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Mustafa, Ahmed Shamil, Hamdi, Mustafa Maad, Mahdi, Hussain Falih, Abood, Mohammed Salah.  2020.  VANET: Towards Security Issues Review. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Telecommunication Technologies (ISTT). :151–156.
The Ad-hoc vehicle networks (VANETs) recently stressed communications and networking technologies. VANETs vary from MANETs in tasks, obstacles, system architecture and operation. Smart vehicles and RSUs communicate through unsafe wireless media. By nature, they are vulnerable to threats that can lead to life-threatening circumstances. Due to potentially bad impacts, security measures are needed to recognize these VANET assaults. In this review paper of VANET security, the new VANET approaches are summarized by addressing security complexities. Second, we're reviewing these possible threats and literature recognition mechanisms. Finally, the attacks and their effects are identified and clarified and the responses addressed together.
Gao, Xiaomiao, Du, Wenjie, Liu, Weijiang, Wu, Ruiwen, Zhan, Furui.  2020.  A Lightweight and Efficient Physical Layer Key Generation Mechanism for MANETs. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1010–1015.
Due to the reciprocity of wireless channels, the communication parties can directly extract the shared key from channel. This solution were verified through several schemes. However, in real situations, channel sampling of legitimate transceivers might be impacted by noises and other interferences, which makes the channel states obtained by initiator and responder might be obvious different. The efficiency and even availability of physical layer key generation are thus reduced. In this paper, we propose a lightweight and efficient physical layer key generation scheme, which extract shared secret keys from channel state information (CSI). To improve the key generation process, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is employed to reduce differences of channel states of legitimate transceivers. Then, these outputs are quantified and encoded through multi-bit adaptive quantization(MAQ) quantizer and gray code to generate binary bit sequence, which can greatly reduce the bit error rate. Moreover, the low density parity check (LDPC) code and universal hashing functions are used to achieve information reconciliation and privacy amplifification. By adding preprocessing methods in the key generation process and using the rich information of CSI, the security of communications can be increased on the basis of improving the key generation rate. To evaluate this scheme, a number of experiments in various real environments are conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effificiently generate shared secret keys for nodes and protect their communication.
Hussain, Rashid.  2020.  Peripheral View of IoT based Miniature Devices Security Paradigm. 2020 Global Conference on Wireless and Optical Technologies (GCWOT). :1–7.
Tunnel approach to the security and privacy aspects of communication networks has been an issue since the inception of networking technologies. Neither the technology nor the regulatory and legal frame works proactively play a significant role towards addressing the ever escalating security challenges. As we have move to ubiquitous computing paradigm where information secrecy and privacy is coupled with new challenges of human to machine and machine to machine interfaces, a transformational model for security should be visited. This research is attempted to highlight the peripheral view of IoT based miniature device security paradigm with focus on standardization, regulations, user adaptation, software and applications, low computing resources and power consumption, human to machine interface and privacy.
Braeken, An, Porambage, Pawani, Puvaneswaran, Amirthan, Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2020.  ESSMAR: Edge Supportive Secure Mobile Augmented Reality Architecture for Healthcare. 2020 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Artificial Intelligence: Technologies and Applications (CloudTech). :1—7.
The recent advances in mobile devices and wireless communication sector transformed Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) from science fiction to reality. Among the other MAR use cases, the incorporation of this MAR technology in the healthcare sector can elevate the quality of diagnosis and treatment for the patients. However, due to the highly sensitive nature of the data available in this process, it is also highly vulnerable to all types of security threats. In this paper, an edge-based secure architecture is presented for a MAR healthcare application. Based on the ESSMAR architecture, a secure key management scheme is proposed for both the registration and authentication phases. Then the security of the proposed scheme is validated using formal and informal verification methods.
