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Munro, William J., Nemoto, Kae.  2020.  Routing on Quantum Repeater Networks. 2020 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.
The design of large-scale quantum networks and any future quantum internet will rely on quantum repeaters and how quantum information flows through it. Tasks performed on such networks will go well beyond quantum key distribution and are likely to include quantum remote sensing and distributed quantum computation. In this presentation we will explore the various ways that such networks could be designed to support those advanced tasks. Critical to this will be quantum routing which we should is highly dependent on the repeater architecture. We introduce a quantum quality of service to help characterize the systems performance and shows how it leads interesting network and routing behavior.
AlShiab, Ismael, Leivadeas, Aris, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2021.  Virtual Sensing Networks and Dynamic RPL-Based Routing for IoT Sensing Services. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
IoT applications are quickly evolving in scope and objectives while their focus is being shifted toward supporting dynamic users’ requirements. IoT users initiate applications and expect quick and reliable deployment without worrying about the underlying complexities of the required sensing and routing resources. On the other hand, IoT sensing nodes, sinks, and gateways are heterogeneous, have limited resources, and require significant cost and installation time. Sensing network-level virtualization through virtual Sensing Networks (VSNs) could play an important role in enabling the formation of virtual groups that link the needed IoT sensing and routing resources. These VSNs can be initiated on-demand with the goal to satisfy different IoT applications’ requirements. In this context, we present a joint algorithm for IoT Sensing Resource Allocation with Dynamic Resource-Based Routing (SRADRR). The SRADRR algorithm builds on the current distinguished empowerment of sensing networks using recent standards like RPL and 6LowPAN. The proposed algorithm suggests employing the RPL standard concepts to create DODAG routing trees that dynamically adapt according to the available sensing resources and the requirements of the running and arriving applications. Our results and implementation of the SRADRR reveal promising enhancements in the overall applications deployment rate.
Raich, Philipp, Kastner, Wolfgang.  2021.  A Computational Model for 6LoWPAN Multicast Routing. 2021 17th IEEE International Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :143–146.
Reliable group communication is an important cornerstone for various applications in the domain of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Yet, despite various proposals, state-of- the-art (open) protocol stacks for IPv6-enabled Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) have little to offer, regarding standardized or agreed-upon protocols for correct multicast routing, not to mention reliable multicast. We present an informal computational model, which allows us to analyze the respective candidates for multicast routing. Further, we focus on the IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN stack and discuss prominent multicast routing protocols and how they fit into this model.
Nair, Devika S, BJ, Santhosh Kumar.  2021.  Identifying Rank Attacks and Alert Application in WSN. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :798–802.
Routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) is a fundamental routing protocol of 6LoWPAN, a centre correspondence standard for the Internet of Things. RPL outplay other wireless sensor and ad hoc routing protocols in the aspect of service (QoS), device management, and energy-saving performance. The Rank definition in RPL addresses several issues, such as path optimization, loop avoidance, and power overhead management. RPL rank and version number attacks are two types of the most common forms of RPL attacks, may have crucial ramification for RPL networks. The research directed upon these attacks includes considerable vulnerabilities and efficiency issues. The rank attack on sensor networks is perhaps the utmost common, posing a challenge to network connectivity by falling data or disrupting routing routes. This work presents a rank attack detection system focusing on RPL. Considering many of such issues a method has been proposed using spatial correlation function (SCF) and Dijkstra's algorithm considering parameters like energy and throughput.
Paul, Arya, Pillai, Anju S.  2021.  A Review on RPL Objective Function Improvements for IoT Applications. 2021 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication, Embedded and Secure Systems (ACCESS). :80–85.
The standard routing technique that was developed for satisfying low power IoT application needs is RPL which is a protocol in compliance with 6LoWPAN specification. RPL was created for addressing the issues and challenges of constrained and lossy network routing. However, RPL does not accomplish efficiency with respect to power and reliability altogether which are definitely needed in IoT applications. RPL runs on routing metrics and objective function which determines the optimal path in routing. This paper focuses on contributing a comprehensive survey on the improved objective functions proposed by several researchers for RPL. In addition, the paper concentrates on highlighting the strengths and shortcomings of the different approaches in designing the objective function. The approaches built on Fuzzy logic are found to be more efficient and the relevant works related to these are compared. Furthermore, we present the insights drawn from the survey and summarize the challenges which can be effectively utilized for future works.
