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2021-07-02
Lehman, Sarah M., Alrumayh, Abrar S., Ling, Haibin, Tan, Chiu C..  2020.  Stealthy Privacy Attacks Against Mobile AR Apps. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—5.
The proliferation of mobile augmented reality applications and the toolkits to create them have serious implications for user privacy. In this paper, we explore how malicious AR app developers can leverage capabilities offered by commercially available AR libraries, and describe how edge computing can be used to address this privacy problem.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Ruchuan.  2020.  LBS-based location privacy protection mechanism in augmented reality. 2020 International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligent Applications (ITIA). :1—6.
With the development of augmented reality(AR) technology and location-based service (LBS) technology, combining AR with LBS will create a new way of life and socializing. In AR, users may consider the privacy and security of data. In LBS, the leakage of user location privacy is an important threat to LBS users. Therefore, it is very important for privacy management of positioning information and user location privacy to avoid loopholes and abuse. In this review, the concepts and principles of AR technology and LBS would be introduced. The existing privacy measurement and privacy protection framework would be analyzed and summarized. Also future research direction of location privacy protection would be discussed.
Arpaia, Pasquale, Bonavolontà, Francesco, Cioffi, Antonella.  2020.  Security vulnerability in Internet of Things sensor networks protected by Advanced Encryption Standard. 2020 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 IoT. :452—457.
In the new era of Internet of Things, the emerging of smart devices makes security and privacy the first requirements and the major challenges of a distributed network. Despite the implementation of security measures, as encryption mechanisms protecting sensor data, and cryptographic algorithms, various attacks seem to undermine the IoT devices security. This paper reports the preliminary results of a side-channel attack (scatter attack) addressed on an 8-bit IoT microcontroller protected by the Advanced Encryption Standard. The attack, based on an high-SNR data acquisition micro-system and a suitable statistical analysis, allows to discover part of the encryption key, demonstrating the security vulnerability of Internet of Things sensor networks protected by the AES.
Braeken, An, Porambage, Pawani, Puvaneswaran, Amirthan, Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2020.  ESSMAR: Edge Supportive Secure Mobile Augmented Reality Architecture for Healthcare. 2020 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Artificial Intelligence: Technologies and Applications (CloudTech). :1—7.
The recent advances in mobile devices and wireless communication sector transformed Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) from science fiction to reality. Among the other MAR use cases, the incorporation of this MAR technology in the healthcare sector can elevate the quality of diagnosis and treatment for the patients. However, due to the highly sensitive nature of the data available in this process, it is also highly vulnerable to all types of security threats. In this paper, an edge-based secure architecture is presented for a MAR healthcare application. Based on the ESSMAR architecture, a secure key management scheme is proposed for both the registration and authentication phases. Then the security of the proposed scheme is validated using formal and informal verification methods.
Haque, Shaheryar Ehsan I, Saleem, Shahzad.  2020.  Augmented reality based criminal investigation system (ARCRIME). 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—6.
Crime scene investigation and preservation are fundamentally the pillars of forensics. Numerous cases have been discussed in this paper where mishandling of evidence or improper investigation leads to lengthy trials and even worse incorrect verdicts. Whether the problem is lack of training of first responders or any other scenario, it is essential for police officers to properly preserve the evidence. Second problem is the criminal profiling where each district department has its own method of storing information about criminals. ARCRIME intends to digitally transform the way police combat crime. It will allow police officers to create a copy of the scene of crime so that it can be presented in courts or in forensics labs. It will be in the form of wearable glasses for officers on site whereas officers during training will be wearing a headset. The trainee officers will be provided with simulations of cases which have already been resolved. Officers on scene would be provided with intelligence about the crime and the suspect they are interviewing. They would be able to create a case file with audio recording and images which can be digitally sent to a prosecution lawyer. This paper also explores the risks involved with ARCRIME and also weighs in their impact and likelihood of happening. Certain contingency plans have been highlighted in the same section as well to respond to emergency situations.
Yao, Xiaoyong, Pei, Yuwen, Wu, Pingdong, Huang, Man-ling.  2020.  Study on Integrative Control between the Stereoscopic Image and the Tactile Feedback in Augmented Reality. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electronics and Communication Engineering (ICECE). :177—180.
The precise integrative control between the stereoscopic image and the tactile feedback is very essential in augmented reality[1]-[4]. In order to study this question, this paper will introduce a stereoscopic-imaging and tactile integrative augmented-reality system, and a stereoscopic-imaging and tactile integrative algorithm. The system includes a stereoscopic-imaging part and a string-based tactile part. The integrative algorithm is used to precisely control the interaction between the two parts. The results for testing the system and the algorithm demonstrate the system to be perfect through 5 testers' operation and will be presented in the last part of the paper.
2021-06-24
King, Andrew, Kaleem, Faisal, Rabieh, Khaled.  2020.  A Survey on Privacy Issues of Augmented Reality Applications. 2020 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :32—40.
Privacy is one of the biggest concerns of the coming decade, ranking third among concerns of consumers. Data breaches and leaks are constantly in the news with companies like Facebook and Amazon being outed for their excessive data collection. With companies and governmental agencies tracking and monitoring individuals to a great degree, there are concerns that contemporary technologies that feed into these systems can be misused or misappropriated further. Frameworks currently in place fail to address many of these consumer's concerns and even the legal framework could use further elaboration to better control the way data is handled. In this paper, We address the current industrial standards, frameworks, and concerns of one of the biggest technology trends right now, the Augmented Reality. The expected prevalence of augmented reality applications necessitates a deeper study not only of their security but the expected challenges of users using such applications as well.
2021-03-01
Hynes, E., Flynn, R., Lee, B., Murray, N..  2020.  An Evaluation of Lower Facial Micro Expressions as an Implicit QoE Metric for an Augmented Reality Procedure Assistance Application. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
Augmented reality (AR) has been identified as a key technology to enhance worker utility in the context of increasing automation of repeatable procedures. AR can achieve this by assisting the user in performing complex and frequently changing procedures. Crucial to the success of procedure assistance AR applications is user acceptability, which can be measured by user quality of experience (QoE). An active research topic in QoE is the identification of implicit metrics that can be used to continuously infer user QoE during a multimedia experience. A user's QoE is linked to their affective state. Affective state is reflected in facial expressions. Emotions shown in micro facial expressions resemble those expressed in normal expressions but are distinguished from them by their brief duration. The novelty of this work lies in the evaluation of micro facial expressions as a continuous QoE metric by means of correlation analysis to the more traditional and accepted post-experience self-reporting. In this work, an optimal Rubik's Cube solver AR application was used as a proof of concept for complex procedure assistance. This was compared with a paper-based procedure assistance control. QoE expressed by affect in normal and micro facial expressions was evaluated through correlation analysis with post-experience reports. The results show that the AR application yielded higher task success rates and shorter task durations. Micro facial expressions reflecting disgust correlated moderately to the questionnaire responses for instruction disinterest in the AR application.
2021-02-03
Velaora, M., Roy, R. van, Guéna, F..  2020.  ARtect, an augmented reality educational prototype for architectural design. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :110—115.

