Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-11-09
Li, H., Patnaik, S., Sengupta, A., Yang, H., Knechtel, J., Yu, B., Young, E. F. Y., Sinanoglu, O..  2019.  Attacking Split Manufacturing from a Deep Learning Perspective. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1–6.
The notion of integrated circuit split manufacturing which delegates the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) parts to different foundries, is to prevent overproduction, piracy of the intellectual property (IP), or targeted insertion of hardware Trojans by adversaries in the FEOL facility. In this work, we challenge the security promise of split manufacturing by formulating various layout-level placement and routing hints as vector- and image-based features. We construct a sophisticated deep neural network which can infer the missing BEOL connections with high accuracy. Compared with the publicly available network-flow attack [1], for the same set of ISCAS-85benchmarks, we achieve 1.21× accuracy when splitting on M1 and 1.12× accuracy when splitting on M3 with less than 1% running time.
Karmakar, R., Jana, S. S., Chattopadhyay, S..  2019.  A Cellular Automata Guided Obfuscation Strategy For Finite-State-Machine Synthesis. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1–6.
A popular countermeasure against IP piracy relies on obfuscating the Finite State Machine (FSM), which is assumed to be the heart of a digital system. In this paper, we propose to use a special class of non-group additive cellular automata (CA) called D1 * CA, and it's counterpart D1 * CAdual to obfuscate each state-transition of an FSM. The synthesized FSM exhibits correct state-transitions only for a correct key, which is a designer's secret. The proposed easily testable key-controlled FSM synthesis scheme can thwart reverse engineering attacks, thus offers IP protection.
Sengupta, A., Roy, D., Mohanty, S. P..  2019.  Low-Overhead Robust RTL Signature for DSP Core Protection: New Paradigm for Smart CE Design. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–6.
The design process of smart Consumer Electronics (CE) devices heavily relies on reusable Intellectual Property (IP) cores of Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and Multimedia Processor (MP). On the other hand, due to strict competition and rivalry between IP vendors, the problem of ownership conflict and IP piracy is surging. Therefore, to design a secured smart CE device, protection of DSP/MP IP core is essential. Embedding a robust IP owner's signature can protect an IP core from ownership abuse and forgery. This paper presents a covert signature embedding process for DSP/MP IP core at Register-transfer level (RTL). The secret marks of the signature are distributed over the entire design such that it provides higher robustness. For example for 8th order FIR filter, it incurs only between 6% and 3% area overhead for maximum and minimum size signature respectively compared to the non-signature FIR RTL design but with significantly enhanced security.
Rao, V. V., Savidis, I..  2019.  Mesh Based Obfuscation of Analog Circuit Properties. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
In this paper, a technique to design analog circuits with enhanced security is described. The proposed key based obfuscation technique uses a mesh topology to obfuscate the physical dimensions and the threshold voltage of the transistor. To mitigate the additional overhead of implementing the obfuscated circuitry, a satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) based algorithm is proposed to auto-determine the sizes of the transistors selected for obfuscation such that only a limited set of key values produce the correct circuit functionality. The proposed algorithm and the obfuscation methodology is implemented on an LC tank voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The operating frequency of the VCO is masked with a 24-bit encryption key applied to a 2×6 mesh structure that obfuscates the dimensions of each varactor transistor. The probability of determining the correct key is 5.96×10-8 through brute force attack. The dimensions of the obfuscated transistors determined by the analog satisfiability (aSAT) algorithm result in at least a 15%, 3%, and 13% deviation in, respectively, the effective transistor dimensions, target frequency, and voltage amplitude when an incorrect key is applied to the VCO. In addition, only one key produces the desired frequency and properly sets the overall performance specifications of the VCO. The simulated results indicate that the proposed design methodology, which quickly and accurately determines the transistor sizes for obfuscation, produces the target specifications and provides protection for analog circuits against IP piracy and reverse engineering.
Rathor, M., Sengupta, A..  2019.  Enhanced Functional Obfuscation of DSP core using Flip-Flops and Combinational logic. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). :1–5.
Due to globalization of Integrated Circuit (IC) design flow, Intellectual Property (IP) cores have increasingly become susceptible to various hardware threats such as Trojan insertion, piracy, overbuilding etc. An IP core can be secured against these threats using functional obfuscation based security mechanism. This paper presents a functional obfuscation of digital signal processing (DSP) core for consumer electronics systems using a novel IP core locking block (ILB) logic that leverages the structure of flip-flops and combinational circuits. These ILBs perform the locking of the functionality of a DSP design and actuate the correct functionality only on application of a valid key sequence. In existing approaches so far, executing exhaustive trials are sufficient to extract the valid keys from an obfuscated design. However, proposed work is capable of hindering the extraction of valid keys even on exhaustive trials, unless successfully applied in the first attempt only. In other words, the proposed work drastically reduces the probability of obtaining valid key of a functionally obfuscated design in exhaustive trials. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach achieves higher security and lower design overhead than previous works.
