020.  Secrecy Performance Analysis in Internet of Satellites: Physical Layer Security Perspective. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :1185–1189.
As the latest evolving architecture of space networks, Internet of Satellites (IoSat) is regarded as a promising paradigm in the future beyond 5G and 6G wireless systems. However, due to the extremely large number of satellites and open links, it is challenging to ensure communication security in IoSat, especially for wiretap resisting. To the best of our knowledge, it is an entirely new problem to study the security issue in IoSat, since existing works concerning physical layer security (PLS) in satellite networks mainly focused on the space-to-terrestrial links. It is also noted that, we are the first to investigate PLS problem in IoSat. In light of this, we present in this paper an analytical model of PLS in IoSat where a terrestrial transmitter delivers its information to multi-satellite in the presence of eavesdroppers. By adopting the key parameters such as satellites' deployment density, minimum elevation angle, and orbit height, two major secrecy metric including average secrecy capacity and probability are derived and analyzed. As demonstrated by extensive numerical results, the presented theoretical framework can be utilized to efficiently evaluate the secrecy performance of IoSat, and guide the design and optimization for communication security in such systems.
Lipps, Christoph, Mallikarjun, Sachinkumar Bavikatti, Strufe, Matthias, Heinz, Christopher, Grimm, Christoph, Schotten, Hans Dieter.  2020.  Keep Private Networks Private: Secure Channel-PUFs, and Physical Layer Security by Linear Regression Enhanced Channel Profiles. 2020 3rd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :93–100.
In the context of a rapidly changing and increasingly complex (industrial) production landscape, securing the (communication) infrastructure is becoming an ever more important but also more challenging task - accompanied by the application of radio communication. A worthwhile and promising approach to overcome the arising attack vectors, and to keep private networks private, are Physical Layer Security (PhySec) implementations. The paper focuses on the transfer of the IEEE802.11 (WLAN) PhySec - Secret Key Generation (SKG) algorithms to Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMNs), as they are the driving forces and key enabler of future industrial networks. Based on a real world Long Term Evolution (LTE) testbed, improvements of the SKG algorithms are validated. The paper presents and evaluates significant improvements in the establishment of channel profiles, whereby especially the Bit Disagreement Rate (BDR) can be improved substantially. The combination of the Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) and the supervised Machine Learning (ML) algorithm - Linear Regression (LR) - provides outstanding results, which can be used beyond the SKG application. The evaluation also emphasizes the appropriateness of PhySec for securing private networks.
Xu, Zhifan, Baykal-Gürsoy, Melike, Spasojević, Predrag.  2021.  A Game-Theoretic Approach for Probabilistic Cooperative Jamming Strategies over Parallel Wireless Channels. 2021 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :47–55.
Considered is a network of parallel wireless channels in which individual parties are engaged in secret communication under the protection of cooperative jamming. A strategic eavesdropper selects the most vulnerable channels to attack. Existing works usually suggest the defender allocate limited cooperative jamming power to various channels. However, it usually requires some strong assumptions and complex computation to find such an optimal power control policy. This paper proposes a probabilistic cooperative jamming scheme such that the defender focuses on protecting randomly selected channels. Two different cases regarding each channel’s eavesdropping capacity are discussed. The first case studies the general scenario where each channel has different eavesdropping capacity. The second case analyzes an extreme scenario where all channels have the same eavesdropping capacity. Two non-zero-sum Nash games model the competition between the network defender and an eavesdropper in each case. Furthermore, considering the case that the defender does not know the eavesdropper’s channel state information (CSI) leads to a Bayesian game. For all three games, we derive conditions for the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium (NE), and obtain the equilibria and the value functions in closed form.
Sun, Yang, Li, Na, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2021.  Privacy Preserved Secure Offloading in the Multi-access Edge Computing Network. 2021 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW). :1–6.
Mobile edge computing (MEC) emerges recently to help process the computation-intensive and delay-sensitive applications of resource limited mobile devices in support of MEC servers. Due to the wireless offloading, MEC faces many security challenges, like eavesdropping and privacy leakage. The anti-eavesdropping offloading or privacy preserving offloading have been studied in existing researches. However, both eavesdropping and privacy leakage may happen in the meantime in practice. In this paper, we propose a privacy preserved secure offloading scheme aiming to minimize the energy consumption, where the location privacy, usage pattern privacy and secure transmission against the eavesdropper are jointly considered. We formulate this problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP) with the constraints of secure offloading rate and pre-specified privacy level, and solve it with reinforcement learning (RL). It can be concluded from the simulation that this scheme can save the energy consumption as well as improve the privacy level and security of the mobile device compared with the benchmark scheme.
