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2019-12-02
Sengupta, Anirban, Kachave, Deepak.  2018.  Integrating Compiler Driven Transformation and Simulated Annealing Based Floorplan for Optimized Transient Fault Tolerant DSP Cores. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :17–20.
Reliability of electronic devices in sub-nanometer technology scale has become a major concern. However, demand for battery operated low power, high performance devices necessitates technology scaling. To meet these contradictory design goals optimization and reliability must be performed simultaneously. This paper proposes by integrating compiler driven transformation and simulated annealing based optimization process for generating optimized low cost transient fault tolerant DSP core. The case study on FIR filter shows improved performance (in terms of reduced area and delay) of proposed approach in comparison to state-of-art transient fault tolerant approach.
2019-09-09
Narantuya, J., Yoon, S., Lim, H., Cho, J., Kim, D. S., Moore, T., Nelson, F..  2019.  SDN-Based IP Shuffling Moving Target Defense with Multiple SDN Controllers. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks – Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :15–16.
Conventional SDN-based MTD techniques have been mainly developed with a single SDN controller which exposes a single point of failure as well as raises a scalability issue for large-scale networks in achieving both security and performance. The use of multiple SDN controllers has been proposed to ensure both performance and security of SDN-based MTD systems for large-scale networks; however, the effect of using multiple SDN controllers has not been investigated in the state-of-the-art research. In this paper, we propose the SDN based MTD architecture using multiple SDN controllers and validate their security effect (i.e., attack success probability) by implementing an IP shuffling MTD in a testbed using ONOS SDN controllers.
2019-09-05
Nasseralfoghara, M., Hamidi, H..  2019.  Web Covert Timing Channels Detection Based on Entropy. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :12-15.
Todays analyzing web weaknesses and vulnerabilities in order to find security attacks has become more urgent. In case there is a communication contrary to the system security policies, a covert channel has been created. The attacker can easily disclosure information from the victim's system with just one public access permission. Covert timing channels, unlike covert storage channels, do not have memory storage and they draw less attention. Different methods have been proposed for their identification, which generally benefit from the shape of traffic and the channel's regularity. In this article, an entropy-based detection method is designed and implemented. The attacker can adjust the amount of channel entropy by controlling measures such as changing the channel's level or creating noise on the channel to protect from the analyst's detection. As a result, the entropy threshold is not always constant for detection. By comparing the entropy from different levels of the channel and the analyst, we conclude that the analyst must investigate traffic at all possible levels.
2019-08-26
Bhusari, A. A., Jawandhiya, P. M., Thakare, V. M..  2018.  Optimizing Performance of Anonymity Based Secure Routing Protocol Utilizing Cross Layer Design for Mobile Adhoc Networks. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1-6.

Cross layer based approaches are increasingly becoming popular in Manet (Mobile Adhoc Network). As Manet are constrained with issues as low battery, limited bandwidth, link breakage and dynamic topology, cross layer based designs are trying to remove such barriers and trying to make Manet more scalable. Cross layer designs are also facing attacking problem and ensuring the security of network to defend the attack is must. In this paper we discuss about technique to optimize the performance by minimizing delay and overhead of secure cross layer routing protocol. We have designed SCLPC (Secure cross layer based Power control) protocol. But when security is imposed using AASR (Authenticated and anonymous secure routing), the network metrics as end to end delay and control overhead is disturbed. To optimize the network performance here we proposed OSCLPC (Optimized secure cross layer based power control protocol). The proposed OSCLPC has been evaluated using SHORT (Self healing and optimizing route technique). The OSCLPC is simulated in ns2 and it is giving the better performance compared with SCLPC.

