Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-04-01
Xu, L., Chen, L., Gao, Z., Chang, Y., Iakovou, E., Shi, W..  2018.  Binding the Physical and Cyber Worlds: A Blockchain Approach for Cargo Supply Chain Security Enhancement. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–5.

Maritime transportation plays a critical role for the U.S. and global economies, and has evolved into a complex system that involves a plethora of supply chain stakeholders spread around the globe. The inherent complexity brings huge security challenges including cargo loss and high burdens in cargo inspection against illicit activities and potential terrorist attacks. The emerging blockchain technology provides a promising tool to build a unified maritime cargo tracking system critical for cargo security. However, most existing efforts focus on transportation data itself, while ignoring how to bind the physical cargo movements and information managed by the system consistently. This can severely undermine the effectiveness of securing cargo transportation. To fulfill this gap, we propose a binding scheme leveraging a novel digital identity management mechanism. The digital identity management mechanism maps the best practice in the physical world to the cyber world and can be seamlessly integrated with a blockchain-based cargo management system.

2019-02-25
Akcay, A., Martagan, T., Corlu, C. G..  2018.  RISK ASSESSMENT IN PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY CHAINS UNDER UNKNOWN INPUT-MODEL PARAMETERS. 2018 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC). :3132–3143.
We consider a pharmaceutical supply chain where the manufacturer sources a customized product with unique attributes from a set of unreliable suppliers. We model the likelihood of a supplier to successfully deliver the product via Bayesian logistic regression and use simulation to obtain the posterior distribution of the unknown parameters of this model. We study the role of so-called input-model uncertainty in estimating the likelihood of the supply failure, which is the probability that none of the suppliers in a given supplier portfolio can successfully deliver the product. We investigate how the input-model uncertainty changes with respect to the characteristics of the historical data on the past realizations of the supplier performances and the product attributes.
Hassan, M. H., Mostafa, S. A., Mustapha, A., Wahab, M. H. Abd, Nor, D. Md.  2018.  A Survey of Multi-Agent System Approach in Risk Assessment. 2018 International Symposium on Agent, Multi-Agent Systems and Robotics (ISAMSR). :1–6.
Risk Assessment is a foundation of decision-making about a future project behaviour or action. The related decision made might entail further analyzes to perform risk- reduction. The risk is a general phenomenon that takes different depicts and types. Static risk and its circumstances do not significantly change over time while dynamic risk arises out of the changes in interrelated circumstances. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) approach has become a popular tool to tackle different problems that relate to risk. The MAS helps in the decision aid processes and when responding to the consequences of the risk. This paper surveys some of the existing methods and techniques of risk assessment in different application domains. The survey focuses on the employment of MAS approach in risk assessment. The survey outcomes an illustration of the roles and contributions of the MAS in the Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) field.
Lesisa, T. G., Marnewick, A., Nel, H..  2018.  The Identification of Supplier Selection Criteria Within a Risk Management Framework Towards Consistent Supplier Selection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM). :913–917.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the consistency of supplier risk assessment performed during the supplier selection process. Existing literature indicates that current supplier selection processes yield inconsistent results. Consistent supplier selection cannot be accomplished without stable risk assessment performed during the process. A case study was conducted in a train manufacturer in South Africa, and document analysis, interviews and questionnaires were employed to source information and data. Triangulation and pattern matching enabled a comparative study between literature and practice from which findings were derived. The study suggests selection criteria that may be considered when performing supplier risk assessment during the selection process. The findings indicate that structured supplier risk assessment with predefined supplier selection criteria may eliminate inconsistencies in supplier assessment and selection.
Winter, A., Deniaud, I., Marmier, F., Caillaud, E..  2018.  A risk assessment model for supply chain design. Implementation at Kuehne amp;\#x002B; Nagel Luxembourg. 2018 4th International Conference on Logistics Operations Management (GOL). :1–8.
Every company may be located at the junction of several Supply Chains (SCs) to meet the requirements of many different end customers. To achieve a sustainable competitive advantage over its business rivals, a company needs to continuously improve its relations to its different stakeholders as well as its performance in terms of integrating its decision processes and hence, its communication and information systems. Furthermore, customers' growing awareness of green and sustainable matters and new national and international regulations force enterprises to rethink their whole system. In this paper we propose a model to quantify the identified potential risks to assist in designing or re-designing a supply chain. So that managers may take adequate decisions to have the continuing ability of satisfying customers' requirements. A case study, developed at kuehne + nagel Luxembourg is provided.
2019-02-18
Wang, Yuxin, Hulstijn, Joris, Tan, Yao-hua.  2018.  Regulatory Supervision with Computational Audit in International Supply Chains. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. :1:1–1:10.
Nowadays, as international trade with cross-border logistics increases, the administrative burden of regulatory authorities has been dramatically raised. In order to reduce repetitive and redundant supervisory controls and promote automatic administration procedures, electronic data interchange (EDI)1 and other forms of information sharing are introduced and implemented. Compliance monitoring ensures data quality for information exchange and audit purpose. However, failure to be compliant with various regulations is still a general phenomenon globally among stakeholders in supply chains, leading to more problems such as delay of goods delivery, missing inventory, and security issues. To address these problems, traditional physical auditing methods are widely used but turned out to be time-consuming and costly, especially when multiple stakeholders are involved. Since there is limited empirical research on compliance monitoring for regulatory supervision in international supply chains, we propose a compliance monitoring framework that can be applied with data sharing and analytics. The framework implementation is validated by an extensive case study on customs supervision in the Netherlands using process mining techniques. Practically, both public and private sectors will benefit from our descriptive and prescriptive analytics for audit purposes. Theoretically, our control strategies developed at the operational level facilitates mitigation of risks at root causes.