Hu, Lingling, Liu, Liang, Liu, Yulei, Zhai, Wenbin, Wang, Xinmeng.  2021.  A robust fixed path-based routing scheme for protecting the source location privacy in WSNs. 2021 17th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :48–55.
With the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), WSNs have been widely used in various fields such as animal habitat detection, military surveillance, etc. This paper focuses on protecting the source location privacy (SLP) in WSNs. Existing algorithms perform poorly in non-uniform networks which are common in reality. In order to address the performance degradation problem of existing algorithms in non-uniform networks, this paper proposes a robust fixed path-based random routing scheme (RFRR), which guarantees the path diversity with certainty in non-uniform networks. In RFRR, the data packets are sent by selecting a routing path that is highly differentiated from each other, which effectively protects SLP and resists the backtracking attack. The experimental results show that RFRR increases the difficulty of the backtracking attack while safekeeping the balance between security and energy consumption.
Alzaabi, Aaesha, Aldoobi, Ayesha, Alserkal, Latifa, Alnuaimi, Deena, Alsuwaidi, Mahra, Ababneh, Nedal.  2021.  Enhancing Source-Location Privacy in IoT Wireless Sensor Networks Routing. 2021 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering Technology (CCET). :376–381.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their implementations have been the subject of numerous studies over the last two decades. WSN gathers, processes, and distributes wireless data to the database storage center. This study aims to explain the four main components of sensor nodes and the mechanism of WSN's. WSNs have 5 available types that will be discussed and explained in this paper. In addition to that, shortest path routing will be thoroughly analyzed. In “The Protocol”. Reconfigurable logic applications have grown in number and complexity. Shortest path routing is a method of finding paths through a network with the least distance or other cost metric. The efficiency of the shortest path protocol mechanism and the reliability of encryption are both present which adds security and accuracy of location privacy and message delivery. There are different forms of key management, such as symmetric and asymmetric encryption, each with its own set of processing techniques. The use of encryption technique to secure sensor nodes is addressed, as well as how we overcame the problem with the aid of advanced techniques. Our major findings are that adding more security doesn't cost much and by cost we mean energy consumption, throughput and latency.
Yang, Chen, Jia, Zhen, Li, Shundong.  2021.  Privacy-Preserving Proximity Detection Framework for Location-Based Services. 2021 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :99–106.
With the popularization of mobile communication and sensing equipment, as well as the rapid development of location-aware technology and wireless communication technology, LBSs(Location-based services) bring convenience to people’s lives and enable people to arrange activities more efficiently and reasonably. It can provide more flexible LBS proximity detection query, which has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, the development of proximity detection query still faces many severe challenges including query information privacy. For example, when users want to ensure their location privacy and data security, they can get more secure location-based services. In this article, we propose an efficient and privacy-protecting proximity detection framework based on location services: PD(Proximity Detection). Through PD, users can query the range of arbitrary polygons and obtain accurate LBS results. Specifically, based on homomorphic encryption technology, an efficient PRQ(polygon range query) algorithm is constructed. With the help of PRQ, PD, you can obtain accurate polygon range query results through the encryption request and the services provided by the LAS(LBS Agent Server) and the CS(Cloud Server). In addition, the query privacy of the queryer and the information of the data provider are protected. The correctness proof and performance analysis show that the scheme is safe and feasible. Therefore, our scheme is suitable for many practical applications.
Saleh, Yasmine N. M., Chibelushi, Claude C., Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A., Soliman, Abdel-Hamid.  2021.  Privacy-Aware Ant Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks in Healthcare. 2021 IEEE 22nd International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR). :1–6.
The problem of maintaining the privacy of sensitive healthcare data is crucial yet the significance of research efforts achieved still need robust development in privacy protection techniques for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). This paper aims to investigate different privacy-preserving methods for WMSNs that can be applied in healthcare, to guarantee a privacy-aware transmission of multimedia data between sensors and base stations. The combination of ant colony optimization-based routing and hierarchical structure of the network have been proposed in the AntSensNet WMSN-based routing protocol to offer QoS and power efficient multipath multimedia packet scheduling. In this paper, the AntSensNet routing protocol was extended by utilizing privacy-preserving mechanisms thus achieving anonymity / pseudonymity, unlinkability, and location privacy. The vulnerability of standard AntSensNet routing protocol to privacy threats have raised the need for the following privacy attacks’ countermeasures: (i) injection of fake traffic, which achieved anonymity, privacy of source and base locations, as well as unlinkability; (ii) encrypting and correlating the size of scalar and multimedia data which is transmitted through a WMSN, along with encrypting and correlating the size of ants, to achieve unlinkability and location privacy; (iii) pseudonyms to achieve unlinkability. The impact of these countermeasures is assessed using quantitative performance analysis conducted through simulation to gauge the overhead of the added privacy countermeasures. It can be concluded that the introduced modifications did enhance the privacy but with a penalty of increased delay and multimedia jitter. The health condition of a patient determines the vitals to be monitored which affects the volumes and sources of fake traffic. Consequently, desired privacy level will dictate incurred overhead due to multimedia transmissions and privacy measures.