ARtect is an Augmented Reality application developed with Unity 3D, which envisions an educational interactive and immersive tool for architects, designers, researchers, and artists. This digital instrument renders the competency to visualize custom-made 3D models and 2D graphics in interior and exterior environments. The user-friendly interface offers an accurate insight before the materialization of any architectural project, enabling evaluation of the design proposal. This practice could be integrated into learning architectural design process, saving resources of printed drawings, and 3D carton models during several stages of spatial conception.

Bahaei, S. Sheikh.  2020.  A Framework for Risk Assessment in Augmented Reality-Equipped Socio-Technical Systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE-IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :77—78.

New technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) are used to enhance human capabilities and extend human functioning; nevertheless they may cause distraction and incorrect human functioning. Systems including socio entities (such as human) and technical entities (such as augmented reality) are called socio-technical systems. In order to do risk assessment in such systems, considering new dependability threats caused by augmented reality is essential, for example failure of an extended human function is a new type of dependability threat introduced to the system because of new technologies. In particular, it is required to identify these new dependability threats and extend modeling and analyzing techniques to be able to uncover their potential impacts. This research aims at providing a framework for risk assessment in AR-equipped socio-technical systems by identifying AR-extended human failures and AR-caused faults leading to human failures. Our work also extends modeling elements in an existing metamodel for modeling socio-technical systems, to enable AR-relevant dependability threats modeling. This extended metamodel is expected to be used for extending analysis techniques to analyze AR-equipped socio-technical systems.

Martin, S., Parra, G., Cubillo, J., Quintana, B., Gil, R., Perez, C., Castro, M..  2020.  Design of an Augmented Reality System for Immersive Learning of Digital Electronic. 2020 XIV Technologies Applied to Electronics Teaching Conference (TAEE). :1—6.