2018-12-03
Matta, R. de, Miller, T..  2018.  A Strategic Manufacturing Capacity and Supply Chain Network Design Contingency Planning Approach. 2018 IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Conference (TEMSCON). :1–6.
We develop a contingency planning methodology for how a firm would build a global supply chain network with reserve manufacturing capacity which can be strategically deployed by the firm in the event actual demand exceeds forecast. The contingency planning approach is comprised of: (1) a strategic network design model for finding the profit maximizing plant locations, manufacturing capacity and inventory investments, and production level and product distribution; and (2) a scenario planning and risk assessment scheme to analyze the costs and benefits of alternative levels of manufacturing capacity and inventory investments. We develop an efficient heuristic procedure to solve the model. We show numerically how a firm would use our approach to explore and weigh the potential upside benefits and downside risks of alternative strategies.
Ma, Y..  2018.  Constructing Supply Chains in Open Source Software. 2018 IEEE/ACM 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion (ICSE-Companion). :458–459.
The supply chain is an extremely successful way to cope with the risk posed by distributed decision making in product sourcing and distribution. While open source software has similarly distributed decision making and involves code and information flows similar to those in ordinary supply chains, the actual networks necessary to quantify and communicate risks in software supply chains have not been constructed on large scale. This work proposes to close this gap by measuring dependency, code reuse, and knowledge flow networks in open source software. We have done preliminary work by developing suitable tools and methods that rely on public version control data to measure and comparing these networks for R language and emberjs packages. We propose ways to calculate the three networks for the entirety of public software, evaluate their accuracy, and to provide public infrastructure to build risk assessment and mitigation tools for various individual and organizational participants in open sources software. We hope that this infrastructure will contribute to more predictable experience with OSS and lead to its even wider adoption.
Palmer, D., Fazzari, S., Wartenberg, S..  2017.  A virtual laboratory approach for risk assessment of aerospace electronics trust techniques. 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–8.
This paper describes a novel aerospace electronic component risk assessment methodology and supporting virtual laboratory structure designed to augment existing supply chain management practices and aid in Microelectronics Trust Assurance. This toolkit and methodology applies structure to the unclear and evolving risk assessment problem, allowing quantification of key risks affecting both advanced and obsolete systems that rely on semiconductor technologies. The impacts of logistics & supply chain risk, technology & counterfeit risk, and faulty component risk on trusted and non-trusted procurement options are quantified. The benefits of component testing on part reliability are assessed and incorporated into counterfeit mitigation calculations. This toolkit and methodology seek to assist acquisition staff by providing actionable decision data regarding the increasing threat of counterfeit components by assessing the risks faced by systems, identifying mitigation strategies to reduce this risk, and resolving these risks through the optimal test and procurement path based on the component criticality risk tolerance of the program.
Schlüter, F., Hetterscheid, E..  2017.  A Simulation Based Evaluation Approach for Supply Chain Risk Management Digitalization Scenarios. 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Application (ICIMSA). :1–5.
Supply Chain wide proactive risk management based on real-time risk related information transparency is required to increase the security of modern, volatile supply chains. At this time, none or only limited empirical/objective information about digitalization benefits for supply chain risk management is available. A method is needed, which draws conclusion on the estimation of costs and benefits of digitalization initiatives. The paper presents a flexible simulation based approach for assessing digitalization scenarios prior to realization. The assessment approach is integrated into a framework and its applicability will be shown in a case study of a German steel producer, evaluating digitalization effects on the Mean Lead time-at-risk.
Khayyam, Y. E., Herrou, B..  2017.  Risk assessment of the supply chain: Approach based on analytic hierarchy process and group decision-making. 2017 International Colloquium on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LOGISTIQUA). :135–141.
Faced with a turbulent economic, political and social environment, Companies need to build effective risk management systems in their supply chains. Risk management can only be effective when the risks identification and analysis are enough accurate. In this perspective, this paper proposes a risk assessment approach based on the analytic hierarchy process and group decision making. In this study, a new method is introduced that will reduce the impact of incoherent judgments on group decision-making, It is, the “reduced weight function” that decreases the weight associated to a member of the expert panel based on the consistency of its judgments.
2018-05-01
Arafin, M. T., Stanley, A., Sharma, P..  2017.  Hardware-Based Anti-Counterfeiting Techniques for Safeguarding Supply Chain Integrity. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–4.
Counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs) and systems have emerged as a menace to the supply chain of electronic goods and products. Simple physical inspection for counterfeit detection, basic intellectual property (IP) laws, and simple protection measures are becoming ineffective against advanced reverse engineering and counterfeiting practices. As a result, hardware security-based techniques have emerged as promising solutions for combating counterfeiting, reverse engineering, and IP theft. However, these solutions have their own merits and shortcomings, and therefore, these options must be carefully studied. In this work, we present a comparative overview of available hardware security solutions to fight against IC counterfeiting. We provide a detailed comparison of the techniques in terms of integration effort, deployability, and security matrices that would assist a system designer to adopt any one of these security measures for safeguarding the product supply chain against counterfeiting and IP theft.
Benthall, S..  2017.  Assessing Software Supply Chain Risk Using Public Data. 2017 IEEE 28th Annual Software Technology Conference (STC). :1–5.