Čečil, Roman, Šetka, Vlastimil, Tolar, David, Sikora, Axel.  2020.  RETIS – Real-Time Sensitive Wireless Communication Solution for Industrial Control Applications. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Smart and Wireless Systems within the Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems (IDAACS-SWS). :1—9.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) has been always a vital component of many industrial applications. The paper proposes a new wireless URLLC solution called RETIS, which is suitable for factory automation and fast process control applications, where low latency, low jitter, and high data exchange rates are mandatory. In the paper, we describe the communication protocol as well as the hardware structure of the network nodes for implementing the required functionality. Many techniques enabling fast, reliable wireless transmissions are used - short Transmission Time Interval (TTI), TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), MIMO, optional duplicated data transfer, Forward Error Correction (FEC), ACK mechanism. Preliminary tests show that reliable endto-end latency down to 350 μs and packet exchange rate up to 4 kHz can be reached (using quadruple MIMO and standard IEEE 802.15.4 PHY at 250 kbit/s).
ur Rahman, Hafiz, Duan, Guihua, Wang, Guojun, Bhuiyan, Md Zakirul Alam, Chen, Jianer.  2020.  Trustworthy Data Acquisition and Faulty Sensor Detection using Gray Code in Cyber-Physical System. 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE). :58—65.
Due to environmental influence and technology limitation, a wireless sensor/sensors module can neither store or process all raw data locally nor reliably forward it to a destination in heterogeneous IoT environment. As a result, the data collected by the IoT's sensors are inherently noisy, unreliable, and may trigger many false alarms. These false or misleading data can lead to wrong decisions once the data reaches end entities. Therefore, it is highly recommended and desirable to acquire trustworthy data before data transmission, aggregation, and data storing at the end entities/cloud. In this paper, we propose an In-network Generalized Trustworthy Data Collection (IGTDC) framework for trustworthy data acquisition and faulty sensor detection in the IoT environment. The key idea of IGTDC is to allow a sensor's module to examine locally whether the raw data is trustworthy before transmitting towards upstream nodes. It further distinguishes whether the acquired data can be trusted or not before data aggregation at the sink/edge node. Besides, IGTDC helps to recognize a faulty or compromised sensor. For a reliable data collection, we use collaborative IoT technique, gate-level modeling, and programmable logic device (PLD) to ensure that the acquired data is reliable before transmitting towards upstream nodes/cloud. We use a hardware-based technique called “Gray Code” to detect a faulty sensor. Through simulations we reveal that the acquired data in IGTDC framework is reliable that can make a trustworthy data collection for event detection, and assist to distinguish a faulty sensor.
Susilo, Willy, Duong, Dung Hoang, Le, Huy Quoc.  2020.  Efficient Post-quantum Identity-based Encryption with Equality Test. 2020 IEEE 26th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). :633—640.
Public key encryption with equality test (PKEET) enables the testing whether two ciphertexts encrypt the same message. Identity-based encryption with equality test (IBEET) simplify the certificate management of PKEET, which leads to many potential applications such as in smart city applications or Wireless Body Area Networks. Lee et al. (ePrint 2016) proposed a generic construction of IBEET scheme in the standard model utilising a 3-level hierachy IBE together with a one-time signature scheme, which can be instantiated in lattice setting. Duong et al. (ProvSec 2019) proposed the first direct construction of IBEET in standard model from lattices. However, their scheme achieve CPA security only. In this paper, we improve the Duong et al.'s construction by proposing an IBEET in standard model which achieves CCA2 security and with smaller ciphertext and public key size.
Zhao, Zhao, Hou, Yanzhao, Tang, Xiaosheng, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2020.  Demo Abstract: Cross-layer Authentication Based on Physical Channel Information using OpenAirInterface. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1334—1335.