2019-06-10
As'adi, H., Keshavarz-Haddad, A., Jamshidi, A..  2018.  A New Statistical Method for Wormhole Attack Detection in MANETs. 2018 15th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :1–6.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a set of mobile wireless nodes that can communicate without the need for an infrastructure. Features of MANETs have made them vulnerable to many security attacks including wormhole attack. In the past few years, different methods have been introduced for detecting, mitigating, and preventing wormhole attacks in MANETs. In this paper, we introduce a new decentralized scheme based on statistical metrics for detecting wormholes that employs “number of new neighbors” along with “number of neighbors” for each node as its parameters. The proposed scheme has considerably low detection delay and does not create any traffic overhead for routing protocols which include neighbor discovery mechanism. Also, it possesses reasonable processing power and memory usage. Our simulation results using NS3 simulator show that the proposed scheme performs well in terms of detection accuracy, false positive rate and mean detection delay.

2019-04-01
Usuzaki, S., Aburada, K., Yamaba, H., Katayama, T., Mukunoki, M., Park, M., Okazaki, N..  2018.  Interactive Video CAPTCHA for Better Resistance to Automated Attack. 2018 Eleventh International Conference on Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Network (ICMU). :1–2.
A “Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart” (CAPTCHA) widely used online services so that prevents bots from automatic getting a large of accounts. Interactive video type CAPTCHAs that attempt to detect this attack by using delay time due to communication relays have been proposed. However, these approaches remain insufficiently resistant to bots. We propose a CAPTCHA that combines resistant to automated and relay attacks. In our CAPTCHA, the users recognize a moving object (target object) from among a number of randomly appearing decoy objects and tracks the target with mouse cursor. The users pass the test when they were able to track the target for a certain time. Since the target object moves quickly, the delay makes it difficult for a remote solver to break the CAPTCHA during a relay attack. It is also difficult for a bot to track the target using image processing because it has same looks of the decoys. We evaluated our CAPTCHA's resistance to relay and automated attacks. Our results show that, if our CAPTHCA's parameters are set suitable value, a relay attack cannot be established economically and false acceptance rate with bot could be reduced to 0.01% without affecting human success rate.
2019-03-25
Hasan, K., Shetty, S., Hassanzadeh, A., Salem, M. B., Chen, J..  2018.  Self-Healing Cyber Resilient Framework for Software Defined Networking-Enabled Energy Delivery System. 2018 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1692–1697.
Software defined networking (SDN) is a networking paradigm to provide automated network management at run time through network orchestration and virtualization. SDN can also enhance system resilience through recovery from failures and maintaining critical operations during cyber attacks. SDN's self-healing mechanisms can be leveraged to realized autonomous attack containment, which dynamically modifies access control rules based on configurable trust levels. In this paper, we present an approach to aid in selection of security countermeasures dynamically in an SDN enabled Energy Delivery System (EDS) and achieving tradeoff between providing security and QoS. We present the modeling of security cost based on end-to-end packet delay and throughput. We propose a non-dominated sorting based multi-objective optimization framework which can be implemented within an SDN controller to address the joint problem of optimizing between security and QoS parameters by alleviating time complexity at O(M N2), where M is the number of objective functions and N is the number of population for each generation respectively. We present simulation results which illustrate how data availability and data integrity can be achieved while maintaining QoS constraints.
2019-03-15
Cui, X., Wu, K., Karri, R..  2018.  Hardware Trojan Detection Using Path Delay Order Encoding with Process Variation Tolerance. 2018 IEEE 23rd European Test Symposium (ETS). :1-2.

The outsourcing for fabrication introduces security threats, namely hardware Trojans (HTs). Many design-for-trust (DFT) techniques have been proposed to address such threats. However, many HT detection techniques are not effective due to the dependence on golden chips, limitation of useful information available and process variations. In this paper, we data-mine on path delay information and propose a variation-tolerant path delay order encoding technique to detect HTs.

2019-02-14
Kong, F., Xu, M., Weimer, J., Sokolsky, O., Lee, I..  2018.  Cyber-Physical System Checkpointing and Recovery. 2018 ACM/IEEE 9th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :22-31.