Taghanaki, Saeid Rafiei, Arzandeh, Shohreh Behnam, Bohlooli, Ali.  2021.  A Decentralized Method for Detecting Clone ID Attacks on the Internet of Things. 2021 5th International Conference on Internet of Things and Applications (IoT). :1–6.
One of the attacks in the RPL protocol is the Clone ID attack, that the attacker clones the node's ID in the network. In this research, a Clone ID detection system is designed for the Internet of Things (IoT), implemented in Contiki operating system, and evaluated using the Cooja emulator. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method has desirable performance in terms of energy consumption overhead, true positive rate, and detection speed. The overhead cost of the proposed method is low enough that it can be deployed in limited-resource nodes. The proposed method in each node has two phases, which are the steps of gathering information and attack detection. In the proposed scheme, each node detects this type of attack using control packets received from its neighbors and their information such as IP, rank, Path ETX, and RSSI, as well as the use of a routing table. The design of this system will contribute to the security of the IoT network.
Kareem, Mohammed Aman, Tayeb, Shahab.  2021.  ML-based NIDS to secure RPL from Routing Attacks. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :1000–1006.
Low power and lossy networks (LLNs) devices resource-constrained nature make it difficult to implement security mechanisms to defend against RPL routing attacks. RPLs inbuilt security functions are not efficient in preventing a wide majority of routing attacks. RPLs optional security schemes can defend against external attacks, but cannot mitigate internal attacks. Moreover, RPL does not have any mechanism to verify the integrity of control messages used to keep topology updated and route the traffic. All these factors play a major role in increasing the RPLs threat level against routing attacks. In this paper, a comparative literature review of various researchers suggesting security mechanisms to mitigate security attacks aimed at RPL has been performed and methods have been contrasted.
Sharma, Nisha, Sharma, Manish, Sharma, Durga Prasad.  2020.  A Trust Based Scheme for Spotting Malicious Node of Wormhole in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :1232–1237.
The exceptional attributes of impromptu network of being framework less, self-composed and unconstrained make the task more challenging to secure it. In mobile Ad-hoc network nodes reliant on one another for transmitting information, that make MANET helpless against different sorts of security attacks. These security attacks can be arranged as Passive and Active attacks. Wormhole is an Active attack and considered generally risky as it can make significant harm routing. Various secure routing mechanism has been created are based on cryptography mechanism, need pre-organized structure, centralized authority, or need external hardware, etc. These components are unreasonable due to restricted accessible assets in MANET. In this paper, we are proposing an effective trust-based mechanism based on the concept of Node to Node packet delay for the detection of the malevolent node of wormhole. The trust value of each node is calculated by observing the packet transaction among adjacent nodes and later this trust value is used for identification of malevolent node. Based on the trust values, further routing decisions and selecting a secured route can be perform.
Rao, G Balu Narasimha, Veeraiah, D, Rao, D Srinivasa.  2020.  Power and Trust Based Routing for MANET Using RRRP Algorithm. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :160–164.
In MANET's (MOBILE Adhoc Network), the origin node will communicate the target node with the help of in-between nodes by Multi-hop communication to save power [1]. Thus, the main objective in MANETs is to identify the feasible route such that the parcels of the data can be done in an organized manner. So, the nodes in the selected route are honest and reliable. However, bad behavior nodes may affect routing performance. This work aims to discover the route does not have egotistic nodes, i.e., nodes which having honest & energy are less not considered for the route between origin and target. The proposed procedure holds the input from the end-user and results in the boundary values i.e. avg. throughput, appropriateness and drop fraction of egotistic nodes were stored in a result location. After the simulation, the discovered route by using the proposed protocol improves the overall network performance for output parameters.
Qaisar, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Wang, Xingfu, Hawbani, Ammar, Khan, Asad, Ahmed, Adeel, Wedaj, Fisseha Teju.  2020.  TORP: Load Balanced Reliable Opportunistic Routing for Asynchronous Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1384–1389.