This article describes the development of two mobile applications for learning Digital Electronics. The first application is an interactive app for iOS where you can study the different digital circuits, and which will serve as the basis for the second: a game of questions in augmented reality.

2020-12-15
Reardon, C., Lee, K., Fink, J..  2018.  Come See This! Augmented Reality to Enable Human-Robot Cooperative Search. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). :1—7.

Robots operating alongside humans in field environments have the potential to greatly increase the situational awareness of their human teammates. A significant challenge, however, is the efficient conveyance of what the robot perceives to the human in order to achieve improved situational awareness. We believe augmented reality (AR), which allows a human to simultaneously perceive the real world and digital information situated virtually in the real world, has the potential to address this issue. Motivated by the emerging prevalence of practical human-wearable AR devices, we present a system that enables a robot to perform cooperative search with a human teammate, where the robot can both share search results and assist the human teammate in navigation to the search target. We demonstrate this ability in a search task in an uninstrumented environment where the robot identifies and localizes targets and provides navigation direction via AR to bring the human to the correct target.

2020-12-11
Vasiliu, V., Sörös, G..  2019.  Coherent Rendering of Virtual Smile Previews with Fast Neural Style Transfer. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR). :66—73.

Coherent rendering in augmented reality deals with synthesizing virtual content that seamlessly blends in with the real content. Unfortunately, capturing or modeling every real aspect in the virtual rendering process is often unfeasible or too expensive. We present a post-processing method that improves the look of rendered overlays in a dental virtual try-on application. We combine the original frame and the default rendered frame in an autoencoder neural network in order to obtain a more natural output, inspired by artistic style transfer research. Specifically, we apply the original frame as style on the rendered frame as content, repeating the process with each new pair of frames. Our method requires only a single forward pass, our shallow architecture ensures fast execution, and our internal feedback loop inherently enforces temporal consistency.