Transitioning to more open architectures has been making Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) vulnerable to malicious attacks that are beyond the conventional cyber attacks. This paper studies attack-resilience enhancement for a system under emerging attacks in the environment of the controller. An effective way to address this problem is to make system state estimation accurate enough for control regardless of the compromised components. This work follows this way and develops a procedure named CPS checkpointing and recovery, which leverages historical data to recover failed system states. Specially, we first propose a new concept of physical-state recovery. The essential operation is defined as rolling the system forward starting from a consistent historical system state. Second, we design a checkpointing protocol that defines how to record system states for the recovery. The protocol introduces a sliding window that accommodates attack-detection delay to improve the correctness of stored states. Third, we present a use case of CPS checkpointing and recovery that deals with compromised sensor measurements. At last, we evaluate our design through conducting simulator-based experiments and illustrating the use of our design with an unmanned vehicle case study.

Richard, D. S., Rashidzadeh, R., Ahmadi, M..  2018.  Secure Scan Architecture Using Clock and Data Recovery Technique. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1-5.

Design for Testability (DfT) techniques allow devices to be tested at various levels of the manufacturing process. Scan architecture is a dominantly used DfT technique, which supports a high level of fault coverage, observability and controllability. However, scan architecture can be used by hardware attackers to gain critical information stored within the device. The security threats due to an unrestricted access provided by scan architecture has to be addressed to ensure hardware security. In this work, a solution based on the Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) method has been presented to authenticate users and limit the access to the scan architecture to authorized users. As compared to the available solution the proposed method presents a robust performance and reduces the area overhead by more than 10%.

2019-02-08
Sen, N., Dantu, R., Vempati, J., Thompson, M..  2018.  Performance Analysis of Elliptic Curves for Real-Time Video Encryption. 2018 National Cyber Summit (NCS). :64-71.

The use of real-time video streaming is increasing day-by-day, and its security has become a serious issue now. Video encryption is a challenging task because of its large frame size. Video encryption can be done with symmetric key as well as asymmetric key encryption. Among different asymmetric key encryption technique, ECC performs better than other algorithms like RSA in terms of smaller key size and faster encryption and decryption operation. In this work, we have analyzed the performance of 18 different ECC curves and suggested some suitable curves for real-time video encryption.