Islam, S. A., Sah, L. K., Katkoori, S..  2019.  DLockout: A Design Lockout Technique for Key Obfuscated RTL IP Designs. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :17–20.
Intellectual Property (IP) infringement including piracy and overproduction have emerged as significant threats in the semiconductor supply chain. Key-based obfuscation techniques (i.e., logic locking) are widely applied to secure legacy IP from such attacks. However, the fundamental question remains open whether an attacker is allowed an exponential amount of time to seek correct key or could it be useful to lock out the design in a non-destructive manner after several incorrect attempts. In this paper, we address this question with a robust design lockout technique. Specifically, we perform comparisons on obfuscation logic output that reflects the condition (correct or incorrect) of the applied key without changing the system behavior. The proposed approach, when combined with key obfuscation (logic locking) technique, increases the difficulty of reverse engineering key obfuscated RTL module. We provide security evaluation of DLockout against three common side-channel attacks followed by a quantitative assessment of the resilience. We conducted a set of experiments on four datapath intensive IPs and one crypto core for three different key lengths (32-, 64-, and 128-bit) under the typical design corner. On average, DLockout incurs negligible area, power, and delay overheads.
Sengupta, A., Gupta, G., Jalan, H..  2019.  Hardware Steganography for IP Core Protection of Fault Secured DSP Cores. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). :1–6.
Security of transient fault secured IP cores against piracy, false claim of ownership can be achieved during high level synthesis, especially when handling DSP or multimedia cores. Though watermarking that involves implanting a vendor defined signature onto the design can be useful, however research has shown its limitations such as less designer control, high overhead due to extreme dependency on signature size, combination and encoding rule. This paper proposes an alternative paradigm called `hardware steganography' where hidden additional designer's constraints are implanted in a fault secured IP core using entropy thresholding. In proposed hardware steganography, concealed information in the form of additional edges having a specific entropy value is embedded in the colored interval graph (CIG). This is a signature free approach and ensures high designer control (more robustness and stronger proof of authorship) as well as lower overhead than watermarking schemes used for DSP based IP cores.
Bose, S., Raikwar, M., Mukhopadhyay, D., Chattopadhyay, A., Lam, K..  2018.  BLIC: A Blockchain Protocol for Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management of ICS. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :1326–1335.
Blockchain technology has brought a huge paradigm shift in multiple industries, by integrating distributed ledger, smart contracts and consensus protocol under the same roof. Notable applications of blockchain include cryptocurrencies and large-scale multi-party transaction management systems. The latter fits very well into the domain of manufacturing and supply chain management for Integrated Circuits (IC), which, despite several advanced technologies, is vulnerable to malicious practices, such as overproduction, IP piracy and deleterious design modification to gain unfair advantages. To combat these threats, researchers have proposed several ideas like hardware metering, design obfuscation, split manufacturing and watermarking. In this paper, we show, how these issues can be complementarily dealt with using blockchain technology coupled with identity-based encryption and physical unclonable functions, for improved resilience against certain adversarial motives. As part of our proposed blockchain protocol, titled `BLIC', we propose an authentication mechanism to secure both active and passive IC transactions, and a composite consensus protocol designed for IC supply chains. We also present studies on the security, scalability, privacy and anonymity of the BLIC protocol.
Mobaraki, S., Amirkhani, A., Atani, R. E..  2018.  A Novel PUF based Logic Encryption Technique to Prevent SAT Attacks and Trojan Insertion. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :507–513.
The manufacturing of integrated circuits (IC) outside of the design houses makes it possible for the adversary to easily perform a reverse engineering attack against intellectual property (IP)/IC. The aim of this attack can be the IP piracy, overproduction, counterfeiting or inserting hardware Trojan (HT) throughout the supply chain of the IC. Preventing hardware Trojan insertion is a significant issue in the context of hardware security (HS) and has not been considered in most of the previous logic encryption methods. To eliminate this problem, in this paper an Anti-Trojan insertion algorithm is presented. The idea is based on the fact that reducing the signals with low-observability (LO) and low-controllability (LC) can prevent HT insertion significantly. The security of logic encryption methods depends on the algorithm and the encryption key. However, the security of these methods has been compromised by SAT attacks over recent years. SAT attacks, can decode the correct key from most logic encryption techniques. In this article, by using the PUF-based encryption, the applied key in the encryption is randomized and SAT attack cannot be performed. Based on the output of PUF, a unique encryption has been made for each chip that preventing from counterfeiting and IP piracy.