2020-08-28
Kolomeets, Maxim, Chechulin, Andrey, Zhernova, Ksenia, Kotenko, Igor, Gaifulina, Diana.  2020.  Augmented reality for visualizing security data for cybernetic and cyberphysical systems. 2020 28th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP). :421—428.
The paper discusses the use of virtual (VR) and augmented (AR) reality for visual analytics in information security. Paper answers two questions: “In which areas of information security visualization VR/AR can be useful?” and “What is the difference of the VR/AR from similar methods of visualization at the level of perception of information?”. The first answer is based on the investigation of information security areas and visualization models that can be used in VR/AR security visualization. The second answer is based on experiments that evaluate perception of visual components in VR.
Huang, Bai-Ruei, Lin, Chang Hong, Lee, Chia-Han.  2012.  Mobile augmented reality based on cloud computing. and Identification Anti-counterfeiting, Security. :1—5.
In this paper, we implemented a mobile augmented reality system based on cloud computing. This system uses a mobile device with a camera to capture images of book spines and sends processed features to the cloud. In the cloud, the features are compared with the database and the information of the best matched book would be sent back to the mobile device. The information will then be rendered on the display via augmented reality. In order to reduce the transmission cost, the mobile device is used to perform most of the image processing tasks, such as the preprocessing, resizing, corner detection, and augmented reality rendering. On the other hand, the cloud is used to realize routine but large quantity feature comparisons. Using the cloud as the database also makes the future extension much more easily. For our prototype system, we use an Android smart phone as our mobile device, and Chunghwa Telecoms hicloud as the cloud.
Knierim, Pascal, Kiss, Francisco, Schmidt, Albrecht.  2018.  Look Inside: Understanding Thermal Flux Through Augmented Reality. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct (ISMAR-Adjunct). :170—171.
The transition from high school to university is an exciting time for students including many new challenges. Particularly in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, the university dropout rate may reach up to 40%. The studies of physics rely on many abstract concepts and quantities that are not directly visible like energy or heat. We developed a mixed reality application for education, which augments the thermal conduction of metal by overlaying a representation of temperature as false-color visualization directly onto the object. This real-time augmentation avoids attention split and overcomes the perception gap by amplifying the human eye. Augmented and Virtual Reality environments allow students to perform experiments that were impossible to conduct for security or financial reasons. With the application, we try to foster a deeper understanding of the learning material and higher engagement during the studies.
Kommera, Nikitha, Kaleem, Faisal, Shah Harooni, Syed Mubashir.  2016.  Smart augmented reality glasses in cybersecurity and forensic education. 2016 IEEE Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :279—281.
Augmented reality is changing the way its users see the world. Smart augmented-reality glasses, with high resolution Optical Head Mounted display, supplements views of the real-world using video, audio, or graphics projected in front of user's eye. The area of Smart Glasses and heads-up display devices is not a new one, however in the last few years, it has seen an extensive growth in various fields including education. Our work takes advantage of a student's ability to adapt to new enabling technologies to investigate improvements teaching techniques in STEM areas and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency in teaching the new course content. In this paper, we propose to focus on the application of Smart Augmented-Reality Glasses in cybersecurity education to attract and retain students in STEM. In addition, creative ways to learn cybersecurity education via Smart Glasses will be explored using a Discovery Learning approach. This mode of delivery will allow students to interact with cybersecurity theories in an innovative, interactive and effective way, enhancing their overall live experience and experimental learning. With the help of collected data and in-depth analysis of existing smart glasses, the ongoing work will lay the groundwork for developing augmented reality applications that will enhance the learning experiences of students. Ultimately, research conducted with the glasses and applications may help to identify the unique skillsets of cybersecurity analysts, learning gaps and learning solutions.
Ferreira, P.M.F.M., Orvalho, J.M., Boavida, F..  2005.  Large Scale Mobile and Pervasive Augmented Reality Games. EUROCON 2005 - The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool". 2:1775—1778.
Ubiquitous or pervasive computing is a new kind of computing, where specialized elements of hardware and software will have such high level of deployment that their use will be fully integrated with the environment. Augmented reality extends reality with virtual elements but tries to place the computer in a relatively unobtrusive, assistive role. To our knowledge, there is no specialized network middleware solution for large-scale mobile and pervasive augmented reality games. We present a work that focus on the creation of such network middleware for mobile and pervasive entertainment, applied to the area of large scale augmented reality games. In, this context, mechanisms are being studied, proposed and evaluated to deal with issues such as scalability, multimedia data heterogeneity, data distribution and replication, consistency, security, geospatial location and orientation, mobility, quality of service, management of networks and services, discovery, ad-hoc networking and dynamic configuration
Ferreira, Pedro, Orvalho, Joao, Boavida, Fernando.  2007.  Security and privacy in a middleware for large scale mobile and pervasive augmented reality. 2007 15th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks. :1—5.
Ubiquitous or pervasive computing is a new kind of computing, where specialized elements of hardware and software will have such high level of deployment that their use will be fully integrated with the environment. Augmented reality extends reality with virtual elements but tries to place the computer in a relatively unobtrusive, assistive role. In this paper we propose, test and analyse a security and privacy architecture for a previously proposed middleware architecture for mobile and pervasive large scale augmented reality games, which is the main contribution of this paper. The results show that the security features proposed in the scope of this work do not affect the overall performance of the system.
Dauenhauer, Ralf, Müller, Tobias.  2016.  An Evaluation of Information Connection in Augmented Reality for 3D Scenes with Occlusion. 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR-Adjunct). :235—237.
Most augmented reality applications connect virtual information to anchors, i.e. physical places or objects, by using spatial overlays or proximity. However, for industrial use cases this is not always feasible because specific parts must remain fully visible in order to meet work or security requirements. In these situations virtual information must be displayed at alternative positions while connections to anchors must still be clearly recognizable. In our previous research we were the first to show that for simple scenes connection lines are most suitable for this. To extend these results to more complex environments, we conducted an experiment on the effects of visual interruptions in connection lines and incorrect occlusion. Completion time and subjective mental effort for search tasks were used as measures. Our findings confirm that also in 3D scenes with partial occlusion connection lines are preferable to connect virtual information with anchors if an assignment via overlay or close proximity is not feasible. The results further imply that neither incorrectly used depth cues nor missing parts of connection lines make a significant difference concerning completion time or subjective mental effort. For designers of industrial augmented reality applications this means that they can choose either visualization based on their needs.
Brinkman, Bo.  2012.  Willing to be fooled: Security and autoamputation in augmented reality. 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - Arts, Media, and Humanities (ISMAR-AMH). :89—90.

What does it mean to trust, or not trust, an augmented reality system? Froma computer security point of view, trust in augmented reality represents a real threat to real people. The fact that augmented reality allows the programmer to tinker with the user's senses creates many opportunities for malfeasance. It might be natural to think that if we warn users to be careful it will lower their trust in the system, greatly reducing risk.