Robert Doebbert, Thomas, Krush, Dmytro, Cammin, Christoph, Jockram, Jonas, Heynicke, Ralf, Scholl, Gerd.  2021.  IO-Link Wireless Device Cryptographic Performance and Energy Efficiency. 2021 22nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). 1:1106–1112.
In the context of the Industry 4.0 initiative, Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS) or Cyber Manufacturing Systems (CMS) can be characterized as advanced networked mechatronic production systems gaining their added value by interaction with different systems using advanced communication technologies. Appropriate wired and wireless communication technologies and standards need to add timing in combination with security concepts to realize the potential improvements in the production process. One of these standards is IO-Link Wireless, which is used for sensor/actuator network operation. In this paper cryptographic performance and energy efficiency of an IO-Link Wireless Device are analyzed. The power consumption and the influence of the cryptographic operations on the trans-mission timing of the IO-Link Wireless protocol are exemplary measured employing a Phytec module based on a CC2650 system-on-chip (SoC) radio transceiver [2]. Confidentiality is considered in combination with the cryptographic performance as well as the energy efficiency. Different cryptographic algorithms are evaluated using the on chip hardware accelerator compared to a cryptographic software implementation.
Kaur, Satwinder, Kuttan, Deepak B, Mittal, Nitin.  2021.  An Energy-saving Approach for Error control Codes in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2021 2nd International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :313—316.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have limited energy resource which requires authentic data transmission at a minimum cost. The major challenge is to deploy WSN with limited energy and lifetime of nodes while taking care of secure data communication. The transmission of data from the wireless channels may cause many losses such as fading, noise, bit error rate increases as well as deplete the energy resource from the nodes. To reduce the adverse effects of losses and to save power usage, error control coding (ECC) techniques are widely used and it also brings coding gain. Since WSN have limited energy resource so the selection of ECC is very difficult as both power consumption, as well as BER, has also taken into consideration. This research paper reviews different types of models, their applications, limitations of the sensor networks, and what are different types of future works going to overcome the limitations.
Cheng, Junyuan, Jiang, Xue-Qin, Bai, Enjian, Wu, Yun, Hai, Han, Pan, Feng, Peng, Yuyang.  2021.  Rate Adaptive Reconciliation Based on Reed-Solomon Codes. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication, Image and Signal Processing (CCISP). :245—249.
Security of physical layer key generation is based on the randomness and reciprocity of wireless fading channel, which has attracted more and more attention in recent years. This paper proposes a rate adaptive key agreement scheme and utilizes the received signal strength (RSS) of the channel between two wireless devices to generate the key. In conventional information reconciliation process, the bit inconsistency rate is usually eliminated by using the filter method, which increases the possibility of exposing the generated key bit string. Building on the strengths of existing secret key extraction approaches, this paper develops a scheme that uses Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, one of forward error correction channel codes, for information reconciliation. Owing to strong error correction performance of RS codes, the proposed scheme can solve the problem of inconsistent key bit string in the process of channel sensing. At the same time, the composition of RS codes can help the scheme realize rate adaptation well due to the construction principle of error correction code, which can freely control the code rate and achieve the reconciliation method of different key bit string length. Through experiments, we find that when the number of inconsistent key bits is not greater than the maximum error correction number of RS codes, it can well meet the purpose of reconciliation.
Ageed, Zainab Salih, Zeebaree, Subhi R. M., Sadeeq, Mohammed A. M., Ibrahim, Rowaida Khalil, Shukur, Hanan M., Alkhayyat, Ahmed.  2021.  Comprehensive Study of Moving from Grid and Cloud Computing Through Fog and Edge Computing towards Dew Computing. 2021 4th International Iraqi Conference on Engineering Technology and Their Applications (IICETA). :68—74.
Dew Computing (DC) is a comparatively modern field with a wide range of applications. By examining how technological advances such as fog, edge and Dew computing, and distributed intelligence force us to reconsider traditional Cloud Computing (CC) to serve the Internet of Things. A new dew estimation theory is presented in this article. The revised definition is as follows: DC is a software and hardware cloud-based company. On-premises servers provide autonomy and collaborate with cloud networks. Dew Calculation aims to enhance the capabilities of on-premises and cloud-based applications. These categories can result in the development of new applications. In the world, there has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), starting with Grid Computing (GC), CC, Fog Computing (FC), and the latest Edge Computing (EC) technology. DC technologies, infrastructure, and applications are described. We’ll go through the newest developments in fog networking, QoE, cloud at the edge, platforms, security, and privacy. The dew-cloud architecture is an option concerning the current client-server architecture, where two servers are located at opposite ends. In the absence of an Internet connection, a dew server helps users browse and track their details. Data are primarily stored as a local copy on the dew server that starts the Internet and is synchronized with the cloud master copy. The local dew pages, a local online version of the current website, can be browsed, read, written, or added to the users. Mapping between different Local Dew sites has been made possible using the dew domain name scheme and dew domain redirection.