The software supply chain is a source of cybersecurity risk for many commercial and government organizations. Public data may be used to inform automated tools for detecting software supply chain risk during continuous integration and deployment. We link data from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) with open version control data for the open source project OpenSSL, a widely used secure networking library that made the news when a significant vulnerability, Heartbleed, was discovered in 2014. We apply the Alhazmi-Malaiya Logistic (AML) model for software vulnerability discovery to this case. This model predicts a sigmoid cumulative vulnerability discovery function over time. Some versions of OpenSSL do not conform to the predictions of the model because they contain a temporary plateau in the cumulative vulnerability discovery plot. This temporary plateau feature is an empirical signature of a security failure mode that may be useful in future studies of software supply chain risk.

Zhang, F., Masna, N. V. R., Bhunia, S., Chen, C., Mandal, S..  2017.  Authentication and Traceability of Food Products through the Supply Chain Using NQR Spectroscopy. 2017 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS). :1–4.

Maintaining the security and integrity of our food supply chain has emerged as a critical need. In this paper, we describe a novel authentication approach that can significantly improve the security of the food supply chain. It relies on applying nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy to authenticate the contents of packaged food products. NQR is a non-invasive, non-destructive, and quantitative radio frequency (RF) spectroscopic technique. It is sensitive to subtle features of the solid-state chemical environment such that signal properties are influenced by the manufacturing process, thus generating a manufacturer-specific watermark or intrinsic tag for the product. Such tags enable us to uniquely characterize and authenticate products of identical composition but from different manufacturers based on their NQR signal parameters. These intrinsic tags can be used to verify the integrity of a product and trace it through the supply chain. We apply a support vector machine (SVM)-based classification approach that trains the SVM with measured NQR parameters and then authenticates food products by checking their test responses. Measurement on an example substance using semi-custom hardware shows promising results (95% classification accuracy) which can be further improved with improved instrumentation.

2018-01-23
Yasin, M., Sinanoglu, O..  2017.  Evolution of logic locking. 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :1–6.
The globalization of integrated circuit (IC) supply chain and the emergence of threats, such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, reverse engineering, and hardware Trojans, have forced semiconductor companies to revisit the trust in the supply chain. Logic locking is emerging as a popular and effective countermeasure against these threats. Over the years, multiple logic techniques have been developed. Moreover, a number of attacks have been proposed that expose the security vulnerabilities of these techniques. This paper highlights the key developments in the logic locking research and presents a comprehensive literature review of logic locking.
Zhang, Dongrong, He, Miao, Wang, Xiaoxiao, Tehranipoor, M..  2017.  Dynamically obfuscated scan for protecting IPs against scan-based attacks throughout supply chain. 2017 IEEE 35th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1–6.

