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Hibshi, Hanan, Slavin, Rocky, Niu, Jianwei, Breaux, Travis D.  2014.  Rethinking Security Requirements in RE Research.

As information security became an increasing concern for software developers and users, requirements engineering (RE) researchers brought new insight to security requirements. Security requirements aim to address security at the early stages of system design while accommodating the complex needs of different stakeholders. Meanwhile, other research communities, such as usable privacy and security, have also examined these requirements with specialized goal to make security more usable for stakeholders from product owners, to system users and administrators. In this paper we report results from conducting a literature survey to compare security requirements research from RE Conferences with the Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS). We report similarities between the two research areas, such as common goals, technical definitions, research problems, and directions. Further, we clarify the differences between these two communities to understand how they can leverage each other’s insights. From our analysis, we recommend new directions in security requirements research mainly to expand the meaning of security requirements in RE to reflect the technological advancements that the broader field of security is experiencing. These recommendations to encourage cross- collaboration with other communities are not limited to the security requirements area; in fact, we believe they can be generalized to other areas of RE. 

Slavin, R., Hui Shen, Jianwei Niu.  2012.  Characterizations and boundaries of security requirements patterns. Requirements Patterns (RePa), 2012 IEEE Second International Workshop on. :48-53.

Very often in the software development life cycle, security is applied too late or important security aspects are overlooked. Although the use of security patterns is gaining popularity, the current state of security requirements patterns is such that there is not much in terms of a defining structure. To address this issue, we are working towards defining the important characteristics as well as the boundaries for security requirements patterns in order to make them more effective. By examining an existing general pattern format that describes how security patterns should be structured and comparing it to existing security requirements patterns, we are deriving characterizations and boundaries for security requirements patterns. From these attributes, we propose a defining format. We hope that these can reduce user effort in elicitation and specification of security requirements patterns.

Nistor, Ligia, Kurilova, Darya, Balzer, Stephanie, Chung, Benjamin, Potanin, Alex, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2013.  Wyvern: A Simple, Typed, and Pure Object-oriented Language. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on MechAnisms for SPEcialization, Generalization and inHerItance. :9–16.
The simplest and purest practical object-oriented language designs today are seen in dynamically-typed languages, such as Smalltalk and Self. Static types, however, have potential benefits for productivity, security, and reasoning about programs. In this paper, we describe the design of Wyvern, a statically typed, pure object-oriented language that attempts to retain much of the simplicity and expressiveness of these iconic designs. Our goals lead us to combine pure object-oriented and functional abstractions in a simple, typed setting. We present a foundational object-based language that we believe to be as close as one can get to simple typed lambda calculus while keeping object-orientation. We show how this foundational language can be translated to the typed lambda calculus via standard encodings. We then define a simple extension to this language that introduces classes and show that classes are no more than sugar for the foundational object-based language. Our future intention is to demonstrate that modules and other object-oriented features can be added to our language as not more than such syntactical extensions while keeping the object-oriented core as pure as possible. The design of Wyvern closely follows both historical and modern ideas about the essence of object-orientation, suggesting a new way to think about a minimal, practical, typed core language for objects.
Aldrich, Jonathan.  2013.  The Power of Interoperability: Why Objects Are Inevitable. Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Symposium on New Ideas, New Paradigms, and Reflections on Programming & Software. :101–116.
Three years ago in this venue, Cook argued that in their essence, objects are what Reynolds called procedural data structures. His observation raises a natural question: if procedural data structures are the essence of objects, has this contributed to the empirical success of objects, and if so, how? This essay attempts to answer that question. After reviewing Cook's definition, I propose the term service abstractions to capture the essential nature of objects. This terminology emphasizes, following Kay, that objects are not primarily about representing and manipulating data, but are more about providing services in support of higher-level goals. Using examples taken from object-oriented frameworks, I illustrate the unique design leverage that service abstractions provide: the ability to define abstractions that can be extended, and whose extensions are interoperable in a first-class way. The essay argues that the form of interoperable extension supported by service abstractions is essential to modern software: many modern frameworks and ecosystems could not have been built without service abstractions. In this sense, the success of objects was not a coincidence: it was an inevitable consequence of their service abstraction nature.
Fulton, Nathan.  2012.  Security Through Extensible Type Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Systems, Programming, and Applications: Software for Humanity. :107–108.
Researchers interested in security often wish to introduce new primitives into a language. Extensible languages hold promise in such scenarios, but only if the extension mechanism is sufficiently safe and expressive. This paper describes several modifications to an extensible language motivated by end-to-end security concerns.
Chen, Simin.  2012.  Declarative Access Policies Based on Objects, Relationships, and States. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Systems, Programming, and Applications: Software for Humanity. :99–100.
Access policies are hard to express in existing programming languages. However, their accurate expression is a prerequisite for many of today's applications. We propose a new language that uses classes, first-class relationships, and first-class states to express access policies in a more declarative and fine-grained way than existing solutions allow.
Mezzour, Ghita, Carley, L. Richard, Carley, Kathleen M..  2014.  Longitudinal analysis of a large corpus of cyber threat descriptions. Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques. :1-12.