Guo, Shaoying, Xu, Yanyun, Huang, Weiqing, Liu, Bo.  2021.  Specific Emitter Identification via Variational Mode Decomposition and Histogram of Oriented Gradient. 2021 28th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT). :1—6.
Specific emitter identification (SEI) is a physical-layer-based approach for enhancing wireless communication network security. A well-done SEI method can be widely applied in identifying the individual wireless communication device. In this paper, we propose a novel specific emitter identification method based on variational mode decomposition and histogram of oriented gradient (VMD-HOG). The signal is decomposed into specific temporal modes via VMD and HOG features are obtained from the time-frequency spectrum of temporal modes. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated both in single hop and relaying scenarios and under three channels with the number of emitters varying. Results depict that our proposed method provides great identification performance for both simulated signals and realistic data of Zigbee devices and outperforms the two existing methods in identification accuracy and computational complexity.
Hao, Yihang.  2021.  Frequency Reconfigurable Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on VO2. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Computer Science, Electronic Information Engineering and Intelligent Control Technology (CEI). :827–831.
Reconfigurability is very popular in advanced highly integrated wireless communication circuits and systems, which is valuable for mitigating spectrum congestion and reducing signal interference. To reduce interference and meet the different wireless standards in different countries, frequency reconfigurable filters are promising. Concurrently, due to the conductor and semiconductor properties of VO2 at different temperatures or pressures, the phase transition characteristics of new material VO2 are applied to reconfigurable filters. This paper mainly discusses the application of phase transition characteristics of VO2 materials in filter design and proposes a frequency reconfigurable microstrip bandpass filter based on VO2 materials, in which the microstrip filter adopts the design form of end coupling. Through theoretical calculation, data analysis, and the establishment of the equivalent model of VO2 phase transition, a related design is proposed. An end-coupled microband bandpass filter centered at a reconfigurable frequency (6 GHz to 6.5 GHz) with fractional bandwidth of 2.8% has been designed, which shows consistent match with the expected ones and verify the validity of the proposed method.
Liu, Nathan, Moreno, Carlos, Dunne, Murray, Fischmeister, Sebastian.  2021.  vProfile: Voltage-Based Anomaly Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2021 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE). :1142–1147.
Modern cars are becoming more accessible targets for cyberattacks due to the proliferation of wireless communication channels. The intra-vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) bus lacks authentication, which exposes critical components to interference from less secure, wirelessly compromised modules. To address this issue, we propose vProfile, a sender authentication system based on voltage fingerprints of Electronic Control Units (ECUs). vProfile exploits the physical properties of ECU output voltages on the CAN bus to determine the authenticity of bus messages, which enables the detection of both hijacked ECUs and external devices connected to the bus. We show the potential of vProfile using experiments on two production vehicles with precision and recall scores of over 99.99%. The improved identification rates and more straightforward design of vProfile make it an attractive improvement over existing methods.
Baruah, Barnana, Dhal, Subhasish.  2021.  An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Secure Communication in Smart Grid. 2021 International Conference on COMmunication Systems & NETworkS (COMSNETS). :447—455.
Rapid development of wireless technologies has driven the evolution of smart grid application. In smart grid, authentication plays an important role for secure communication between smart meter and service provider. Hence, the design of secure authenticated key agreement schemes has received significant attention from researchers. In these schemes, a trusted third party directly participates in key agreement process. Although, this third party is assumed as trusted, however we cannot reject the possibility that being a third party, it can also be malicious. In the existing works, either the established session key is revealed to the agents of a trusted third party, or a trusted third party agent can impersonate the smart meter and establish a valid session key with the service provider, which is likely to cause security vulnerabilities. Therefore, there is a need to design a secure authentication scheme so that only the deserving entities involved in the communication can establish and know the session key. This paper proposes a new secure authenticated key agreement scheme for smart grid considering the fact that the third party can also be malicious. The security of the proposed scheme has been thoroughly evaluated using an adversary model. Correctness of the scheme has been analyzed using the broadly accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) Logic. In addition, the formal security verification of the proposed scheme has been performed using the widely accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) simulation tool. Results of this simulation confirm that the proposed scheme is safe. Detailed security analysis shows the robustness of the scheme against various known attacks. Moreover, the comparative performance study of the proposed scheme with other relevant schemes is presented to demonstrate its practicality.