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Duy, Phan The, Do Hoang, Hien, Thu Hien, Do Thi, Ba Khanh, Nguyen, Pham, Van-Hau.  2019.  SDNLog-Foren: Ensuring the Integrity and Tamper Resistance of Log Files for SDN Forensics using Blockchain. 2019 6th NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (NICS). :416—421.

Despite bringing many benefits of global network configuration and control, Software Defined Networking (SDN) also presents potential challenges for both digital forensics and cybersecurity. In fact, there are various attacks targeting a range of vulnerabilities on vital elements of this paradigm such as controller, Northbound and Southbound interfaces. In addition to solutions of security enhancement, it is important to build mechanisms for digital forensics in SDN which provide the ability to investigate and evaluate the security of the whole network system. It should provide features of identifying, collecting and analyzing log files and detailed information about network devices and their traffic. However, upon penetrating a machine or device, hackers can edit, even delete log files to remove the evidences about their presence and actions in the system. In this case, securing log files with fine-grained access control in proper storage without any modification plays a crucial role in digital forensics and cybersecurity. This work proposes a blockchain-based approach to improve the security of log management in SDN for network forensics, called SDNLog-Foren. This model is also evaluated with different experiments to prove that it can help organizations keep sensitive log data of their network system in a secure way regardless of being compromised at some different components of SDN.

Nguyen, Thuy D., Irvine, Cynthia E..  2018.  Development of Industrial Network Forensics Lessons. Proceedings of the Fifth Cybersecurity Symposium. :7:1-7:5.

Most forensic investigators are trained to recognize abusive network behavior in conventional information systems, but they may not know how to detect anomalous traffic patterns in industrial control systems (ICS) that manage critical infrastructure services. We have developed and laboratory-tested hands-on teaching material to introduce students to forensics investigation of intrusions on an industrial network. Rather than using prototypes of ICS components, our approach utilizes commercial industrial products to provide students a more realistic simulation of an ICS network. The lessons cover four different types of attacks and the corresponding post-incident network data analysis.

Ruohonen, Jukka, Šćepanović, Sanja, Hyrynsalmi, Sami, Mishkovski, Igor, Aura, Tuomas, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  Correlating File-based Malware Graphs Against the Empirical Ground Truth of DNS Graphs. Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops. :30:1–30:6.

This exploratory empirical paper investigates whether the sharing of unique malware files between domains is empirically associated with the sharing of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and the sharing of normal, non-malware files. By utilizing a graph theoretical approach with a web crawling dataset from F-Secure, the paper finds no robust statistical associations, however. Unlike what might be expected from the still continuing popularity of shared hosting services, the sharing of IP addresses through the domain name system (DNS) seems to neither increase nor decrease the sharing of malware files. In addition to these exploratory empirical results, the paper contributes to the field of DNS mining by elaborating graph theoretical representations that are applicable for analyzing different network forensics problems.

Sokol, P., Husak, M., Lipták, F..  2015.  Deploying Honeypots and Honeynets: Issue of Privacy. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :397–403.

Honey pots and honey nets are popular tools in the area of network security and network forensics. The deployment and usage of these tools are influenced by a number of technical and legal issues, which need to be carefully considered together. In this paper, we outline privacy issues of honey pots and honey nets with respect to technical aspects. The paper discusses the legal framework of privacy, legal ground to data processing, and data collection. The analysis of legal issues is based on EU law and is supported by discussions on privacy and related issues. This paper is one of the first papers which discuss in detail privacy issues of honey pots and honey nets in accordance with EU law.

Masvosvere, D. J. E., Venter, H. S..  2015.  A model for the design of next generation e-supply chain digital forensic readiness tools. 2015 Information Security for South Africa (ISSA). :1–9.

The internet has had a major impact on how information is shared within supply chains, and in commerce in general. This has resulted in the establishment of information systems such as e-supply chains amongst others which integrate the internet and other information and communications technology (ICT) with traditional business processes for the swift transmission of information between trading partners. Many organisations have reaped the benefits of adopting the eSC model, but have also faced the challenges with which it comes. One such major challenge is information security. Digital forensic readiness is a relatively new exciting field which can prepare and prevent incidents from occurring within an eSC environment if implemented strategically. With the current state of cybercrime, tool developers are challenged with the task of developing cutting edge digital forensic readiness tools that can keep up with the current technological advancements, such as (eSCs), in the business world. Therefore, the problem addressed in this paper is that there are no DFR tools that are designed to support eSCs specifically. There are some general-purpose monitoring tools that have forensic readiness functionality, but currently there are no tools specifically designed to serve the eSC environment. Therefore, this paper discusses the limitations of current digital forensic readiness tools for the eSC environment and an architectural design for next-generation eSC DFR systems is proposed, along with the system requirements that such systems must satisfy. It is the view of the authors that the conclusions drawn from this paper can spearhead the development of cutting-edge next-generation digital forensic readiness tools, and bring attention to some of the shortcomings of current tools.

Raza, N..  2015.  Challenges to network forensics in cloud computing. 2015 Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security (CIACS). :22–29.

The digital forensics refers to the application of scientific techniques in investigation of a crime, specifically to identify or validate involvement of some suspect in an activity leading towards that crime. Network forensics particularly deals with the monitoring of network traffic with an aim to trace some suspected activity from normal traffic or to identify some abnormal pattern in the traffic that may give clue towards some attack. Network forensics, quite valuable phenomenon in investigation process, presents certain challenges including problems in accessing network devices of cloud architecture, handling large amount network traffic, and rigorous processing required to analyse the huge volume of data, of which large proportion may prove to be irrelevant later on. Cloud Computing technology offers services to its clients remotely from a shared pool of resources, as per clients customized requirement, any time, from anywhere. Cloud Computing has attained tremendous popularity recently, leading to its vast and rapid deployment, however Privacy and Security concerns have also increased in same ratio, since data and application is outsourced to a third party. Security concerns about cloud architecture have come up as the prime barrier hindering the major shift of industry towards cloud model, despite significant advantages of cloud architecture. Cloud computing architecture presents aggravated and specific challenges in the network forensics. In this paper, I have reviewed challenges and issues faced in conducting network forensics particularly in the cloud computing environment. The study covers limitations that a network forensic expert may confront during investigation in cloud environment. I have categorized challenges presented to network forensics in cloud computing into various groups. Challenges in each group can be handled appropriately by either Forensic experts, Cloud service providers or Forensic tools whereas leftover challenges are declared as be- ond the control.