Opportunistic routing (OR) is gaining popularity in low-duty wireless sensor network (WSN), so the need for efficient and reliable data transmission is becoming more essential. Reliable transmission is only feasible if the routing protocols are secure and efficient. Due to high energy consumption, current cryptographic schemes for WSN are not suitable. Trust-based OR will ensure security and reliability with fewer resources and minimum energy consumption. OR selects the set of potential candidates for each sensor node using a prioritized metric by load balancing among the nodes. This paper introduces a trust-based load-balanced OR for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. The candidates are prioritized on the basis of a trusted OR metric that is divided into two parts. First, the OR metric is based on the average of four probability distributions: the distance from node to sink distribution, the expected number of hops distribution, the node degree distribution, and the residual energy distribution. Second, the trust metric is based on the average of two probability distributions: the direct trust distribution and the recommended trust distribution. Finally, the trusted OR metric is calculated by multiplying the average of two metrics distributions in order to direct more traffic through the higher priority nodes. The simulation results show that our proposed protocol provides a significant improvement in the performance of the network compared to the benchmarks in terms of energy consumption, end to end delay, throughput, and packet delivery ratio.
Lin, Xinyi, Hou, Gonghua, Lin, Wei, Chen, Kangjie.  2020.  Quantum Key Distribution in Partially-Trusted QKD Ring Networks. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Aided Education (ICISCAE). :33–36.
The long-distance transmission of quantum secret key is a challenge for quantum communication. As far as the current relay technology is concerned, the trusted relay technology is a more practical scheme. However, the trusted relay technology requires every relay node to be trusted, but in practical applications, the security of some relay nodes cannot be guaranteed. How to overcome the security problem of trusted relay technology and realize the security key distribution of remote quantum network has become a new problem. Therefore, in this paper, a method of quantum key distribution in ring network is proposed under the condition of the coexistence of trusted and untrusted repeaters, and proposes a partially-trusted based routing algorithm (PT-RA). This scheme effectively solves the security problem of key distribution in ring backbone network. And simulation results show that PT-RA can significantly improve key distribution success rate compared with the original trusted relay technology.
Bhawsar, Aditya, Pandey, Yogadhar, Singh, Upendra.  2020.  Detection and Prevention of Wormhole Attack Using the Trust-Based Routing System. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :809–814.
As the configuration used for the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) does not have a fixed infrastructure as well, the mechanism varies for each MANET. The finding of the route in this mechanism also varies because it does not have any fixed path route for routing as well every node in this structure behaves like a base station. MANET has such freedom for its creation, so it also faces various types of attacks on it. Some of the attacks are a black hole, warm hole etc. The researchers have provided various methods to prevent warm hole attacks, as the warm hole attack is seen as difficult to prevent. So here a mechanism is proposed to detect and prevent the warm hole attack using the AODV protocol which is based on trust calculation. In our method, the multiple path selection is used for finding the best path for routing. The path is tested for the warm hole attack, as the node is detected the data packet sent in between the source and destination selects the path from the multi-paths available and the packet delivery is improved. The packet delivery ratio (PDR) is calculated for the proposed mechanism, and the results have improved the PDR by 71.25%, throughput by 74.09 kbps, and the E to E delay is decreased by 57.92ms for the network of 125 nodes.
Muzammal, Syeda Mariam, Murugesan, Raja Kumar, Jhanjhi, Noor Zaman, Jung, Low Tang.  2020.  SMTrust: Proposing Trust-Based Secure Routing Protocol for RPL Attacks for IoT Applications. 2020 International Conference on Computational Intelligence (ICCI). :305–310.
With large scale generation and exchange of data between IoT devices and constrained IoT security to protect data communication, it becomes easy for attackers to compromise data routes. In IoT networks, IPv6 Routing Protocol is the de facto routing protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL offers limited security against several RPL-specific and WSN-inherited attacks in IoT applications. Additionally, IoT devices are limited in memory, processing, and power to operate properly using the traditional Internet and routing security solutions. Several mitigation schemes for the security of IoT networks and routing, have been proposed including Machine Learning-based, IDS-based, and Trust-based approaches. In existing trust-based methods, mobility of nodes is not considered at all or its insufficient for mobile sink nodes, specifically for security against RPL attacks. This research work proposes a conceptual design, named SMTrust, for security of routing protocol in IoT, considering the mobility-based trust metrics. The proposed solution intends to provide defense against popular RPL attacks, for example, Blackhole, Greyhole, Rank, Version Number attacks, etc. We believe that SMTrust shall provide better network performance for attacks detection accuracy, mobility and scalability as compared to existing trust models, such as, DCTM-RPL and SecTrust-RPL. The novelty of our solution is that it considers the mobility metrics of the sensor nodes as well as the sink nodes, which has not been addressed by the existing models. This consideration makes it suitable for mobile IoT environment. The proposed design of SMTrust, as secure routing protocol, when embedded in RPL, shall ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability among the sensor nodes during routing process in IoT communication and networks.