The time-varying properties of the wireless channel are a powerful source of information that can complement and enhance traditional security mechanisms. Therefore, we propose a cross-layer authentication mechanism that combines physical layer channel information and traditional authentication mechanism in LTE. To verify the feasibility of the proposed mechanism, we build a cross-layer authentication system that extracts the phase shift information of a typical UE and use the ensemble learning method to train the fingerprint map based on OAI LTE. Experimental results show that our cross-layer authentication mechanism can effectively prompt the security of LTE system.

Morapitiya, Sumali S., Furqan Ali, Mohammad, Rajkumar, Samikkannu, Wijayasekara, Sanika K., Jayakody, Dushantha Nalin K., Weerasuriya, R.U..  2020.  A SLIPT-assisted Visible Light Communication Scheme. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :368–375.
Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) technique is introduced in Radio Frequency (RF) communication to carry both information and power in same medium. In this approach, the energy can be harvested while decoding the information carries in an RF wave. Recently, the same concept applied in Visible Light Communication (VLC) namely Simultaneous Light Wave Information and Power Transfer (SLIPT), which is highly recommended in an indoor applications to overcome the problem facing in RF communication. Thus, SLIPT is introduced to transmit the power through a Light Emitting Diode (LED) luminaries. In this work, we compare both SWIPT and SLIPT technologies and realize SLIPT technology archives increased performance in terms of the amount of harvested energy, outage probability and error rate performance.
Alresheedi, Mohammed T..  2020.  Improving the Confidentiality of VLC Channels: Physical-Layer Security Approaches. 2020 22nd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–5.
Visible light communication (VLC) is considered as an emerging system for wireless indoor multimedia communications. As any wireless communication system, its channels are open and reachable to both licensed and unlicensed users owing to the broadcast character of visible-light propagation in public areas or multiple-user scenarios. In this work, we consider the physical-layer security approaches for VLC to mitigate this limitation. The physical-layer security approaches can be divided into two categories: keyless security and key-based security approaches. In the last category, recently, the authors introduced physical-layer key-generation approaches for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In these approaches, the cyclic prefix (CP) samples are exploited for key generation. In this paper, we study the effect of the length of key space and order of modulation on the security level, BER performance, and key-disagreement-rate (KDR) of the introduced key-based security approaches. From the results, our approaches are more efficient in higher order of modulation as the KDR decreases with the increase of order of modulation.
Liu, Xiaodong, Chen, Zezong, Wang, Yuhao, Zhou, Fuhui, Ma, Shuai, Hu, Rose Qingyang.  2020.  Secure Beamforming Designs in MISO Visible Light Communication Networks with SLIPT. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technique in the fifth and beyond wireless communication networks. In this paper, a secure multiple-input single-output VLC network is studied, where simultaneous lightwave information and power transfer (SLIPT) is exploited to support energy-limited devices taking into account a practical non-linear energy harvesting model. Specifically, the optimal beamforming design problems for minimizing transmit power and maximizing the minimum secrecy rate are studied under the imperfect channel state information (CSI). S-Procedure and a bisection search is applied to tackle challenging non-convex problems and to obtain efficient resource allocation algorithm. It is proved that optimal beamforming schemes can be obtained. It is found that there is a non-trivial trade-off between the average harvested power and the minimum secrecy rate. Moreover, we show that the quality of CSI has a significant impact on achievable performance.
Mir, Ayesha Waqar, Maqbool, Khawaja Qasim.  2020.  Robust Visible Light Communication in Intelligent Transportation System. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :387–391.
Wireless communication in the field of radio frequency (RF) have modernized our society. People experience persistent connection and high-speed data through wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and LTE while browsing the internet. This causes congestion to network; users make it difficult for everyone to access the internet or to communicate reliably on time. The major issues of RF spectrum are intrusion, high latency and it requires an individual transmitter receiver setup in order to function. Dr. Herald Hass came up with an idea of `data through illumination'. Surmounting the drawbacks of RF spectrum, visible light communication (VLC) is more favored technique. In intelligent transportation system (ITS), this evolving technology of VLC has a strong hold in order to connect vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links wirelessly. Indoor VLC applications have been studied deeply while the field of vehicular VLC (V-VLC) networking is relatively a less researched domain because it has greater level of intrusion and additive ambient light noise is higher in outdoor VLC. Other factors due to which the implementation of VLC faces a lot of hurdles are mostly related to environment such as dust, haze, snow, sunlight, rain, fog, smog and atmospheric disturbances. In this paper, we executed a thorough channel modelling in order to study the effects of clear weather, fog, snow and rain quantitatively with respect to different wavelengths in consideration for an ITS. This makes ITS more robust in nature. The parameters under consideration will be signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER) and optical power received (OPR) for different LED wavelengths.
Shen, Chao.  2020.  Laser-based high bit-rate visible light communications and underwater optical wireless network. 2020 Photonics North (PN). :1–1.
This talk presents an overview of the latest visible light communication (VLC) and underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) research and development from the device to the system level. The utilization of laser-based devices and systems for LiFi and underwater Internet of Things (IoT) has been discussed.
Wu, Xiaohe, Xu, Jianbo, Huang, Weihong, Jian, Wei.  2020.  A new mutual authentication and key agreement protocol in wireless body area network. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :199—203.

Due to the mobility and openness of wireless body area networks (WBANs), the security of WBAN has been questioned by people. The patient's physiological information in WBAN is sensitive and confidential, which requires full consideration of user anonymity, untraceability, and data privacy protection in key agreement. Aiming at the shortcomings of Li et al.'s protocol in terms of anonymity and session unlinkability, forward/backward confidentiality, etc., a new anonymous mutual authentication and key agreement protocol was proposed on the basis of the protocol. This scheme only uses XOR and the one-way hash operations, which not only reduces communication consumption but also ensures security, and realizes a truly lightweight anonymous mutual authentication and key agreement protocol.