2019-01-21
Wen, Y., Lao, Y..  2018.  PUF Modeling Attack using Active Learning. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
Along with the rapid development of hardware security techniques, the revolutionary growth of countermeasures or attacking methods developed by intelligent and adaptive adversaries have significantly complicated the ability to create secure hardware systems. Thus, there is a critical need to (re)evaluate existing or new hardware security techniques against these state-of-the-art attacking methods. With this in mind, this paper presents a novel framework for incorporating active learning techniques into hardware security field. We demonstrate that active learning can significantly improve the learning efficiency of physical unclonable function (PUF) modeling attack, which samples the least confident and the most informative challenge-response pair (CRP) for training in each iteration. For example, our experimental results show that in order to obtain a prediction error below 4%, 2790 CRPs are required in passive learning, while only 811 CRPs are required in active learning. The sampling strategies and detailed applications of PUF modeling attack under various environmental conditions are also discussed. When the environment is very noisy, active learning may sample a large number of mislabeled CRPs and hence result in high prediction error. We present two methods to mitigate the contradiction between informative and noisy CRPs.
2019-01-16
Alamri, N., Chow, C. E., Aljaedi, A., Elgzil, A..  2018.  UFAP: Ultra-fast handoff authentication protocol for wireless mesh networks. 2018 Wireless Days (WD). :1–8.
Wireless mesh networking (WMN) is a new technology aimed to introduce the benefits of using multi-hop and multi-path to the wireless world. However, the absence of a fast and reliable handoff protocol is a major drawback especially in a technology designed to feature high mobility and scalability. We propose a fast and efficient handoff authentication protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is a token-based authentication protocol using pre-distributed parameters. We provide a performance comparison among our protocol, UFAP, and other protocols including EAP-TLS and EAP-PEAP tested in an actual setup. Performance analysis will prove that our proposed handoff authentication protocol is 250 times faster than EAP-PEAP and 500 times faster than EAP-TLS. The significant improvement in performance allows UFAP to provide seamless handoff and continuous operation even for real-time applications which can only tolerate short delays under 50 ms.
2018-12-10
Oyekanlu, E..  2018.  Distributed Osmotic Computing Approach to Implementation of Explainable Predictive Deep Learning at Industrial IoT Network Edges with Real-Time Adaptive Wavelet Graphs. 2018 IEEE First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering (AIKE). :179–188.
Challenges associated with developing analytics solutions at the edge of large scale Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks close to where data is being generated in most cases involves developing analytics solutions from ground up. However, this approach increases IoT development costs and system complexities, delay time to market, and ultimately lowers competitive advantages associated with delivering next-generation IoT designs. To overcome these challenges, existing, widely available, hardware can be utilized to successfully participate in distributed edge computing for IIoT systems. In this paper, an osmotic computing approach is used to illustrate how distributed osmotic computing and existing low-cost hardware may be utilized to solve complex, compute-intensive Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) deep learning problem from the edge, through the fog, to the network cloud layer of IIoT systems. At the edge layer, the C28x digital signal processor (DSP), an existing low-cost, embedded, real-time DSP that has very wide deployment and integration in several IoT industries is used as a case study for constructing real-time graph-based Coiflet wavelets that could be used for several analytic applications including deep learning pre-processing applications at the edge and fog layers of IIoT networks. Our implementation is the first known application of the fixed-point C28x DSP to construct Coiflet wavelets. Coiflet Wavelets are constructed in the form of an osmotic microservice, using embedded low-level machine language to program the C28x at the network edge. With the graph-based approach, it is shown that an entire Coiflet wavelet distribution could be generated from only one wavelet stored in the C28x based edge device, and this could lead to significant savings in memory at the edge of IoT networks. Pearson correlation coefficient is used to select an edge generated Coiflet wavelet and the selected wavelet is used at the fog layer for pre-processing and denoising IIoT data to improve data quality for fog layer based deep learning application. Parameters for implementing deep learning at the fog layer using LSTM networks have been determined in the cloud. For XAI, communication network noise is shown to have significant impact on results of predictive deep learning at IIoT network fog layer.
2018-12-03
Khayyam, Y. E., Herrou, B..  2017.  Risk assessment of the supply chain: Approach based on analytic hierarchy process and group decision-making. 2017 International Colloquium on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LOGISTIQUA). :135–141.
Faced with a turbulent economic, political and social environment, Companies need to build effective risk management systems in their supply chains. Risk management can only be effective when the risks identification and analysis are enough accurate. In this perspective, this paper proposes a risk assessment approach based on the analytic hierarchy process and group decision making. In this study, a new method is introduced that will reduce the impact of incoherent judgments on group decision-making, It is, the “reduced weight function” that decreases the weight associated to a member of the expert panel based on the consistency of its judgments.
2018-10-26
Li, J., Hua, C..  2017.  RaptorQ code based concurrent transmissions in dual connectivity LTE network. 2017 9th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP). :1–6.

Dual Connectivity(DC) is one of the key technologies standardized in Release 12 of the 3GPP specifications for the Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. It attempts to increase the per-user throughput by allowing the user equipment (UE) to maintain connections with the MeNB (master eNB) and SeNB (secondary eNB) simultaneously, which are inter-connected via non-ideal backhaul. In this paper, we focus on one of the use cases of DC whereby the downlink U-plane data is split at the MeNB and transmitted to the UE via the associated MeNB and SeNB concurrently. In this case, out-of-order packet delivery problem may occur at the UE due to the delay over the non-ideal backhaul link, as well as the dynamics of channel conditions over the MeNB-UE and SeNB-UE links, which will introduce extra delay for re-ordering the packets. As a solution, we propose to adopt the RaptorQ FEC code to encode the source data at the MeNB, and then the encoded symbols are separately transmitted through the MeNB and SeNB. The out-of-order problem can be effectively eliminated since the UE can decode the original data as long as it receives enough encoded symbols from either the MeNB or SeNB. We present detailed protocol design for the RaptorQ code based concurrent transmission scheme, and simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

Ulz, T., Pieber, T., Steger, C., Matischek, R., Bock, H..  2017.  Towards trustworthy data in networked control systems: A hardware-based approach. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–8.