Muller, Tim, Wang, Dongxia, Sun, Jun.  2020.  Provably Robust Decisions based on Potentially Malicious Sources of Information. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :411–424.
Sometimes a security-critical decision must be made using information provided by peers. Think of routing messages, user reports, sensor data, navigational information, blockchain updates. Attackers manifest as peers that strategically report fake information. Trust models use the provided information, and attempt to suggest the correct decision. A model that appears accurate by empirical evaluation of attacks may still be susceptible to manipulation. For a security-critical decision, it is important to take the entire attack space into account. Therefore, we define the property of robustness: the probability of deciding correctly, regardless of what information attackers provide. We introduce the notion of realisations of honesty, which allow us to bypass reasoning about specific feedback. We present two schemes that are optimally robust under the right assumptions. The “majority-rule” principle is a special case of the other scheme which is more general, named “most plausible realisations”.
Qu, Dapeng, Zhang, Jiankun, Hou, Zhenhuan, Wang, Min, Dong, Bo.  2020.  A Trust Routing Scheme Based on Identification of Non-complete Cooperative Nodes in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :22–29.
Mobile peer-to-peer network (MP2P) attracts increasing attentions due to the ubiquitous use of mobile communication and huge success of peer-to-peer (P2P) mode. However, open p2p mode makes nodes tend to be selfish, and the scarcity of resources in mobile nodes aggravates this problem, thus the nodes easily express a non-complete cooperative (NCC) attitude. Therefore, an identification of non-complete cooperative nodes and a corresponding trust routing scheme are proposed for MP2P in this paper. The concept of octant is firstly introduced to build a trust model which analyzes nodes from three dimensions, namely direct trust, internal state and recommendation reliability, and then the individual non-complete cooperative (INCC) nodes can be identified by the division of different octants. The direct trust monitors nodes' external behaviors, and the consideration of internal state and recommendation reliability contributes to differentiate the subjective and objective non-cooperation, and mitigate the attacks about direct trust values respectively. Thus, the trust model can identify various INCC nodes accurately. On the basis of identification of INCC nodes, cosine similarity method is applied to identify collusive non-complete cooperate (CNCC) nodes. Moreover, a trust routing scheme based on the identification of NCC nodes is presented to reasonably deal with different kinds of NCC nodes. Results from extensive simulation experiments demonstrate that this proposed identification and routing scheme have better performances, in terms of identification precision and packet delivery fraction than current schemes respectively.
Zhang, Zhiming, Yu, Qiaoyan.  2020.  Invariance Checking Based Trojan Detection Method for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
Recently literature indicates that stack based three-dimensional (3D) integration techniques may bring in new security vulnerabilities, such as new attack surfaces for hardware Trojan (HT) insertion. Compared to its two-dimensional counterpart (2DHTs), a 3D hardware Trojan (3DHT) could be stealthily distributed in multiple tiers in a single 3D chip. Although the comprehensive models for 3DHTs are available in recent work, there still lacks 3DHT detection and mitigation methods, especially run-time countermeasures against 3DHTs. This work proposes to leverage the 3D communication infrastructure, 3D network-on-chips (NoCs), to tackle the cross-tier hardware Trojans in stacked multi-tier chips. An invariance checking method is further proposed to detect the Trojans that induce malicious NoC packets or facilitate information leak. The proposed method is successfully deployed in NoC routers and achieves a Trojan detection rate of over 94%. The synthesis result of a hardened router at a 45nm technology node shows that the proposed invariance checking only increases the area by 6.49% and consumes 3.76% more dynamic power than an existing 3D router. The NoC protected with the proposed method is applied to the image authentication in a 3D system. The case study indicates that the proposed security measure reduces the correlation coefficient by up to 31% over the baseline.
Weber, Iaçanã, Marchezan, Geaninne, Caimi, Luciano, Marcon, César, Moraes, Fernando G..  2020.  Open-Source NoC-Based Many-Core for Evaluating Hardware Trojan Detection Methods. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
In many-cores based on Network-on-Chip (NoC), several applications execute simultaneously, sharing computation, communication and memory resources. This resource sharing leads to security and trust problems. Hardware Trojans (HTs) may steal sensitive information, degrade system performance, and in extreme cases, induce physical damages. Methods available in the literature to prevent attacks include firewalls, denial-of-service detection, dedicated routing algorithms, cryptography, task migration, and secure zones. The goal of this paper is to add an HT in an NoC, able to execute three types of attacks: packet duplication, block applications, and misrouting. The paper qualitatively evaluates the attacks' effect against methods available in the literature, and its effects showed in an NoC-based many-core. The resulting system is an open-source NoC-based many-core for researchers to evaluate new methods against HT attacks.
