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Qi, Xingyue, Lin, Chuan, Wang, Zhaohui, Du, Jiaxin, Han, Guangjie.  2021.  Proactive Alarming-enabled Path Planning for Multi-AUV-based Underwater IoT Systems. 2021 Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :263—267.
The ongoing expansion of underwater Internet of Things techniques promote diverse categories of maritime intelligent systems, e.g., Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs), Underwater Wireless Networks (UWNs), especially multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) based UWNs have produced many civil and military applications. To enhance the network management and scalability, in this paper, the technique of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) technique is introduced, leading to the paradigm of Software-Defined multi-AUV-based UWNs (SD-UWNs). With SD-UWNs, the network architecture is divided into three functional layers: data layer, control layer, and application layer, and the network administration is re-defined by a framework of software-defined beacon. To manage the network, a control model based on artificial potential field and network topology theory is constructed. On account of the efficient data sharing ability of SD-UWNs, a proactive alarming-enabled path planning scheme is proposed, wherein all potential categories of obstacle avoidance scenes are taken into account. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed SD-UWN is more efficient in scheduling the cooperative network function than the traditional approaches and can secure exact path planning.
Dubey, R., Louis, S. J., Sengupta, S..  2020.  Evolving Dynamically Reconfiguring UAV-hosted Mesh Networks. 2020 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC). :1–8.
We use potential fields tuned by genetic algorithms to dynamically reconFigure unmanned aerial vehicles networks to serve user bandwidth needs. Such flying network base stations have applications in the many domains needing quick temporary networked communications capabilities such as search and rescue in remote areas and security and defense in overwatch and scouting. Starting with an initial deployment that covers an area and discovers how users are distributed across this area of interest, tuned potential fields specify subsequent movement. A genetic algorithm tunes potential field parameters to reposition UAVs to create and maintain a mesh network that maximizes user bandwidth coverage and network lifetime. Results show that our evolutionary adaptive network deployment algorithm outperforms the current state of the art by better repositioning the unmanned aerial vehicles to provide longer coverage lifetimes while serving bandwidth requirements. The parameters found by the genetic algorithm on four training scenarios with different user distributions lead to better performance than achieved by the state of the art. Furthermore, these parameters also lead to superior performance in three never before seen scenarios indicating that our algorithm finds parameter values that generalize to new scenarios with different user distributions.
Lu, W., Shu, S., Shi, H., Li, R., Dong, W..  2020.  Synthesizing Secure Reactive Controller for Unmanned Aerial System. 2019 6th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :419—424.

Complex CPS such as UAS got rapid development these years, but also became vulnerable to GPS spoofing, packets injection, buffer-overflow and other malicious attacks. Ensuring the behaviors of UAS always keeping secure no matter how the environment changes, would be a prospective direction for UAS security. This paper aims at presenting a reactive synthesis-based approach to implement the automatic generation of secure UAS controller. First, we study the operating mechanism of UAS and construct a high-Ievel model consisting of actuator and monitor. Besides, we analyze the security threats of UAS from the perspective of hardware, software and data transmission, and then extract the corresponding specifications of security properties with LTL formulas. Based on the UAS model and security specifications, the controller can be constructed by GR(1) synthesis algorithm, which is a two-player game process between UAV and Environment. Finally, we expand the function of LTLMoP platform to construct the automatons for controller in multi-robots system, which provides secure behavior strategies under several typical UAS attack scenarios.

Nasser, B., Rabani, A., Freiling, D., Gan, C..  2018.  An Adaptive Telerobotics Control for Advanced Manufacturing. 2018 NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Systems (AHS). :82—89.
This paper explores an innovative approach to the telerobotics reasoning architecture and networking, which offer a reliable and adaptable operational process for complex tasks. There are many operational challenges in the remote control for manufacturing that can be introduced by the network communications and Iatency. A new protocol, named compact Reliable UDP (compact-RUDP), has been developed to combine both data channelling and media streaming for robot teleoperation. The original approach ensures connection reliability by implementing a TCP-like sliding window with UDP packets. The protocol provides multiple features including data security, link status monitoring, bandwidth control, asynchronous file transfer and prioritizing transfer of data packets. Experiments were conducted on a 5DOF robotic arm where a cutting tool was mounted at its distal end. A light sensor was used to guide the robot movements, and a camera device to provide a video stream of the operation. The data communication reliability is evaluated using Round-Trip Time (RTT), and advanced robot path planning for distributed decision making between endpoints. The results show 88% correlation between the remotely and locally operated robots. The file transfers and video streaming were performed with no data loss or corruption on the control commands and data feedback packets.
Zhang, H., Liu, H., Deng, L., Wang, P., Rong, X., Li, Y., Li, B., Wang, H..  2018.  Leader Recognition and Tracking for Quadruped Robots. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA). :1438—1443.

To meet the high requirement of human-machine interaction, quadruped robots with human recognition and tracking capability are studied in this paper. We first introduce a marker recognition system which uses multi-thread laser scanner and retro-reflective markers to distinguish the robot's leader and other objects. When the robot follows leader autonomously, the variant A* algorithm which having obstacle grids extended virtually (EA*) is used to plan the path. But if robots need to track and follow the leader's path as closely as possible, it will trust that the path which leader have traveled is safe enough and uses the incremental form of EA* algorithm (IEA*) to reproduce the trajectory. The simulation and experiment results illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

Ramachandran, Ragesh K., Preiss, James A., Sukhatme, Gaurav S..  2019.  Resilience by Reconfiguration: Exploiting Heterogeneity in Robot Teams. 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). :6518—6525.

