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Chen, Songlin, Wang, Sijing, Xu, Xingchen, Jiao, Long, Wen, Hong.  2022.  Physical Layer Security Authentication Based Wireless Industrial Communication System for Spoofing Detection. IEEE INFOCOM 2022 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1–2.
Security is of vital importance in wireless industrial communication systems. When spoofing attacking has occurred, leading to economic losses or even safety accidents. So as to address the concern, existing approaches mainly rely on traditional cryptographic algorithms. However, these methods cannot meet the needs of short delay and lightweight. In this paper, we propose a CSI-based PHY-layer security authentication scheme to detect spoofing detection. The main idea takes advantage of the uncorrelated nature of wireless channels to the identification of spoofing nodes in the physical layer. We demonstrate a MIMO-OFDM based spoofing detection prototype in industrial environments. Firstly, utilizing Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRPs) to establish MIMO-OFDM communication systems is presented. Secondly, our proposed security scheme of CSI-based PHY-layer authentication is demonstrated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified via attack experiments.
Liu, Xingye, Ampadu, Paul.  2022.  A Scalable Single-Input-Multiple-Output DC/DC Converter with Enhanced Load Transient Response and Security for Low-Power SoCs. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1497–1501.
This paper presents a scalable single-input-multiple-output DC/DC converter targeting load transient response and security improvement for low-power System-on-Chips (SoCs). A two-stage modular architecture is introduced to enable scalability. The shared switched-capacitor pre-charging circuits are implemented to improve load transient response and decouple correlations between inputs and outputs. The demo version of the converter has three identical outputs, each supporting 0.3V to 0.9V with a maximum load current of 150mA. Based on post-layout simulation results in 32nm CMOS process, the converter output provides 19.3V/μs reference tracking speed and 27mA/ns workload transitions with negligible voltage droops or spikes. No cross regulation is observed at any outputs with a worst-case voltage ripple of 68mV. Peak efficiency reaches 85.5% for each output. With variable delays added externally, the input-output correlations can change 10 times and for steady-state operation, such correlation factors are always kept below 0.05. The converter is also scaled to support 6 outputs with only 0.56mm2 more area and maintains same load transient response performance.
Ahmad, Adil, Lee, Sangho, Peinado, Marcus.  2022.  HARDLOG: Practical Tamper-Proof System Auditing Using a Novel Audit Device. 2022 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1791—1807.
Audit systems maintain detailed logs of security-related events on enterprise machines to forensically analyze potential incidents. In principle, these logs should be safely stored in a secure location (e.g., network storage) as soon as they are produced, but this incurs prohibitive slowdown to a monitored machine. Hence, existing audit systems protect batched logs asynchronously (e.g., after tens of seconds), but this allows attackers to tamper with unprotected logs.This paper presents HARDLOG, a practical and effective system that employs a novel audit device to provide fine-grained log protection with minimal performance slowdown. HARDLOG implements criticality-aware log protection: it ensures that logs are synchronously protected in the audit device before an infrequent security-critical event is allowed to execute, but logs are asynchronously protected on frequent non-critical events to minimize performance overhead. Importantly, even on non-critical events, HARDLOG ensures bounded-asynchronous protection: it sends log entries to the audit device within a tiny, bounded delay from their creation using well-known real-time techniques. To demonstrate HARDLOG’S effectiveness, we prototyped an audit device using commodity components and implemented a reference audit system for Linux. Our prototype achieves a bounded protection delay of 15 milliseconds at non-critical events alongside undelayed protection at critical events. We also show that, for diverse real-world programs, HARDLOG incurs a geometric mean performance slowdown of only 6.3%, hence it is suitable for many real-world deployment scenarios.
Han, May Pyone, Htet, Soe Ye, Wuttisttikulkij, Lunchakorn.  2022.  Hybrid GNS3 and Mininet-WiFi Emulator for SDN Backbone Network Supporting Wireless IoT Traffic. 2022 37th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). :768-771.