2020-06-04
Almeida, L., Lopes, E., Yalçinkaya, B., Martins, R., Lopes, A., Menezes, P., Pires, G..  2019.  Towards natural interaction in immersive reality with a cyber-glove. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :2653—2658.

Over the past few years, virtual and mixed reality systems have evolved significantly yielding high immersive experiences. Most of the metaphors used for interaction with the virtual environment do not provide the same meaningful feedback, to which the users are used to in the real world. This paper proposes a cyber-glove to improve the immersive sensation and the degree of embodiment in virtual and mixed reality interaction tasks. In particular, we are proposing a cyber-glove system that tracks wrist movements, hand orientation and finger movements. It provides a decoupled position of the wrist and hand, which can contribute to a better embodiment in interaction and manipulation tasks. Additionally, the detection of the curvature of the fingers aims to improve the proprioceptive perception of the grasping/releasing gestures more consistent to visual feedback. The cyber-glove system is being developed for VR applications related to real estate promotion, where users have to go through divisions of the house and interact with objects and furniture. This work aims to assess if glove-based systems can contribute to a higher sense of immersion, embodiment and usability when compared to standard VR hand controller devices (typically button-based). Twenty-two participants tested the cyber-glove system against the HTC Vive controller in a 3D manipulation task, specifically the opening of a virtual door. Metric results showed that 83% of the users performed faster door pushes, and described shorter paths with their hands wearing the cyber-glove. Subjective results showed that all participants rated the cyber-glove based interactions as equally or more natural, and 90% of users experienced an equal or a significant increase in the sense of embodiment.

Bang, Junseong, Lee, Youngho, Lee, Yong-Tae, Park, Wonjoo.  2019.  AR/VR Based Smart Policing For Fast Response to Crimes in Safe City. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct (ISMAR-Adjunct). :470—475.

With advances in information and communication technologies, cities are getting smarter to enhance the quality of human life. In smart cities, safety (including security) is an essential issue. In this paper, by reviewing several safe city projects, smart city facilities for the safety are presented. With considering the facilities, a design for a crime intelligence system is introduced. Then, concentrating on how to support police activities (i.e., emergency call reporting reception, patrol activity, investigation activity, and arrest activity) with immersive technologies in order to reduce a crime rate and to quickly respond to emergencies in the safe city, smart policing with augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) is explained.

Asiri, Somayah, Alzahrani, Ahmad A..  2019.  The Effectiveness of Mixed Reality Environment-Based Hand Gestures in Distributed Collaboration. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.

Mixed reality (MR) technologies are widely used in distributed collaborative learning scenarios and have made learning and training more flexible and intuitive. However, there are many challenges in the use of MR due to the difficulty in creating a physical presence, particularly when a physical task is being performed collaboratively. We therefore developed a novel MR system to overcomes these limitations and enhance the distributed collaboration user experience. The primary objective of this paper is to explore the potential of a MR-based hand gestures system to enhance the conceptual architecture of MR in terms of both visualization and interaction in distributed collaboration. We propose a synchronous prototype named MRCollab as an immersive collaborative approach that allows two or more users to communicate with a peer based on the integration of several technologies such as video, audio, and hand gestures.

Shang, Jiacheng, Wu, Jie.  2019.  Enabling Secure Voice Input on Augmented Reality Headsets using Internal Body Voice. 2019 16th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1—9.

Voice-based input is usually used as the primary input method for augmented reality (AR) headsets due to immersive AR experience and good recognition performance. However, recent researches have shown that an attacker can inject inaudible voice commands to the devices that lack voice verification. Even if we secure voice input with voice verification techniques, an attacker can easily steal the victim's voice using low-cast handy recorders and replay it to voice-based applications. To defend against voice-spoofing attacks, AR headsets should be able to determine whether the voice is from the person who is using the AR headsets. Existing voice-spoofing defense systems are designed for smartphone platforms. Due to the special locations of microphones and loudspeakers on AR headsets, existing solutions are hard to be implemented on AR headsets. To address this challenge, in this paper, we propose a voice-spoofing defense system for AR headsets by leveraging both the internal body propagation and the air propagation of human voices. Experimental results show that our system can successfully accept normal users with average accuracy of 97% and defend against two types of attacks with average accuracy of at least 98%.