We propose a method to maintain high resource availability in a networked heterogeneous multi-robot system subject to resource failures. In our model, resources such as sensing and computation are available on robots. The robots are engaged in a joint task using these pooled resources. When a resource on a particular robot becomes unavailable (e.g., a sensor ceases to function), the system automatically reconfigures so that the robot continues to have access to this resource by communicating with other robots. Specifically, we consider the problem of selecting edges to be modified in the system's communication graph after a resource failure has occurred. We define a metric that allows us to characterize the quality of the resource distribution in the network represented by the communication graph. Upon a resource becoming unavailable due to failure, we reconFigure the network so that the resource distribution is brought as close to the maximal resource distribution as possible without a large change in the number of active inter-robot communication links. Our approach uses mixed integer semi-definite programming to achieve this goal. We employ a simulated annealing method to compute a spatial formation that satisfies the inter-robot distances imposed by the topology, along with other constraints. Our method can compute a communication topology, spatial formation, and formation change motion planning in a few seconds. We validate our method in simulation and real-robot experiments with a team of seven quadrotors.

Varricchio, Valerio, Frazzoli, Emilio.  2018.  Asymptotically Optimal Pruning for Nonholonomic Nearest-Neighbor Search. 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :4459—4466.
Nearest-Neighbor Search (NNS) arises as a key component of sampling-based motion planning algorithms and it is known as their asymptotic computational bottleneck. Algorithms for exact Nearest-Neighbor Search rely on explicit distance comparisons to different extents. However, in motion planning, evaluating distances is generally a computationally demanding task, since the metric is induced by the minimum cost of steering a dynamical system between states. In the presence of driftless nonholonomic constraints, we propose efficient pruning techniques for the k-d tree algorithm that drastically reduce the number of distance evaluations performed during a query. These techniques exploit computationally convenient lower and upper bounds to the geodesic distance of the corresponding sub-Riemannian geometry. Based on asymptotic properties of the reachable sets, we show that the proposed pruning techniques are optimal, modulo a constant factor, and we provide experimental results with the Reeds-Shepp vehicle model.
Wang, Qing, Wang, Zengfu, Guo, Jun, Tahchi, Elias, Wang, Xinyu, Moran, Bill, Zukerman, Moshe.  2019.  Path Planning of Submarine Cables. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Submarine optical-fiber cables are key components in the conveying of Internet data, and their failures have costly consequences. Currently, there are over a million km of such cables empowering the Internet. To carry the ever-growing Internet traffic, additional 100,000s of km of cables will be needed in the next few years. At an average cost of \$28,000 per km, this entails investments of billions of dollars. In current industry practice, cable paths are planned manually by experts. This paper surveys our recent work on cable path planning algorithms, where we use several methods to plan cable paths taking account of a range of cable risk factors in addition to cable costs. Two methods, namely, the fast marching method (FMM) and the Dijkstra's algorithm are applied here to long-haul cable path design in a new geographical region. A specific example is given to demonstrate the benefit of the FMM-based method in terms of the better path planning solutions over the Dijkstra's algorithm.
Babu, S., Markose, S..  2018.  IoT Enabled Robots with QR Code Based Localization. 2018 International Conference on Emerging Trends and Innovations In Engineering And Technological Research (ICETIETR). :1–5.

Robots are sophisticated form of IoT devices as they are smart devices that scrutinize sensor data from multiple sources and observe events to decide the best procedural actions to supervise and manoeuvre objects in the physical world. In this paper, localization of the robot is addressed by QR code Detection and path optimization is accomplished by Dijkstras algorithm. The robot can navigate automatically in its environment with sensors and shortest path is computed whenever heading measurements are updated with QR code landmark recognition. The proposed approach highly reduces computational burden and deployment complexity as it reflects the use of artificial intelligence to self-correct its course when required. An Encrypted communication channel is established over wireless local area network using SSHv2 protocol to transfer or receive sensor data(or commands) making it an IoT enabled Robot.

Prabhakar, A., Flaßkamp, K., Murphey, T. D..  2015.  Symplectic integration for optimal ergodic control. 2015 54th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :2594–2600.

Autonomous active exploration requires search algorithms that can effectively balance the need for workspace coverage with energetic costs. We present a strategy for planning optimal search trajectories with respect to the distribution of expected information over a workspace. We formulate an iterative optimal control algorithm for general nonlinear dynamics, where the metric for information gain is the difference between the spatial distribution and the statistical representation of the time-averaged trajectory, i.e. ergodicity. Previous work has designed a continuous-time trajectory optimization algorithm. In this paper, we derive two discrete-time iterative trajectory optimization approaches, one based on standard first-order discretization and the other using symplectic integration. The discrete-time methods based on first-order discretization techniques are both faster than the continuous-time method in the studied examples. Moreover, we show that even for a simple system, the choice of discretization has a dramatic impact on the resulting control and state trajectories. While the standard discretization method turns unstable, the symplectic method, which is structure-preserving, achieves lower values for the objective.