In the IoT (Internet of Things) domain, it is still a challenge to modify the routing behavior of IoT traffic at the decentralized backbone network. In this paper, centralized and flexible software-defined networking (SDN) is utilized to route the IoT traffic. The management of IoT data transmission through the SDN core network gives the chance to choose the path with the lowest delay, minimum packet loss, or hops. Therefore, fault-tolerant delay awareness routing is proposed for the emulated SDN-based backbone network to handle delay-sensitive IoT traffic. Besides, the hybrid form of GNS3 and Mininet-WiFi emulation is introduced to collaborate the SDN-based backbone network in GNS3 and the 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Network) sensor network in Mininet-WiFi.

Aneja, Sakshi, Mittal, Sumit, Sharma, Dhirendra.  2022.  An Optimized Mobility Management Framework for Routing Protocol Lossy Networks using Optimization Algorithm. 2022 International Conference on Communication, Computing and Internet of Things (IC3IoT). :1-8.

As a large number of sensor nodes as well as limited resources such as energy, memory, computing power, as well as bandwidth. Lossy linkages connect these nodes together. In early 2008,IETF working group looked into using current routing protocols for LLNs. Routing Over minimum power and Lossy networksROLL standardizes an IPv6 routing solution for LLNs because of the importance of LLNs in IoT.IPv6 Routing Protocol is based on the 6LoWPAN standard. RPL has matured significantly. The research community is becoming increasingly interested in it. The topology of RPL can be built in a variety of ways. It creates a topology in advance. Due to the lack of a complete review of RPL, in this paper a mobility management framework has been proposed along with experimental evaluation by applying parameters likePacket Delivery Ratio, throughput, end to end delay, consumed energy on the basis of the various parameters and its analysis done accurately. Finally, this paper can help academics better understand the RPL and engage in future research projects to improve it.

Li, Pengzhen, Koyuncu, Erdem, Seferoglu, Hulya.  2021.  Respipe: Resilient Model-Distributed DNN Training at Edge Networks. ICASSP 2021 - 2021 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :3660–3664.
The traditional approach to distributed deep neural network (DNN) training is data-distributed learning, which partitions and distributes data to workers. This approach, although has good convergence properties, has high communication cost, which puts a strain especially on edge systems and increases delay. An emerging approach is model-distributed learning, where a training model is distributed across workers. Model-distributed learning is a promising approach to reduce communication and storage costs, which is crucial for edge systems. In this paper, we design ResPipe, a novel resilient model-distributed DNN training mechanism against delayed/failed workers. We analyze the communication cost of ResPipe and demonstrate the trade-off between resiliency and communication cost. We implement ResPipe in a real testbed consisting of Android-based smartphones, and show that it improves the convergence rate and accuracy of training for convolutional neural networks (CNNs).
Tanimoto, Shigeaki, Matsumoto, Mari, Endo, Teruo, Sato, Hiroyuki, Kanai, Atsushi.  2021.  Risk Management of Fog Computing for Improving IoT Security. 2021 10th International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics (IIAI-AAI). :703—709.
With the spread of the Internet, various devices are now connected to it and the number of IoT devices is increasing. Data generated by IoT devices has traditionally been aggregated in the cloud and processed over time. However, there are two issues with using the cloud. The first is the response delay caused by the long distance between the IoT device and the cloud, and the second is the difficulty of implementing sufficient security measures on the IoT device side due to the limited resources of the IoT device at the end. To address these issues, fog computing, which is located in the middle between IoT devices and the cloud, has been attracting attention as a new network component. However, the risks associated with the introduction of fog computing have not yet been fully investigated. In this study, we conducted a risk assessment of fog computing, which is newly established to promote the use of IoT devices, and identified 24 risk factors. The main countermeasures include the gradual introduction of connected IoT connection protocols and security policy matching. We also demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed risk measures by evaluating the risk values. The proposed risk countermeasures for fog computing should help us to utilize IoT devices in a safe and secure manner.