Online cyber threat descriptions are rich, but little research has attempted to systematically analyze these descriptions. In this paper, we process and analyze two of Symantec’s online threat description corpora. The Anti-Virus (AV) corpus contains descriptions of more than 12,400 threats detected by Symantec’s AV, and the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) corpus contains descriptions of more than 2,700 attacks detected by Symantec’s IPS. In our analysis, we quantify the over time evolution of threat severity and type in the corpora. We also assess the amount of time Symantec takes to release signatures for newly discovered threats. Our analysis indicates that a very small minority of threats in the AV corpus are high-severity, whereas the majority of attacks in the IPS corpus are high-severity. Moreover, we find that the prevalence of different threat types such as worms and viruses in the corpora varies considerably over time. Finally, we find that Symantec prioritizes releasing signatures for fast propagating threats.

Baras, J.S..  2014.  A fresh look at network science: Interdependent multigraphs models inspired from statistical physics. Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP), 2014 6th International Symposium on. :497-500.

We consider several challenging problems in complex networks (communication, control, social, economic, biological, hybrid) as problems in cooperative multi-agent systems. We describe a general model for cooperative multi-agent systems that involves several interacting dynamic multigraphs and identify three fundamental research challenges underlying these systems from a network science perspective. We show that the framework of constrained coalitional network games captures in a fundamental way the basic tradeoff of benefits vs. cost of collaboration, in multi-agent systems, and demonstrate that it can explain network formation and the emergence or not of collaboration. Multi-metric problems in such networks are analyzed via a novel multiple partially ordered semirings approach. We investigate the interrelationship between the collaboration and communication multigraphs in cooperative swarms and the role of the communication topology, among the collaborating agents, in improving the performance of distributed task execution. Expander graphs emerge as efficient communication topologies for collaborative control. We relate these models and approaches to statistical physics.

Kothari, Vijay, Blythe, Jim, Smith, Sean, Koppel, Ross.  2014.  Agent-based Modeling of User Circumvention of Security. 1st International Workshop on Agents and CyberSecurity. :5:1–5:4.

Security subsystems are often designed with flawed assumptions arising from system designers' faulty mental models. Designers tend to assume that users behave according to some textbook ideal, and to consider each potential exposure/interface in isolation. However, fieldwork continually shows that even well-intentioned users often depart from this ideal and circumvent controls in order to perform daily work tasks, and that "incorrect" user behaviors can create unexpected links between otherwise "independent" interfaces. When it comes to security features and parameters, designers try to find the choices that optimize security utility–-except these flawed assumptions give rise to an incorrect curve, and lead to choices that actually make security worse, in practice. We propose that improving this situation requires giving designers more accurate models of real user behavior and how it influences aggregate system security. Agent-based modeling can be a fruitful first step here. In this paper, we study a particular instance of this problem, propose user-centric techniques designed to strengthen the security of systems while simultaneously improving the usability of them, and propose further directions of inquiry.

Yu, Tingting, Srisa-an, Witawas, Rothermel, Gregg.  2014.  SimRT: An Automated Framework to Support Regression Testing for Data Races. Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering. :48–59.

Concurrent programs are prone to various classes of difficult-to-detect faults, of which data races are particularly prevalent. Prior work has attempted to increase the cost-effectiveness of approaches for testing for data races by employing race detection techniques, but to date, no work has considered cost-effective approaches for re-testing for races as programs evolve. In this paper we present SimRT, an automated regression testing framework for use in detecting races introduced by code modifications. SimRT employs a regression test selection technique, focused on sets of program elements related to race detection, to reduce the number of test cases that must be run on a changed program to detect races that occur due to code modifications, and it employs a test case prioritization technique to improve the rate at which such races are detected. Our empirical study of SimRT reveals that it is more efficient and effective for revealing races than other approaches, and that its constituent test selection and prioritization components each contribute to its performance.