Zaman, M., Sengupta, A., Liu, D., Sinanoglu, O., Makris, Y., Rajendran, J. J. V..  2018.  Towards provably-secure performance locking. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1592–1597.
Locking the functionality of an integrated circuit (IC) thwarts attacks such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, hardware Trojans, overbuilding, and counterfeiting. Although functional locking has been extensively investigated, locking the performance of an IC has been little explored. In this paper, we develop provably-secure performance locking, where only on applying the correct key the IC shows superior performance; for an incorrect key, the performance of the IC degrades significantly. This leads to a new business model, where the companies can design a single IC capable of different performances for different users. We develop mathematical definitions of security and theoretically, and experimentally prove the security against the state-of-the-art-attacks. We implemented performance locking on a FabScalar microprocessor, achieving a degradation in instructions per clock cycle (IPC) of up to 77% on applying an incorrect key, with an overhead of 0.6%, 0.2%, and 0% for area, power, and delay, respectively.
Patooghy, A., Aerabi, E., Rezaei, H., Mark, M., Fazeli, M., Kinsy, M. A..  2018.  Mystic: Mystifying IP Cores Using an Always-ON FSM Obfuscation Method. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :626–631.
The separation of manufacturing and design processes in the integrated circuit industry to tackle the ever increasing circuit complexity and time to market issues has brought with it some major security challenges. Chief among them is IP piracy by untrusted parties. Hardware obfuscation which locks the functionality and modifies the structure of an IP core to protect it from malicious modifications or piracy has been proposed as a solution. In this paper, we develop an efficient hardware obfuscation method, called Mystic (Mystifying IP Cores), to protect IP cores from reverse engineering, IP overproduction, and IP piracy. The key idea behind Mystic is to add additional state transitions to the original/functional FSM (Finite State Machine) that are taken only when incorrect keys are applied to the circuit. Using the proposed Mystic obfuscation approach, the underlying functionality of the IP core is locked and normal FSM transitions are only available to authorized chip users. The synthesis results of ITC99 circuit benchmarks for ASIC 45nm technology reveal that the Mystic protection method imposes on average 5.14% area overhead, 5.21% delay overhead, and 8.06% power consumption overheads while it exponentially lowers the probability that an unauthorized user will gain access to or derive the chip functionality.
Sengupta, A., Ashraf, M., Nabeel, M., Sinanoglu, O..  2018.  Customized Locking of IP Blocks on a Multi-Million-Gate SoC. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–7.
Reliance on off-site untrusted fabrication facilities has given rise to several threats such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, overbuilding and hardware Trojans. Logic locking is a promising defense technique against such malicious activities that is effected at the silicon layer. Over the past decade, several logic locking defenses and attacks have been presented, thereby, enhancing the state-of-the-art. Nevertheless, there has been little research aiming to demonstrate the applicability of logic locking with large-scale multi-million-gate industrial designs consisting of multiple IP blocks with different security requirements. In this work, we take on this challenge to successfully lock a multi-million-gate system-on-chip (SoC) provided by DARPA by taking it all the way to GDSII layout. We analyze how specific features, constraints, and security requirements of an IP block can be leveraged to lock its functionality in the most appropriate way. We show that the blocks of an SoC can be locked in a customized manner at 0.5%, 15.3%, and 1.5% chip-level overhead in power, performance, and area, respectively.
Hazari, N. A., Alsulami, F., Niamat, M..  2018.  FPGA IP Obfuscation Using Ring Oscillator Physical Unclonable Function. NAECON 2018 - IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference. :105–108.
IP piracy, reverse engineering, and tampering with FPGA based IP is increasing over time. ROPUF based IP obfuscation can provide a feasible solution. In this paper, a novel approach of FPGA IP obfuscation is implemented using Ring Oscillator based Physical Unclonable Function (ROPUF) and random logic gates. This approach provides a lock and key mechanism as well as authentication of FPGA based designs to protect from security threats. Using the Xilinx ISE design tools and ISCAS 89 benchmarks we have designed a secure FPGA based IP protection scheme with an average of 15% area and 10% of power overhead.
Saeed, S. M., Cui, X., Zulehner, A., Wille, R., Drechsler, R., Wu, K., Karri, R..  2018.  IC/IP Piracy Assessment of Reversible Logic. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
Reversible logic is a building block for adiabatic and quantum computing in addition to other applications. Since common functions are non-reversible, one needs to embed them into proper-size reversible functions by adding ancillary inputs and garbage outputs. We explore the Intellectual Property (IP) piracy of reversible circuits. The number of embeddings of regular functions in a reversible function and the percent of leaked ancillary inputs measure the difficulty of recovering the embedded function. To illustrate the key concepts, we study reversible logic circuits designed using reversible logic synthesis tools based on Binary Decision Diagrams and Quantum Multi-valued Decision Diagrams.
2020-11-02
Lin, Chun-Yu, Huang, Juinn-Dar, Yao, Hailong, Ho, Tsung-Yi.  2018.  A Comprehensive Security System for Digital Microfluidic Biochips. 2018 IEEE International Test Conference in Asia (ITC-Asia). :151—156.

Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) have become popular in the healthcare industry recently because of its lowcost, high-throughput, and portability. Users can execute the experiments on biochips with high resolution, and the biochips market therefore grows significantly. However, malicious attackers exploit Intellectual Property (IP) piracy and Trojan attacks to gain illegal profits. The conventional approaches present defense mechanisms that target either IP piracy or Trojan attacks. In practical, DMFBs may suffer from the threat of being attacked by these two attacks at the same time. This paper presents a comprehensive security system to protect DMFBs from IP piracy and Trojan attacks. We propose an authentication mechanism to protect IP and detect errors caused by Trojans with CCD cameras. By our security system, we could generate secret keys for authentication and determine whether the bioassay is under the IP piracy and Trojan attacks. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our security system without overhead of the bioassay completion time.

Wang, Jiawei, Zhang, Yuejun, Wang, Pengjun, Luan, Zhicun, Xue, Xiaoyong, Zeng, Xiaoyang, Yu, Qiaoyan.  2019.  An Orthogonal Algorithm for Key Management in Hardware Obfuscation. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1—4.

The globalization of supply chain makes semiconductor chips susceptible to various security threats. Design obfuscation techniques have been widely investigated to thwart intellectual property (IP) piracy attacks. Key distribution among IP providers, system integration team, and end users remains as a challenging problem. This work proposes an orthogonal obfuscation method, which utilizes an orthogonal matrix to authenticate obfuscation keys, rather than directly examining each activation key. The proposed method hides the keys by using an orthogonal obfuscation algorithm to increasing the key retrieval time, such that the primary keys for IP cores will not be leaked. The simulation results show that the proposed method reduces the key retrieval time by 36.3% over the baseline. The proposed obfuscation methods have been successfully applied to ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits. Experimental results indicate that the orthogonal obfuscation only increases the area by 3.4% and consumes 4.7% more power than the baseline1.

2020-09-08
Limaye, Nimisha, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Nabeel, Mohammed, Sinanoglu, Ozgur.  2019.  Is Robust Design-for-Security Robust Enough? Attack on Locked Circuits with Restricted Scan Chain Access 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
The security of logic locking has been called into question by various attacks, especially a Boolean satisfiability (SAT) based attack, that exploits scan access in a working chip. Among other techniques, a robust design-for-security (DFS) architecture was presented to restrict any unauthorized scan access, thereby, thwarting the SAT attack (or any other attack that relies on scan access). Nevertheless, in this work, we successfully break this technique by recovering the secret key despite the lack of scan access. Our security analysis on a few benchmark circuits protected by the robust DFS architecture demonstrates the effectiveness of our attack; on average 95% of the key bits are correctly recovered, and almost 100% in most cases. To overcome this and other prevailing attacks, we propose a defense by making fundamental changes to the robust DFS technique; the new defense can withstand all logic locking attacks. We observe, on average, lower area overhead ( 1.65%) than the robust DFS design ( 5.15%), and similar test coverage ( 99.88%).
2020-07-30
Patnaik, Satwik, Ashraf, Mohammed, Sinanoglu, Ozgur, Knechtel, Johann.  2018.  Best of Both Worlds: Integration of Split Manufacturing and Camouflaging into a Security-Driven CAD Flow for 3D ICs. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1—8.