Ma, Tengchao, Xu, Changqiao, Zhou, Zan, Kuang, Xiaohui, Zhong, Lujie, Grieco, Luigi Alfredo.  2020.  Intelligent-Driven Adapting Defense Against the Client-Side DNS Cache Poisoning in the Cloud. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1—6.
A new Domain Name System (DNS) cache poisoning attack aiming at clients has emerged recently. It induced cloud users to visit fake web sites and thus reveal information such as account passwords. However, the design of current DNS defense architecture does not formally consider the protection of clients. Although the DNS traffic encryption technology can alleviate this new attack, its deployment is as slow as the new DNS architecture. Thus we propose a lightweight adaptive intelligent defense strategy, which only needs to be deployed on the client without any configuration support of DNS. Firstly, we model the attack and defense process as a static stochastic game with incomplete information under bounded rationality conditions. Secondly, to solve the problem caused by uncertain attack strategies and large quantities of game states, we adopt a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) with guaranteed monotonic improvement. Finally, through the prototype system experiment in Alibaba Cloud, the effectiveness of our method is proved against multiple attack modes with a success rate of 97.5% approximately.
Jain, Arpit, Jat, Dharm Singh.  2020.  An Edge Computing Paradigm for Time-Sensitive Applications. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :798—803.
Edge computing (EC) is a new developing computing technology where data are collected, and analysed nearer to the edge or sources of the data. Cloud to the edge, intelligent applications and analytics are part of the IoT applications and technology. Edge computing technology aims to bring cloud computing features near to edge devices. For time-sensitive applications in cloud computing, architecture massive volume of data is generated at the edge and stored and analysed in the cloud. Cloud infrastructure is a composition of data centres and large-scale networks, which provides reliable services to users. Traditional cloud computing is inefficient due to delay in response, network delay and congestion as simultaneous transactions to the cloud, which is a centralised system. This paper presents a literature review on cloud-based edge computing technologies for delay-sensitive applications and suggests a conceptual model of edge computing architecture. Further, the paper also presents the implementation of QoS support edge computing paradigm in Python for further research to improve the latency and throughput for time-sensitive applications.
Mahesh, V V, Shahana, T K.  2020.  Design and synthesis of FIR filter banks using area and power efficient Stochastic Computing. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :662—666.
Stochastic computing is based on probability concepts which are different from conventional mathematical operations. Advantages of stochastic computing in the fields of neural networks and digital image processing have been reported in literature recently. Arithmetic operations especially multiplications can be performed either by logical AND gates in unipolar format or by EXNOR gates in bipolar format in stochastic computation. Stochastic computing is inherently fault-tolerant and requires fewer logic gates to implement arithmetic operations. Long computing time and low accuracy are the main drawbacks of this system. In this presentation, to reduce hardware requirement and delay, modified stochastic multiplication using AND gate array and multiplexer are used for the design of Finite Impulse Response Filter cores. Performance parameters such as area, power and delay for FIR filter using modified stochastic computing methods are compared with conventional floating point computation.
Chang, Zhan-Lun, Lee, Chun-Yen, Lin, Chia-Hung, Wang, Chih-Yu, Wei, Hung-Yu.  2021.  Game-Theoretic Intrusion Prevention System Deployment for Mobile Edge Computing. 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–6.
The network attack such as Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack could be critical to latency-critical systems such as Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) as such attacks significantly increase the response delay of the victim service. Intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a promising solution to defend against such attacks, but there will be a trade-off between IPS deployment and application resource reservation as the deployment of IPS will reduce the number of computation resources for MEC applications. In this paper, we proposed a game-theoretic framework to study the joint computation resource allocation and IPS deployment in the MEC architecture. We study the pricing strategy of the MEC platform operator and purchase strategy of the application service provider, given the expected attack strength and end user demands. The best responses of both MPO and ASPs are derived theoretically to identify the Stackelberg equilibrium. The simulation results confirm that the proposed solutions significantly increase the social welfare of the system.
Casini, Daniel, Biondi, Alessandro, Cicero, Giorgiomaria, Buttazzo, Giorgio.  2021.  Latency Analysis of I/O Virtualization Techniques in Hypervisor-Based Real-Time Systems. 2021 IEEE 27th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). :306–319.