Raj A.G.R., Rahul, Sunitha, R., Prasad, H.B..  2020.  Mitigating DDoS Flooding Attacks with Dynamic Path Identifiers in Wireless Network. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :869–874.
The usage of wireless devices is increased from last decade due to its reliable, fast and easy transfer of data. Ensuring the security to these networks is a crucial thing. There are several types of network attacks, in this paper, DDoS attacks on networks and techniques, consequences, effects and prevention methods are focused on. The DDoS attack is carried out by multiple attackers on a system which floods the system with a greater number of incoming requests to the system. The destination system cannot immediately respond to the huge requests, due to this server crashes or halts. To detect, or to avoid such scenarios Intrusion prevention system is designed. The IPS block the network attacker at its first hop and thus reduce the malicious traffic near its source. Intrusion detection system prevents the attack without the prior knowledge of the attacker. The attack is detected at the router side and path is changed to transfer the files. The proposed model is designed to obtain the dynamic path for efficient transmission in wireless neworks.
Fadhilah, D., Marzuki, M. I..  2020.  Performance Analysis of IDS Snort and IDS Suricata with Many-Core Processor in Virtual Machines Against Dos/DDoS Attacks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Wireless Sensors and Powering (BCWSP). :157—162.
The rapid development of technology makes it possible for a physical machine to be converted into a virtual machine, which can operate multiple operating systems that are running simultaneously and connected to the internet. DoS/DDoS attacks are cyber-attacks that can threaten the telecommunications sector because these attacks cause services to be disrupted and be difficult to access. There are several software tools for monitoring abnormal activities on the network, such as IDS Snort and IDS Suricata. From previous studies, IDS Suricata is superior to IDS Snort version 2 because IDS Suricata already supports multi-threading, while IDS Snort version 2 still only supports single-threading. This paper aims to conduct tests on IDS Snort version 3.0 which already supports multi-threading and IDS Suricata. This research was carried out on a virtual machine with 1 core, 2 core, and 4 core processor settings for CPU, memory, and capture packet attacks on IDS Snort version 3.0 and IDS Suricata. The attack scenario is divided into 2 parts: DoS attack scenario using 1 physical computer, and DDoS attack scenario using 5 physical computers. Based on overall testing, the results are: In general, IDS Snort version 3.0 is better than IDS Suricata. This is based on the results when using a maximum of 4 core processor, in which IDS Snort version 3.0 CPU usage is stable at 55% - 58%, a maximum memory of 3,000 MB, can detect DoS attacks with 27,034,751 packets, and DDoS attacks with 36,919,395 packets. Meanwhile, different results were obtained by IDS Suricata, in which CPU usage is better compared to IDS Snort version 3.0 with only 10% - 40% usage, and a maximum memory of 1,800 MB. However, the capabilities of detecting DoS attacks are smaller with 3,671,305 packets, and DDoS attacks with a total of 7,619,317 packets on a TCP Flood attack test.
Cao, Z., Deng, H., Lu, L., Duan, X..  2014.  An information-theoretic security metric for future wireless communication systems. 2014 XXXIth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS). :1–4.
Quantitative analysis of security properties in wireless communication systems is an important issue; it helps us get a comprehensive view of security and can be used to compare the security performance of different systems. This paper analyzes the security of future wireless communication system from an information-theoretic point of view and proposes an overall security metric. We demonstrate that the proposed metric is more reasonable than some existing metrics and it is highly sensitive to some basic parameters and helpful to do fine-grained tuning of security performance.
Chrysikos, T., Dagiuklas, T., Kotsopoulos, S..  2010.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for moving users in autonomic networks. 2010 IFIP Wireless Days. :1–5.
This paper studies Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for low-speed mobility in autonomic networks. More specifically, the impact of user movement on the Probability of Non-Zero Secrecy Capacity and Outage Secrecy Capacity for different channel conditions has been investigated. This is accomplished by establishing a link between different user locations and the boundaries of information-theoretic secure communication. Human mobility scenarios are considered, and its impact on physical layer security is examined, considering quasi-static Rayleigh channels for the fading phenomena. Simulation results have shown that the Secrecy Capacity depends on the relative distance of legitimate and illegitimate (eavesdropper) users in reference to the given transmitter.
Bodhe, A., Sangale, A..  2020.  Network Parameter Analysis; ad hoc WSN for Security Protocol with Fuzzy Logic. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :960—963.

The wireless communication has become very vast, important and easy to access nowadays because of less cost associated and easily available mobile devices. It creates a potential threat for the community while accessing some secure information like banking passwords on the unsecured network. This proposed research work expose such a potential threat such as Rogue Access Point (RAP) detection using soft computing prediction tool. Fuzzy logic is used to implement the proposed model to identify the presence of RAP existence in the network.