With the globalization of manufacturing and supply chains, ensuring the security and trustworthiness of ICs has become an urgent challenge. Split manufacturing (SM) and layout camouflaging (LC) are promising techniques to protect the intellectual property (IP) of ICs from malicious entities during and after manufacturing (i.e., from untrusted foundries and reverse-engineering by end-users). In this paper, we strive for “the best of both worlds,” that is of SM and LC. To do so, we extend both techniques towards 3D integration, an up-and-coming design and manufacturing paradigm based on stacking and interconnecting of multiple chips/dies/tiers. Initially, we review prior art and their limitations. We also put forward a novel, practical threat model of IP piracy which is in line with the business models of present-day design houses. Next, we discuss how 3D integration is a naturally strong match to combine SM and LC. We propose a security-driven CAD and manufacturing flow for face-to-face (F2F) 3D ICs, along with obfuscation of interconnects. Based on this CAD flow, we conduct comprehensive experiments on DRC-clean layouts. Strengthened by an extensive security analysis (also based on a novel attack to recover obfuscated F2F interconnects), we argue that entering the next, third dimension is eminent for effective and efficient IP protection.

Shey, James, Karimi, Naghmeh, Robucci, Ryan, Patel, Chintan.  2018.  Design-Based Fingerprinting Using Side-Channel Power Analysis for Protection Against IC Piracy. 2018 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :614—619.

Intellectual property (IP) and integrated circuit (IC) piracy are of increasing concern to IP/IC providers because of the globalization of IC design flow and supply chains. Such globalization is driven by the cost associated with the design, fabrication, and testing of integrated circuits and allows avenues for piracy. To protect the designs against IC piracy, we propose a fingerprinting scheme based on side-channel power analysis and machine learning methods. The proposed method distinguishes the ICs which realize a modified netlist, yet same functionality. Our method doesn't imply any hardware overhead. We specifically focus on the ability to detect minimal design variations, as quantified by the number of logic gates changed. Accuracy of the proposed scheme is greater than 96 percent, and typically 99 percent in detecting one or more gate-level netlist changes. Additionally, the effect of temperature has been investigated as part of this work. Results depict 95.4 percent accuracy in detecting the exact number of gate changes when data and classifier use the same temperature, while training with different temperatures results in 33.6 percent accuracy. This shows the effectiveness of building temperature-dependent classifiers from simulations at known operating temperatures.

Liang, Tung-Che, Chakrabarty, Krishnendu, Karri, Ramesh.  2019.  Programmable Daisychaining of Microelectrodes for IP Protection in MEDA Biochips. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1—10.

As digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) make the transition to the marketplace for commercial exploitation, security and intellectual property (IP) protection are emerging as important design considerations. Recent studies have shown that DMFBs are vulnerable to reverse engineering aimed at stealing biomolecular protocols (IP theft). The IP piracy of proprietary protocols may lead to significant losses for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The micro-electrode-dot-array (MEDA) is a next-generation DMFB platform that supports real-time sensing of droplets and has the added advantage of important security protections. However, real-time sensing offers opportunities to an attacker to steal the biochemical IP. We show that the daisychaining of microelectrodes and the use of one-time-programmability in MEDA biochips provides effective bitstream scrambling of biochemical protocols. To examine the strength of this solution, we develop a SAT attack that can unscramble the bitstreams through repeated observations of bioassays executed on the MEDA platform. Based on insights gained from the SAT attack, we propose an advanced defense against IP theft. Simulation results using real-life biomolecular protocols confirm that while the SAT attack is effective for simple instances, our advanced defense can thwart it for realistic MEDA biochips and real-life protocols.

2020-02-26
Nejat, Arash, Kazemi, Zahra, Beroulle, Vincent, Hely, David, Fazeli, Mahdi.  2019.  Restricting Switching Activity Using Logic Locking to Improve Power Analysis-Based Trojan Detection. 2019 IEEE 4th International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :49–54.