Meraj Ahmed, M, Dhavlle, Abhijitt, Mansoor, Naseef, Sutradhar, Purab, Pudukotai Dinakarrao, Sai Manoj, Basu, Kanad, Ganguly, Amlan.  2020.  Defense Against on-Chip Trojans Enabling Traffic Analysis Attacks. 2020 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Interconnection networks for multi/many-core processors or server systems are the backbone of the system as they enable data communication among the processing cores, caches, memory and other peripherals. Given the criticality of the interconnects, the system can be severely subverted if the interconnection is compromised. The threat of Hardware Trojans (HTs) penetrating complex hardware systems such as multi/many-core processors are increasing due to the increasing presence of third party players in a System-on-chip (SoC) design. Even by deploying naïve HTs, an adversary can exploit the Network-on-Chip (NoC) backbone of the processor and get access to communication patterns in the system. This information, if leaked to an attacker, can reveal important insights regarding the application suites running on the system; thereby compromising the user privacy and paving the way for more severe attacks on the entire system. In this paper, we demonstrate that one or more HTs embedded in the NoC of a multi/many-core processor is capable of leaking sensitive information regarding traffic patterns to an external malicious attacker; who, in turn, can analyze the HT payload data with machine learning techniques to infer the applications running on the processor. Furthermore, to protect against such attacks, we propose a Simulated Annealing-based randomized routing algorithm in the system. The proposed defense is capable of obfuscating the attacker's data processing capabilities to infer the user profiles successfully. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed randomized routing algorithm could reduce the accuracy of identifying user profiles by the attacker from \textbackslashtextgreater98% to \textbackslashtextless; 15% in multi/many-core systems.
Charles, Subodha, Logan, Megan, Mishra, Prabhat.  2020.  Lightweight Anonymous Routing in NoC based SoCs. 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :334–337.
System-on-Chip (SoC) supply chain is widely acknowledged as a major source of security vulnerabilities. Potentially malicious third-party IPs integrated on the same Network-on-Chip (NoC) with the trusted components can lead to security and trust concerns. While secure communication is a well studied problem in computer networks domain, it is not feasible to implement those solutions on resource-constrained SoCs. In this paper, we present a lightweight anonymous routing protocol for communication between IP cores in NoC based SoCs. Our method eliminates the major overhead associated with traditional anonymous routing protocols while ensuring that the desired security goals are met. Experimental results demonstrate that existing security solutions on NoC can introduce significant (1.5X) performance degradation, whereas our approach provides the same security features with minor (4%) impact on performance.
Konstantinou, Dimitrios, Nicopoulos, Chrysostomos, Lee, Junghee, Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch., Dimitrakopoulos, Giorgos.  2020.  SmartFork: Partitioned Multicast Allocation and Switching in Network-on-Chip Routers. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
Multicast on-chip communication is encountered in various cache-coherence protocols targeting multi-core processors, and its pervasiveness is increasing due to the proliferation of machine learning accelerators. In-network handling of multicast traffic imposes additional switching-level restrictions to guarantee deadlock freedom, while it stresses the allocation efficiency of Network-on-Chip (NoC) routers. In this work, we propose a novel NoC router microarchitecture, called SmartFork, which employs a versatile and cost-efficient multicast packet replication scheme that allows the design of high-throughput and low-cost NoCs. The design is adapted to the average branch splitting observed in real-world multicast routing algorithms. Compared to state-of-the-art NoC multicast approaches, SmartFork is demonstrated to yield higher performance in terms of latency and throughput, while still offering a cost-effective implementation.
Ellinidou, Soultana, Sharma, Gaurav, Markowitch, Olivier, Gogniat, Guy, Dricot, Jean-Michel.  2020.  A novel Network-on-Chip security algorithm for tolerating Byzantine faults. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT). :1–6.