Nowadays, hypervisors are the standard solution to integrate different domains into a shared hardware platform, while providing safety, security, and predictability. To this end, a hypervisor virtualizes the physical platform and orchestrates the access to each component. When the system needs to comply with certification requirements for safety-critical systems, virtualization latencies need to be analytically bounded for providing off-line guarantees. This paper presents a detailed modeling of three I/O virtualization techniques, providing analytical bounds for each of them under different metrics. Experimental results compare the bounds for a case study and quantify the contribution due to different sources of delay.
Johnson, Chelsea K., Gutzwiller, Robert S., Gervais, Joseph, Ferguson-Walter, Kimberly J..  2021.  Decision-Making Biases and Cyber Attackers. 2021 36th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshops (ASEW). :140–144.
Cyber security is reliant on the actions of both machine and human and remains a domain of importance and continual evolution. While the study of human behavior has grown, less attention has been paid to the adversarial operator. Cyber environments consist of complex and dynamic situations where decisions are made with incomplete information. In such scenarios people form strategies based on simplified models of the world and are often efficient and effective, yet may result in judgement or decision-making bias. In this paper, we examine an initial list of biases affecting adversarial cyber actors. We use subject matter experts to derive examples and demonstrate these biases likely exist, and play a role in how attackers operate.
Singh, Anil, Auluck, Nitin, Rana, Omer, Nepal, Surya.  2021.  Scheduling Real Tim Security Aware Tasks in Fog Networks. 2021 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). :6—6.
Fog computing extends the capability of cloud services to support latency sensitive applications. Adding fog computing nodes in proximity to a data generation/ actuation source can support data analysis tasks that have stringent deadline constraints. We introduce a real time, security-aware scheduling algorithm that can execute over a fog environment [1 , 2] . The applications we consider comprise of: (i) interactive applications which are less compute intensive, but require faster response time; (ii) computationally intensive batch applications which can tolerate some delay in execution. From a security perspective, applications are divided into three categories: public, private and semi-private which must be hosted over trusted, semi-trusted and untrusted resources. We propose the architecture and implementation of a distributed orchestrator for fog computing, able to combine task requirements (both performance and security) and resource properties.
Hong, TingYi, Kolios, Athanasios.  2020.  A Framework for Risk Management of Large-Scale Organisation Supply Chains. 2020 International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Application (DASA). :948—953.
This paper establishes a novel approach to supply chain risk management (SCRM), through establishing a risk assessment framework addressing the importance of SCRM and supply chain visibility (SCV). Through a quantitative assessment and empirical evidence, the paper also discusses the specific risks within the manufacturing industry. Based on survey data collected and a case study from Asia, the paper finds that supplier delays and poor product quality can be considered as prevailing risks relevant to the manufacturing industry. However, as supply chain risks are inter-related, one must increase supply chain visibility to fully consider risk causes that ultimately lead to the risk effects. The framework established can be applied to different industries with the view to inform organisations on prevailing risks and prompt motivate improvement in supply chain visibility, thereby, modify risk management strategies. Through suggesting possible risk sources, organisations can adopt proactive risk mitigation strategies so as to more efficiently manage their exposure.
Tan, Mingtian, Wan, Junpeng, Zhou, Zhe, Li, Zhou.  2021.  Invisible Probe: Timing Attacks with PCIe Congestion Side-channel. 2021 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :322—338.
PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect express) protocol is the de facto protocol to bridge CPU and peripheral devices like GPU, NIC, and SSD drive. There is an increasing demand to install more peripheral devices on a single machine, but the PCIe interfaces offered by Intel CPUs are fixed. To resolve such contention, PCIe switch, PCH (Platform Controller Hub), or virtualization cards are installed on the machine to allow multiple devices to share a PCIe interface. Congestion happens when the collective PCIe traffic from the devices overwhelm the PCIe link capacity, and transmission delay is then introduced.In this work, we found the PCIe delay not only harms device performance but also leaks sensitive information about a user who uses the machine. In particular, as user’s activities might trigger data movement over PCIe (e.g., between CPU and GPU), by measuring PCIe congestion, an adversary accessing another device can infer the victim’s secret indirectly. Therefore, the delay resulted from I/O congestion can be exploited as a side-channel. We demonstrate the threat from PCIe congestion through 2 attack scenarios and 4 victim settings. Specifically, an attacker can learn the workload of a GPU in a remote server by probing a RDMA NIC that shares the same PCIe switch and measuring the delays. Based on the measurement, the attacker is able to know the keystroke timings of the victim, what webpage is rendered on the GPU, and what machine-learning model is running on the GPU. Besides, when the victim is using a low-speed device, e.g., an Ethernet NIC, an attacker controlling an NVMe SSD can launch a similar attack when they share a PCH or virtualization card. The evaluation result shows our attack can achieve high accuracy (e.g., 96.31% accuracy in inferring webpage visited by a victim).
Gajanur, Nanditha, Greidanus, Mateo, Seo, Gab-Su, Mazumder, Sudip K., Ali Abbaszada, Mohammad.  2021.  Impact of Blockchain Delay on Grid-Tied Solar Inverter Performance. 2021 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG). :1—7.
This paper investigates the impact of the delay resulting from a blockchain, a promising security measure, for a hierarchical control system of inverters connected to the grid. The blockchain communication network is designed at the secondary control layer for resilience against cyberattacks. To represent the latency in the communication channel, a model is developed based on the complexity of the blockchain framework. Taking this model into account, this work evaluates the plant’s performance subject to communication delays, introduced by the blockchain, among the hierarchical control agents. In addition, this article considers an optimal model-based control strategy that performs the system’s internal control loop. The work shows that the blockchain’s delay size influences the convergence of the power supplied by the inverter to the reference at the point of common coupling. In the results section, real-time simulations on OPAL-RT are performed to test the resilience of two parallel inverters with increasing blockchain complexity.
Zhang, Yuan, Li, Jian, Yang, Jiayu, Xing, Yitao, Zhuang, Rui, Xue, Kaiping.  2021.  Low Priority Congestion Control for Multipath TCP. 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–6.

Many applications are bandwidth consuming but may tolerate longer flow completion times. Multipath protocols, such as multipath TCP (MPTCP), can offer bandwidth aggregation and resilience to link failures for such applications, and low priority congestion control (LPCC) mechanisms can make these applications yield to other time-sensitive ones. Properly combining the above two can improve the overall user experience. However, the existing LPCC mechanisms are not adequate for MPTCP. They do not take into account the characteristics of multiple network paths, and cannot ensure fairness among the same priority flows. Therefore, we propose a multipath LPCC mechanism, i.e., Dynamic Coupled Low Extra Delay Background Transport, named DC-LEDBAT. Our scheme is designed based on a standardized LPCC mechanism LEDBAT. To avoid unfairness among the same priority flows, DC-LEDBAT trades little throughput for precisely measuring the minimum delay. Moreover, to be friendly to single-path LEDBAT, our scheme leverages the correlation of the queuing delay to detect whether multiple paths go through a shared bottleneck. Then, DC-LEDBAT couples the congestion window at shared bottlenecks to control the sending rate. We implement DC-LEDBAT in a Linux kernel and experimental results show that DC-LEDBAT can not only utilize the excess bandwidth of MPTCP but also ensure fairness among the same priority flows.

Flohr, Julius, Rathgeb, Erwin P..  2021.  Reducing End-to-End Delays in WebRTC using the FSE-NG Algorithm for SCReAM Congestion Control. 2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–4.