The importance of Networked Control Systems (NCS) is steadily increasing due to recent trends such as smart factories. Correct functionality of such NCS needs to be protected as malfunctioning systems could have severe consequences for the controlled process or even threaten human lives. However, with the increase in NCS, also attacks targeting these systems are becoming more frequent. To mitigate attacks that utilize captured sensor data in an NCS, transferred data needs to be protected. While using well-known methods such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) might be suitable to protect the data, resource constraint devices such as sensors often are not powerful enough to perform the necessary cryptographic operations. Also, as we will show in this paper, applying simple encryption in an NCS may enable easy Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks by attacking single bits of the encrypted data. Therefore, in this paper, we present a hardware-based approach that enables sensors to perform the necessary encryption while being robust against (injected) bit failures.

Tiwari, V., Chaurasia, B. K..  2017.  Security issues in fog computing using vehicular cloud. 2017 International Conference on Information, Communication, Instrumentation and Control (ICICIC). :1–4.

In the near future, vehicular cloud will help to improve traffic safety and efficiency. Unfortunately, a computing of vehicular cloud and fog cloud faced a set of challenges in security, authentication, privacy, confidentiality and detection of misbehaving vehicles. In addition to, there is a need to recognize false messages from received messages in VANETs during moving on the road. In this work, the security issues and challenges for computing in the vehicular cloud over for computing is studied.

2018-08-23
Oleshchuk, V..  2017.  A trust-based security enforcement in disruption-tolerant networks. 2017 9th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:514–517.

We propose an approach to enforce security in disruption- and delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) where long delays, high packet drop rates, unavailability of central trusted entity etc. make traditional approaches unfeasible. We use trust model based on subjective logic to continuously evaluate trustworthiness of security credentials issued in distributed manner by network participants to deal with absence of centralised trusted authorities.

2018-06-20
Gurung, S., Chauhan, S..  2017.  A review of black-hole attack mitigation techniques and its drawbacks in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :2379–2385.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a prominent technology in the wireless networking field in which the movables nodes operates in distributed manner and collaborates with each other in order to provide the multi-hop communication between the source and destination nodes. Generally, the main assumption considered in the MANET is that each node is trusted node. However, in the real scenario, there are some unreliable nodes which perform black hole attack in which the misbehaving nodes attract all the traffic towards itself by giving false information of having the minimum path towards the destination with a very high destination sequence number and drops all the data packets. In the paper, we have presented different categories for black hole attack mitigation techniques and also presented the summary of various techniques along with its drawbacks that need to be considered while designing an efficient protocol.

Waraich, P. S., Batra, N..  2017.  Prevention of denial of service attack over vehicle ad hoc networks using quick response table. 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :586–591.

Secure routing over VANET is a major issue due to its high mobility environment. Due to dynamic topology, routes are frequently updated and also suffers from link breaks due to the obstacles i.e. buildings, tunnels and bridges etc. Frequent link breaks can cause packet drop and thus result in degradation of network performance. In case of VANETs, it becomes very difficult to identify the reason of the packet drop as it can also occur due to the presence of a security threat. VANET is a type of wireless adhoc network and suffer from common attacks which exist for mobile adhoc network (MANET) i.e. Denial of Services (DoS), Black hole, Gray hole and Sybil attack etc. Researchers have already developed various security mechanisms for secure routing over MANET but these solutions are not fully compatible with unique attributes of VANET i.e. vehicles can communicate with each other (V2V) as well as communication can be initiated with infrastructure based network (V2I). In order to secure the routing for both types of communication, there is need to develop a solution. In this paper, a method for secure routing is introduced which can identify as well as eliminate the existing security threat.