Since the number of processors and cores on a single chip is increasing, the interconnection among them becomes significant. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has direct access to all resources and information within a System-on-Chip (SoC), rendering it appealing to attackers. Malicious attacks targeting NoC are a major cause of performance depletion and they can cause arbitrary behavior of links or routers, that is, Byzantine faults. Byzantine faults have been thoroughly investigated in the context of Distributed systems however not in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. Hence, in this paper we propose a novel fault model followed by the design and implementation of lightweight algorithms, based on Software Defined Network-on-Chip (SDNoC) architecture. The proposed algorithms can be used to build highly available NoCs and can tolerate Byzantine faults. Additionally, a set of different scenarios has been simulated and the results demonstrate that by using the proposed algorithms the packet loss decreases between 65% and 76% under Transpose traffic, 67% and 77% under BitReverse and 55% and 66% under Uniform traffic.
Taranum, Fahmina, Sarvat, Ayesha, Ali, Nooria, Siddiqui, Shamekh.  2020.  Detection and Prevention of Blackhole Node. 2020 4th International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1–7.
Mobile Adhoc networks (MANETs) comprises of mobile devices or nodes that are connected wirelessly and have no infrastructure. Detecting malicious activities in MANETs is a challenging task as they are vulnerable to attacks where the performance of the entire network degrades. Hence it is necessary to provide security to the network so that the nodes are prone to attack. Selecting a good routing protocol in MANET is also important as frequent change of topology causes the route reply to not arrive at the source node. In this paper, R-AODV (Reverse Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector) protocol along with ECC (Elliptic Key Cryptography) algorithm is designed and implemented to detect and to prevent the malicious node and to secure data transmission against blackhole attack. The main objective is to keep the data packets secure. ECC provides a smaller key size compared to other public-key encryption and eliminates the requirement of pre-distributed keys also makes the path more secure against blackhole attacks in a MANET. The performance of this proposed system is simulated by using the NS-2.35 network simulator. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides good experimental results on various metrics like throughput, end-to-end delay, and PDR. Analysis of the results points to an improvement in the overall network performance.
Narayana, V.Lakshman, Midhunchakkaravarthy, Divya.  2020.  A Time Interval Based Blockchain Model for Detection of Malicious Nodes in MANET Using Network Block Monitoring Node. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :852–857.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are infrastructure-less networks that are mainly used for establishing communication during the situation where wired network fails. Security related information collection is a fundamental part of the identification of attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). A node should find accessible routes to remaining nodes for information assortment and gather security related information during route discovery for choosing secured routes. During data communication, malicious nodes enter the network and cause disturbances during data transmission and reduce the performance of the system. In this manuscript, a Time Interval Based Blockchain Model (TIBBM) for security related information assortment that identifies malicious nodes in the MANET is proposed. The proposed model builds the Blockchain information structure which is utilized to distinguish malicious nodes at specified time intervals. To perform a malicious node identification process, a Network Block Monitoring Node (NBMN) is selected after route selection and this node will monitor the blocks created by the nodes in the routing table. At long last, NBMN node understands the location of malicious nodes by utilizing the Blocks created. The proposed model is compared with the traditional malicious node identification model and the results show that the proposed model exhibits better performance in malicious node detection.
Vaseer, Gurveen.  2020.  Multi-Attack Detection Using Forensics and Neural Network Based Prevention for Secure MANETs. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
This paper presents Forensic methods for detection and prevention of multiple attacks along with neural networks like Denial-of-Service (DoS), probe, vampire, and User-to-Root (U2R) attacks, in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). We accomplish attacker(s) detection and prevention percentage upto 99% in varied node density scenarios 50/100/150.
Zhang, Xinghai, Zhuang, Zhen, Liu, Genggeng, Huang, Xing, Liu, Wen-Hao, Guo, Wenzhong, Wang, Ting-Chi.  2020.  MiniDelay: Multi-Strategy Timing-Aware Layer Assignment for Advanced Technology Nodes. 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :586–591.
Layer assignment, a major step in global routing of integrated circuits, is usually performed to assign segments of nets to multiple layers. Besides the traditional optimization goals such as overflow and via count, interconnect delay plays an important role in determining chip performance and has been attracting much attention in recent years. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose MiniDelay, a timing-aware layer assignment algorithm to minimize delay for advanced technology nodes, taking both wire congestion and coupling effect into account. MiniDelay consists of the following three key techniques: 1) a non-default-rule routing technique is adopted to reduce the delay of timing critical nets, 2) an effective congestion assessment method is proposed to optimize delay of nets and via count simultaneously, and 3) a net scalpel technique is proposed to further reduce the maximum delay of nets, so that the chip performance can be improved in a global manner. Experimental results on multiple benchmarks confirm that the proposed algorithm leads to lower delay and few vias, while achieving the best solution quality among the existing algorithms with the shortest runtime.