The 2020 Corona pandemic has shown that on-line real-time multimedia communication is of vital importance when regular face-to-face meetings are not possible. One popular choice for conducting these meetings is the open standard WebRTC which is implemented in every major web browser. Even though this technology has found widespread use, there are still open issues with how different congestion control (CC) algorithms of Media- and DataChannels interact. In 2018 we have shown that the issue of self-inflicted queuing delay can be mitigated by introducing a CC coupling mechanism called FSE-NG. Originally, this solution was only capable of linking DataChannel flows controlled by TCP-style CCs and MediaChannels controlled by NADA CC. Standardization has progressed and along with NADA, IETF has also standardized the RTP CC SCReAM. This work extends the FSE-NG algorithm to also incorporate flows controlled by the latter algorithm. By means of simulation, we show that our approach is capable of drastically reducing end-to-end delays while also increasing RTP throughput and thus enabling WebRTC communication in scenarios where it has not been applicable before.
Francisco, Hernandez Muñoz Urian, Ríos-Moreno, G.J..  2021.  Controller of public vehicles and traffic lights to speed up the response time to emergencies. 2021 XVII International Engineering Congress (CONIIN). :1–6.
Frequently emergency services are required nationally and globally, in Mexico during 2020 of the 16,22,879 calls made to 911, statistics reveal that 58.43% were about security, 16.57% assistance, 13.49% medical, 6.29% civil protection, among others. However, the constant traffic of cities generates delays in the time of arrival to medical, military or civil protection services, wasting time that can be critical in an emergency. The objective is to create a connection between the road infrastructure (traffic lights) and emergency vehicles to reduce waiting time as a vehicle on a mission passes through a traffic light with Controller Area Network CAN controller to modify the color and give way to the emergency vehicle that will send signals to the traffic light controller through a controller located in the car. For this, the Controller Area Network Flexible Data (CAN-FD) controllers will be used in traffic lights since it is capable of synchronizing data in the same bus or cable to avoid that two messages arrive at the same time, which could end in car accidents if they are not it respects a hierarchy and the CANblue ll controller that wirelessly connects devices (vehicle and traffic light) at a speed of 1 Mbit / s to avoid delays in data exchange taking into account the high speeds that a car can acquire. It is intended to use the CAN controller for the development of improvements in response times in high-speed data exchange in cities with high traffic flow. As a result of the use of CAN controllers, a better data flow and interconnection is obtained.
Ponomarenko, Vladimir, Kulminskiy, Danil, Prokhorov, Mikhail.  2021.  Laminar chaos in systems with variable delay time. 2021 5th Scientific School Dynamics of Complex Networks and their Applications (DCNA). :159–161.
In this paper, we investigated a self-oscillating ring system with variation of the delay time, which demonstrates the phenomenon of laminar chaos. The presence of laminar chaos is demonstrated for various laws of time delay variation - sinusoidal, sawtooth, and triangular. The behavior of coupled systems with laminar chaos and diffusive coupling is investigated. The presence of synchronous behavior is shown.
Ashmawy, Doaa, Reyhani-Masoleh, Arash.  2021.  A Faster Hardware Implementation of the AES S-box. 2021 IEEE 28th Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (ARITH). :123—130.
In this paper, we propose a very fast, yet compact, AES S-box, by applying two techniques to a composite field \$GF((2ˆ4)ˆ2)\$ fast AES S-box. The composite field fast S-box has three main components, namely the input transformation matrix, the inversion circuit, and the output transformation matrix. The core inversion circuit computes the multiplicative inverse over the composite field \$GF((2ˆ4)ˆ2)\$ and consists of three arithmetic blocks over subfield \$GF(2ˆ4)\$, namely exponentiation, subfield inverter, and output multipliers. For the first technique, we consider multiplication of the input of the composite field fast S-box by 255 nonzero 8-bit binary field elements. The multiplication constant increases the variety of the input and output transformation matrices of the S-box by a factor of 255, hence increasing the search space of the logic minimization algorithm correspondingly. For the second technique, we reduce the delay of the composite field fast S-box, by combining the output multipliers and the output transformation matrix. Moreover, we modify the architecture of the input transformation matrix and re-design the exponentiation block and the subfield inverter for lower delay and area. We find that 8 unique binary transformation matrices could be used to change from the binary field \$GF(2ˆ8)\$ to the composite field \$GF((2ˆ4)ˆ2)\$ at the input of the composite field S-box. We use Matla \$\textbackslashtextbackslashmathbfb\$ ® to derive all \$(255\textbackslashtextbackslashtimes 8=2040)\$ new input transformation matrices. We search the matrices for the fastest and lowest complexity implementation and the minimal one is selected for the proposed fast S-box. The proposed fast S-box is 24% faster (with 5% increase in area) than the composite field fast design and 10% faster (with about 1% increase in area) than the fastest S-box available in the literature, to the best of our knowledge.