Nowadays due to economic reasons most of the semiconductor companies prefer to outsource the manufacturing part of their designs to third fabrication foundries, the so-called fabs. Untrustworthy fabs can extract circuit blocks, the called intellectual properties (IPs), from the layouts and then pirate them. Such fabs are suspected of hardware Trojan (HT) threat in which malicious circuits are added to the layouts for sabotage objectives. HTs lead up to increase power consumption in HT-infected circuits. However, due to process variations, the power of HTs including few gates in million-gate circuits is not detectable in power consumption analysis (PCA). Thus, such circuits should be considered as a collection of small sub-circuits, and PCA must be individually performed for each one of them. In this article, we introduce an approach facilitating PCA-based HT detection methods. Concerning this approach, we propose a new logic locking method and algorithm. Logic locking methods and algorithm are usually employed against IP piracy. They modify circuits such that they do not correctly work without applying a correct key to. Our experiments at the gate level and post-synthesis show that the proposed locking method and algorithm increase the proportion of HT activity and consequently HT power to circuit power.

2018-01-23
Yasin, Muhammad, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Nabeel, Mohammed Thari, Ashraf, Mohammed, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan(JV), Sinanoglu, Ozgur.  2017.  Provably-Secure Logic Locking: From Theory To Practice. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1601–1618.

Logic locking has been conceived as a promising proactive defense strategy against intellectual property (IP) piracy, counterfeiting, hardware Trojans, reverse engineering, and overbuilding attacks. Yet, various attacks that use a working chip as an oracle have been launched on logic locking to successfully retrieve its secret key, undermining the defense of all existing locking techniques. In this paper, we propose stripped-functionality logic locking (SFLL), which strips some of the functionality of the design and hides it in the form of a secret key(s), thereby rendering on-chip implementation functionally different from the original one. When loaded onto an on-chip memory, the secret keys restore the original functionality of the design. Through security-aware synthesis that creates a controllable mismatch between the reverse-engineered netlist and original design, SFLL provides a quantifiable and provable resilience trade-off between all known and anticipated attacks. We demonstrate the application of SFLL to large designs (textgreater100K gates) using a computer-aided design (CAD) framework that ensures attaining the desired security level at minimal implementation cost, 8%, 5%, and 0.5% for area, power, and delay, respectively. In addition to theoretical proofs and simulation confirmation of SFLL's security, we also report results from the silicon implementation of SFLL on an ARM Cortex-M0 microprocessor in 65nm technology.

Danaher, Brett, Smith, Michael D., Telang, Rahul.  2017.  Copyright Enforcement in the Digital Age: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications. Commun. ACM. 60:68–75.
Government-sanctioned and market-based anti-piracy measures can both mitigate economic harm from piracy.
Yasin, Muhammad, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Schafer, Benjamin Carrion, Makris, Yiorgos, Sinanoglu, Ozgur, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan(JV).  2017.  What to Lock?: Functional and Parametric Locking Proceedings of the on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI 2017. :351–356.

Logic locking is an intellectual property (IP) protection technique that prevents IP piracy, reverse engineering and overbuilding attacks by the untrusted foundry or end-users. Existing logic locking techniques are all based on locking the functionality; the design/chip is nonfunctional unless the secret key has been loaded. Existing techniques are vulnerable to various attacks, such as sensitization, key-pruning, and signal skew analysis enabled removal attacks. In this paper, we propose a tenacious and traceless logic locking technique, TTlock, that locks functionality and provably withstands all known attacks, such as SAT-based, sensitization, removal, etc. TTLock protects a secret input pattern; the output of a logic cone is flipped for that pattern, where this flip is restored only when the correct key is applied. Experimental results confirm our theoretical expectations that the computational complexity of attacks launched on TTLock grows exponentially with increasing key-size, while the area, power, and delay overhead increases only linearly. In this paper, we also coin ``parametric locking," where the design/chip behaves as per its specifications (performance, power, reliability, etc.) only with the secret key in place, and an incorrect key downgrades its parametric characteristics. We discuss objectives and challenges in parametric locking.

Yasin, M., Sinanoglu, O..  2017.  Evolution of logic locking. 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :1–6.
The globalization of integrated circuit (IC) supply chain and the emergence of threats, such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, reverse engineering, and hardware Trojans, have forced semiconductor companies to revisit the trust in the supply chain. Logic locking is emerging as a popular and effective countermeasure against these threats. Over the years, multiple logic techniques have been developed. Moreover, a number of attacks have been proposed that expose the security vulnerabilities of these techniques. This paper highlights the key developments in the logic locking research and presents a comprehensive literature review of logic locking.