Scan-based test is commonly used to increase testability and fault coverage, however, it is also known to be a liability for chip security. Research has shown that intellectual property (IP) or secret keys can be leaked through scan-based attacks. In this paper, we propose a dynamically-obfuscated scan design for protecting IPs against scan-based attacks. By perturbing all test patterns/responses and protecting the obfuscation key, the proposed architecture is proven to be robust against existing non-invasive scan attacks, and can protect all scan data from attackers in foundry, assembly, and system developers (i.e., OEMs) without compromising the testability. Furthermore, the proposed architecture can be easily plugged into EDA generated scan chains without having a noticeable impact on conventional integrated circuit (IC) design, manufacturing, and test flow. Finally, detailed security and experimental analyses have been performed on several benchmarks. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can protect chips from existing brute force, differential, and other scan-based attacks that target the obfuscation key. The proposed design is of low overhead on area, power consumption, and pattern generation time, and there is no impact on test time.

2017-12-20
Maleki, H., Rahaeimehr, R., Jin, C., Dijk, M. van.  2017.  New clone-detection approach for RFID-based supply chains. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :122–127.

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags have been widely used as a low-cost wireless method for detection of counterfeit product injection in supply chains. In order to adequately perform authentication, current RFID monitoring schemes need to either have a persistent online connection between supply chain partners and the back-end database or have a local database on each partner site. A persistent online connection is not guaranteed and local databases on each partner site impose extra cost and security issues. We solve this problem by introducing a new scheme in which a small Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) embedded in RFID tag is used to function as a tiny “encoded local database”. In addition our scheme resists “tag tracing” so that each partner's operation remains private. Our scheme can be implemented in less than 1200 gates satisfying current RFID technology requirements.

2017-03-08
Xiao, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M. M..  2015.  Efficient and secure split manufacturing via obfuscated built-in self-authentication. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :14–19.

The threats of reverse-engineering, IP piracy, and hardware Trojan insertion in the semiconductor supply chain are greater today than ever before. Split manufacturing has emerged as a viable approach to protect integrated circuits (ICs) fabricated in untrusted foundries, but has high cost and/or high performance overhead. Furthermore, split manufacturing cannot fully prevent untargeted hardware Trojan insertions. In this paper, we propose to insert additional functional circuitry called obfuscated built-in self-authentication (OBISA) in the chip layout with split manufacturing process, in order to prevent reverse-engineering and further prevent hardware Trojan insertion. Self-tests are performed to authenticate the trustworthiness of the OBISA circuitry. The OBISA circuit is connected to original design in order to increase the strength of obfuscation, thereby allowing a higher layer split and lower overall cost. Additional fan-outs are created in OBISA circuitry to improve obfuscation without losing testability. Our proposed gating mechanism and net selection method can ensure negligible overhead in terms of area, timing, and dynamic power. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique in several benchmark circuits.

Yang, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2015.  An RFID-based technology for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and Traceability. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–6.

The vulnerabilities in today's supply chain have raised serious concerns about the security and trustworthiness of electronic components and systems. Testing for device provenance, detection of counterfeit integrated circuits/systems, and traceability are challenging issues to address. In this paper, we develop a novel RFID-based system suitable for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and System Traceability called CST. CST is composed of different types of on-chip sensors and in-system structures that provide the information needed to detect multiple counterfeit IC types (recycled, cloned, etc.), verify the authenticity of the system with some degree of confidence, and track/identify boards. Central to CST is an RFID tag employed as storage and a channel to read the information from different types of chips on the printed circuit board (PCB) in both power-off and power-on scenarios. Simulations and experimental results using Spartan 3E FPGAs demonstrate the effectiveness of this system. The efficiency of the radio frequency (RF) communication has also been verified via a PCB prototype with a printed slot antenna.

Varma, P..  2015.  Building an Open Identity Platform for India. 2015 Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :3–3.

Summary form only given. Aadhaar, India's Unique Identity Project, has become the largest biometric identity system in the world, already covering more than 920 million people. Building such a massive system required significant design thinking, aligning to the core strategy, and building a technology platform that is scalable to meet the project's objective. Entire technology architecture behind Aadhaar is based on principles of openness, linear scalability, strong security, and most importantly vendor neutrality. All application components are built using open source components and open standards. Aadhaar system currently runs across two of the data centers within India managed by UIDAI and handles 1 million enrollments a day and at the peak doing about 900 trillion biometric matches a day. Current system has about 8 PB (8000 Terabytes) of raw data. Aadhaar Authentication service, which requires sub-second response time, is already live and can handle more than 100 million authentications a day. In this talk, the speaker, who has been the Chief Architect of Aadhaar since inception, shares his experience of building the system.