Wang, Zhiwen, Zhang, Qi, Sun, Hongtao, Hu, Jiqiang.  2021.  Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in smart grids based on cubature Kalman Filtering. 2021 33rd Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC). :2526—2532.
The false data injection attacks (FDIAs) in smart grids can offset the power measurement data and it can bypass the traditional bad data detection mechanism. To solve this problem, a new detection mechanism called cosine similarity ratio which is based on the dynamic estimation algorithm of square root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF) is proposed in this paper. That is, the detection basis is the change of the cosine similarity between the actual measurement and the predictive measurement before and after the attack. When the system is suddenly attacked, the actual measurement will have an abrupt change. However, the predictive measurement will not vary promptly with it owing to the delay of Kalman filter estimation. Consequently, the cosine similarity between the two at this moment has undergone a change. This causes the ratio of the cosine similarity at this moment and that at the initial moment to fluctuate considerably compared to safe operation. If the detection threshold is triggered, the system will be judged to be under attack. Finally, the standard IEEE-14bus test system is used for simulation experiments to verify the effectiveness of the proposed detection method.
Barros, Bettina D., Venkategowda, Naveen K. D., Werner, Stefan.  2021.  Quickest Detection of Stochastic False Data Injection Attacks with Unknown Parameters. 2021 IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (SSP). :426—430.
This paper considers a multivariate quickest detection problem with false data injection (FDI) attacks in internet of things (IoT) systems. We derive a sequential generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) for zero-mean Gaussian FDI attacks. Exploiting the fact that covariance matrices are positive, we propose strategies to detect positive semi-definite matrix additions rather than arbitrary changes in the covariance matrix. The distribution of the GLRT is only known asymptotically whereas quickest detectors deal with short sequences, thereby leading to loss of performance. Therefore, we use a finite-sample correction to reduce the false alarm rate. Further, we provide a numerical approach to estimate the threshold sequences, which are analytically intractable to compute. We also compare the average detection delay of the proposed detector for constant and varying threshold sequences. Simulations showed that the proposed detector outperforms the standard sequential GLRT detector.
Yin, Jinyu, Jiang, Li, Zhang, Xinggong, Liu, Bin.  2021.  INTCP: Information-centric TCP for Satellite Network. 2021 4th International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :86—91.
Satellite networks are booming to provide high-speed and low latency Internet access, but the transport layer becomes one of the main obstacles. Legacy end-to-end TCP is designed for terrestrial networks, not suitable for error-prone, propagation delay varying, and intermittent satellite links. It is necessary to make a clean-slate design for the satellite transport layer. This paper introduces a novel Information-centric Hop-by-Hop transport layer design, INTCP. It carries out hop-by-hop packets retransmission and hop-by-hop congestion control with the help of cache and request-response model. Hop-by-hop retransmission recovers lost packets on hop, reduces retransmission delay. INTCP controls traffic and congestion also by hop. Each hop tries its best to maximize its bandwidth utilization and improves end-to-end throughput. The capability of caching enables asynchronous multicast in transport layer. This would save precious spectrum resources in the satellite network. The performance of INTCP is evaluated with the simulated Starlink constellation. Long-distance communication with more than 1000km is carried out. The results demonstrate that, for the unicast scenario INTCP could reduce 42% one-way delay, 53% delay jitters, and improve 60% throughput compared with the legacy TCP. In multicast scenario, INTCP could achieve more than 6X throughput.