Solovey, R., Lavrova, D..  2020.  Game-Theoretic Approach to Self-Regulation of Dynamic Network Infrastructure to Protect Against Cyber Attacks. 2020 International Scientific and Technical Conference Modern Computer Network Technologies (MoNeTeC). :1–7.
The paper presents the concept of applying a game theory approach in infrastructure of wireless dynamic networks to counter computer attacks. The applying of this approach will allow to create mechanism for adaptive reconfiguration of network structure in the context of implementation various types of computer attacks and to provide continuous operation of network even in conditions of destructive information impacts.
Sharma, P., Nair, J., Singh, R..  2020.  Adaptive Flow-Level Scheduling for the IoT MAC. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :515—518.

Over the past decade, distributed CSMA, which forms the basis for WiFi, has been deployed ubiquitously to provide seamless and high-speed mobile internet access. However, distributed CSMA might not be ideal for future IoT/M2M applications, where the density of connected devices/sensors/controllers is expected to be orders of magnitude higher than that in present wireless networks. In such high-density networks, the overhead associated with completely distributed MAC protocols will become a bottleneck. Moreover, IoT communications are likely to have strict QoS requirements, for which the `best-effort' scheduling by present WiFi networks may be unsuitable. This calls for a clean-slate redesign of the wireless MAC taking into account the requirements for future IoT/M2M networks. In this paper, we propose a reservation-based (for minimal overhead) wireless MAC designed specifically with IoT/M2M applications in mind.

Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
Salama, G. M., Taha, S. A..  2020.  Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Hard Decision Rules for Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
Cognitive radio is development of wireless communication and mobile computing. Spectrum is a limited source. The licensed spectrum is proposed to be used only by the spectrum owners. Cognitive radio is a new view of the recycle licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. The main condition of the cognitive radio network is sensing the spectrum hole. Cognitive radio can be detect unused spectrum. It shares this with no interference to the licensed spectrum. It can be a sense signals. It makes viable communication in the middle of multiple users through co-operation in a self-organized manner. The energy detector method is unseen signal detector because it reject the data of the signal.In this paper, has implemented Simulink Energy Detection of spectrum sensing cognitive radio in a MATLAB Simulink to Exploit spectrum holes and avoid damaging interference to licensed spectrum and unlicensed spectrum. The hidden primary user problem will happened because fading or shadowing. Ithappens when cognitive radio could not be detected by primer users because of its location. Cooperative sensing spectrum sensing is the best-proposed method to solve the hidden problem.
Chai, L., Ren, P., Du, Q..  2020.  A Secure Transmission Scheme Based on Efficient Transmission Fountain Code. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :600–604.

Improving the security of data transmission in wireless channels is a key and challenging problem in wireless communication. This paper presents a data security transmission scheme based on high efficiency fountain code. If the legitimate receiver can decode all the original files before the eavesdropper, it can guarantee the safe transmission of the data, so we use the efficient coding scheme of the fountain code to ensure the efficient transmission of the data, and add the feedback mechanism to the transmission of the fountain code so that the coding scheme can be updated dynamically according to the decoding situation of the legitimate receiver. Simulation results show that the scheme has high security and transmitter transmission efficiency in the presence of eavesdropping scenarios.

Seymen, B., Altop, D. K., Levi, A..  2020.  Augmented Randomness for Secure Key Agreement using Physiological Signals. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

With the help of technological advancements in the last decade, it has become much easier to extensively and remotely observe medical conditions of the patients through wearable biosensors that act as connected nodes on Body Area Networks (BANs). Sensitive nature of the critical data captured and communicated via wireless medium makes it extremely important to process it as securely as possible. In this regard, lightweight security mechanisms are needed to overcome the hardware resource restrictions of biosensors. Random and secure cryptographic key generation and agreement among the biosensors take place at the core of these security mechanisms. In this paper, we propose the SKA-PSAR (Augmented Randomness for Secure Key Agreement using Physiological Signals) system to produce highly random cryptographic keys for the biosensors to secure communication in BANs. Similar to its predecessor SKA-PS protocol by Karaoglan Altop et al., SKA-PSAR also employs physiological signals, such as heart rate and blood pressure, as inputs for the keys and utilizes the set reconciliation mechanism as basic building block. Novel quantization and binarization methods of the proposed SKA-PSAR system distinguish it from SKA-PS by increasing the randomness of the generated keys. Additionally, SKA-PSAR generated cryptographic keys have distinctive and time variant characteristics as well as long enough bit sizes that provides resistance against cryptographic attacks. Moreover, correct key generation rate is above 98% with respect to most of the system parameters, and false key generation rate of 0% have been obtained for all system parameters.