Wang, R. T., Chen, C. T..  2015.  Framework Building and Application of the Performance Evaluation in Marine Logistics Information Platform in Taiwan. 2015 2nd International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering. :245–249.

This paper has conducted a trial in establishing a systematic instrument for evaluating the performance of the marine information systems. Analytic Network Process (ANP) was introduced for determining the relative importance of a set of interdependent criteria concerned by the stakeholders (shipper/consignee, customer broker, forwarder, and container yard). Three major information platforms (MTNet, TradeVan, and Nice Shipping) in Taiwan were evaluated according to the criteria derived from ANP. Results show that the performance of marine information system can be divided into three constructs, namely: Safety and Technology (3 items), Service (3 items), and Charge (3 items). The Safety and Technology is the most important construct of marine information system evaluation, whereas Charger is the least important construct. This study give insights to improve the performance of the existing marine information systems and serve as the useful reference for the future freight information platform.

Ray, B., Howdhury, M., Abawajy, J., Jesmin, M..  2015.  Secure object tracking protocol for Networked RFID Systems. 2015 IEEE/ACIS 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). :1–7.

Networked systems have adapted Radio Frequency identification technology (RFID) to automate their business process. The Networked RFID Systems (NRS) has some unique characteristics which raise new privacy and security concerns for organizations and their NRS systems. The businesses are always having new realization of business needs using NRS. One of the most recent business realization of NRS implementation on large scale distributed systems (such as Internet of Things (IoT), supply chain) is to ensure visibility and traceability of the object throughout the chain. However, this requires assurance of security and privacy to ensure lawful business operation. In this paper, we are proposing a secure tracker protocol that will ensure not only visibility and traceability of the object but also genuineness of the object and its travel path on-site. The proposed protocol is using Physically Unclonable Function (PUF), Diffie-Hellman algorithm and simple cryptographic primitives to protect privacy of the partners, injection of fake objects, non-repudiation, and unclonability. The tag only performs a simple mathematical computation (such as combination, PUF and division) that makes the proposed protocol suitable to passive tags. To verify our security claims, we performed experiment on Security Protocol Description Language (SPDL) model of the proposed protocol using automated claim verification tool Scyther. Our experiment not only verified our claims but also helped us to eliminate possible attacks identified by Scyther.

Bass, L., Holz, R., Rimba, P., Tran, A. B., Zhu, L..  2015.  Securing a Deployment Pipeline. 2015 IEEE/ACM 3rd International Workshop on Release Engineering. :4–7.

At the RELENG 2014 Q&A, the question was asked, “What is your greatest concern?” and the response was “someone subverting our deployment pipeline”. That is the motivation for this paper. We explore what it means to subvert a pipeline and provide several different scenarios of subversion. We then focus on the issue of securing a pipeline. As a result, we provide an engineering process that is based on having trusted components mediate access to sensitive portions of the pipeline from other components, which can remain untrusted. Applying our process to a pipeline we constructed involving Chef, Jenkins, Docker, Github, and AWS, we find that some aspects of our process result in easy to make changes to the pipeline, whereas others are more difficult. Consequently, we have developed a design that hardens the pipeline, although it does not yet completely secure it.

Castro, J. A. O., G, W. A. Casilimas, Ramírez, M. M. H..  2015.  Impact analysis of transport capacity and food safety in Bogota. 2015 Workshop on Engineering Applications - International Congress on Engineering (WEA). :1–7.

Food safety policies have aim to promote and develop feeding and nutrition in society. This paper presents a system dynamics model that studies the dynamic behavior between transport infrastructure and the food supply chain in the city of Bogotá. The results show that an adequate transport infrastructure is more effective to improve the service to the customer in the food supply chain. The system dynamics model allows analyze the behavior of transport infrastructure and supply chains of fruits and vegetables, groceries, meat and dairy. The study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of food security impact, food supply chain and transport infrastructure.

Chen, S., Wang, T., Ai, J..  2015.  A fair exchange and track system for RFID-tagged logistic chains. 2015 8th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI). :661–666.

RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) is attractive for the strong visibility it provides into logistics operations. In this paper, we explore fair-exchange techniques to encourage honest reporting of item receipt in RFID-tagged supply chains and present a fair ownership transfer system for RFID-tagged supply chains. In our system, a receiver can only access the data and/or functions of the RFID tag by providing the sender with a cryptographic attestation of successful receipt; cheating results in a defunct tag. Conversely, the sender can only obtain the receiver's attestation by providing the secret keys required to access the tag.