Pooja, B. P., Manish, M. P., Megha, B. P..  2017.  Jellyfish attack detection and prevention in MANET. 2017 Third International Conference on Sensing, Signal Processing and Security (ICSSS). :54–60.

Jellyfish attack is type of DoS attack which is difficult to detect and prevent. Jellyfish attack is categorized as JF Reorder Attack, JF Periodic Dropping Attack and JF Delay Variance Attack. JF attack delay data packets for some amount of time before forwarding and after reception which results high end-to-end delay in the network. JF Attack disrupts whole functionality of transmission and reduces the performance of network. In this paper difference of receive time and sending time greater than threshold value then delay occur due to congestion or availability of JF nodes that confirm by checking load of network. This way detect and prevent jellyfish attack.

Singh, E. P..  2017.  Re-joining of authorized nodes in MANETs using EGSR scheme and detection of internal attacks using 2ACK scheme. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :306–311.

One of the specially designated versatile networks, commonly referred to as MANET, performs on the basics that each and every one grouping in nodes totally operate in self-sorting out limits. In any case, performing in a group capacity maximizes quality and different sources. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless infrastructureless network. Due to its unique features, various challenges are faced under MANET when the role of routing and its security comes into play. The review has demonstrated that the impact of failures during the information transmission has not been considered in the existing research. The majority of strategies for ad hoc networks just determines the path and transmits the data which prompts to packet drop in case of failures, thus resulting in low dependability. The majority of the existing research has neglected the use of the rejoining processing of the root nodes network. Most of the existing techniques are based on detecting the failures but the use of path re-routing has also been neglected in the existing methods. Here, we have proposed a method of path re-routing for managing the authorized nodes and managing the keys for group in ad hoc environment. Securing Schemes, named as 2ACK and the EGSR schemes have been proposed, which may be truly interacted to most of the routing protocol. The path re-routing has the ability to reduce the ratio of dropped packets. The comparative analysis has clearly shown that the proposed technique outperforms the available techniques in terms of various quality metrics.

Dhende, S., Musale, S., Shirbahadurkar, S., Najan, A..  2017.  SAODV: Black hole and gray hole attack detection protocol in MANETs. 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :2391–2394.

A MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which cooperate in forwarding packets over a wireless links. Due to the lack of an infrastructure and open nature of MANET, security has become an essential and challenging issue. The mobile nature and selfishness of malicious node is a critical issue in causing the security problem. The MANETs are more defenseless to the security attacks; some of them are black hole and gray hole attacks. One of its key challenges is to find black hole attack. In this paper, researchers propose a secure AODV protocol (SAODV) for detection and removal of black hole and gray hole attacks in MANTEs. The proposed method is simulated using NS-2 and it seems that the proposed methodology is more secure than the existing one.

2018-06-11
Zabib, D. Z., Levi, I., Fish, A., Keren, O..  2017.  Secured Dual-Rail-Precharge Mux-based (DPMUX) symmetric-logic for low voltage applications. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–2.

Hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms may leak information through numerous side channels, which can be used to reveal the secret cryptographic keys, and therefore compromise the security of the algorithm. Power Analysis Attacks (PAAs) [1] exploit the information leakage from the device's power consumption (typically measured on the supply and/or ground pins). Digital circuits consume dynamic switching energy when data propagate through the logic in each new calculation (e.g. new clock cycle). The average power dissipation of a design can be expressed by: Ptot(t) = α · (Pd(t) + Ppvt(t)) (1) where α is the activity factor (the probability that the gate will switch) and depends on the probability distribution of the inputs to the combinatorial logic. This induces a linear relationship between the power and the processed data [2]. Pd is the deterministic power dissipated by the switching of the gate, including any parasitic and intrinsic capacitances, and hence can be evaluated prior to manufacturing. Ppvt is the change in expected power consumption due to nondeterministic parameters such as process variations, mismatch, temperature, etc. In this manuscript, we describe the design of logic gates that induce data-independent (constant) α and Pd.