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Manikandan, G., Suresh, K., Annabel, L. Sherly Puspha.  2019.  Performance Analysis of Cluster based Secured Key Management Schemes in WSN. 2019 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :944–948.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) utilizes many dedicated sensors for large scale networks in order to record and monitor the conditions over the environment. Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks (CBWSNs) elucidates essential challenges like routing, load balancing, and lifetime of a network and so on. Conversely, security relies a major challenge in CBWSNs by limiting its resources or not forwarding the data to the other clusters. Wireless Sensor Networks utilize different security methods to offer secure information transmission. Encryption of information records transferred into various organizations thus utilizing a very few systems are the normal practices to encourage high information security. For the most part, such encoded data and also the recovery of unique data depend on symmetric or asymmetric key sets. Collectively with the evolution of security advances, unfruitful or unauthorized endeavors have been made by different illicit outsiders to snip the transmitted information and mystery keys deviously, bother the transmission procedure or misshape the transmitted information and keys. Sometimes, the limitations made in the correspondence channel, transmitting and receiving devices might weaken information security and discontinue a critical job to perform. Thus, in this paper we audit the current information security design and key management framework in WSN. Based on this audit and recent security holes, this paper recommends a plausible incorporated answer for secure transmission of information and mystery keys to address these confinements. Thus, consistent and secure clusters is required to guarantee appropriate working of CBWSNs.
Yang, Bowen, Chen, Xiang, Xie, Jinsen, Li, Sugang, Zhang, Yanyong, Yang, Jian.  2019.  Multicast Design for the MobilityFirst Future Internet Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :88–93.
With the advent of fifth generation (5G) network and increasingly powerful mobile devices, people can conveniently obtain network resources wherever they are and whenever they want. However, the problem of mobility support in current network has not been adequately solved yet, especially in inter-domain mobile scenario, which leads to poor experience for mobile consumers. MobilityFirst is a clean slate future Internet architecture which adopts a clean separation between identity and network location. It provides new mechanisms to address the challenge of wireless access and mobility at scale. However, MobilityFirst lacks effective ways to deal with multicast service over mobile networks. In this paper, we design an efficient multicast mechanism based on MobilityFirst architecture and present the deployment in current network at scale. Furthermore, we propose a hierarchical multicast packet header with additional destinations to achieve low-cost dynamic multicast routing and provide solutions for both the multicast source and the multicast group members moving in intra- or inter-domain. Finally, we deploy a multicast prototype system to evaluate the performance of the proposed multicast mechanism.
Ushakova, Margarita, Ushakov, Yury, Polezhaev, Petr, Shukhman, Alexandr.  2019.  Wireless Self-Organizing Wi-Fi and Bluetooth based Network For Internet Of Things. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT). :1—5.
Modern Internet of Things networks are often proprietary, although based on open standards, or are built on the basis of conventional Wi-Fi network, which does not allow the use of energy-saving modes and limits the range of solutions used. The paper is devoted to the study and comparison of two solutions based on Wi-Fi and Bluetooth with the functions of a self-organizing network and switching between transmission channels. The power consumption in relation to specific actions and volumes of transmitted data is investigated; a conclusion is drawn on the conditions for the application of a particular technology.
Aravindhar, D. John, Gino Sophia, S. G., Krishnan, Padmaveni, Kumar, D. Praveen.  2019.  Minimization of Black hole Attacks in AdHoc Networks using Risk Aware Response Mechanism. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1391—1394.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is the collection of mobile devices which could change the locations and configure themselves without a centralized base point. Mobile Ad hoc Networks are vulnerable to attacks due to its dynamic infrastructure. The routing attacks are one among the possible attacks that causes damage to MANET. This paper gives a new method of risk aware response technique which is combined version the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) algorithm. This can reduce black hole attacks. Dijkstra's algorithm finds the shortest path from the single source to the destination when the edges have positive weights. The DSDV is an improved version of the conventional technique by adding the sequence number and next hop address in each routing table.

Protskaya, Yanina, Veltri, Luca.  2019.  Broker Bridging Mechanism for Providing Anonymity in MQTT. 2019 10th International Conference on Networks of the Future (NoF). :110—113.
With the growth of the number of smart devices the range of fields where they are used is growing too, and it is essential to protect the communication between them. In addition to data integrity and confidentiality, for which standard mechanisms exists, a security service that may also be required is anonymity, allowing entities to communicate with each other in such a way that no third party knows that they are the participants of a certain message exchange. In this paper we propose a mechanism for creating anonymous communications using MQTT protocol. The design of our solution is based on dynamic broker bridging mechanism and allows clients to subscribe and to publish to a topic remaining incognito.
Babasaheb, Desai Rahul, Raman, Indhumathi.  2018.  Survey on Fault Tolerance and Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
Providing fault tolerance in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) is very tricky activity as nodes migrate from one place to other place and changes network topology. Also MANET is very susceptible for various attacks like DoS attacks etc. So providing security to MANET is also very difficult job. Multipath protocols provide better results than unipath protocols. Multipath protocols provide fault tolerance but many multipath protocols for MANETs not targeted security issues. Distributed and cooperative security that means Intrusion Detection System (IDS) gives better security to MANETs. In this paper we have discussed many confronts and concerns regarding fault tolerance and IDS.
Yang, Ying, Yang, Lina, Yang, Meihong, Yu, Huanhuan, Zhu, Guichun, Chen, Zhenya, Chen, Lijuan.  2019.  Dark web forum correlation analysis research. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :1216—1220.

With the rapid development of the Internet, the dark network has also been widely used in the Internet [1]. Due to the anonymity of the dark network, many illegal elements have committed illegal crimes on the dark. It is difficult for law enforcement officials to track the identity of these cyber criminals using traditional network survey techniques based on IP addresses [2]. The threat information is mainly from the dark web forum and the dark web market. In this paper, we introduce the current mainstream dark network communication system TOR and develop a visual dark web forum post association analysis system to graphically display the relationship between various forum messages and posters, and help law enforcement officers to explore deep levels. Clues to analyze crimes in the dark network.

Aziz, Nooralhuda waheed, Alsaad, Saad Najim, Hmood, Haider kadhum.  2019.  Implementation of Lightweight Stream Cipher in AODV Routing Protocol for MANET. 2019 First International Conference of Computer and Applied Sciences (CAS). :210—215.

The growing use of MANETs and its vulnerability to attacks due to its fundamental characteristics make secure routing one of the most considerable challenges. In this paper, a new security scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is presented. The proposed scheme used Trivium lightweight stream cipher algorithm in combination with HMAC to secure the routing control packets. This paper compares the performance of the AODV after implementing the security scheme in terms of throughput, delay sum (end-to-end), jitter sum (end-to-end) and packet loss ratio. The proposed scheme shows better performance than original AODV under blackhole attack.

Nandhini, P.S., Mehtre, B.M..  2019.  Intrusion Detection System Based RPL Attack Detection Techniques and Countermeasures in IoT: A Comparison. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :666—672.

Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Network (RPL) is a light weight routing protocol designed for LLN (Low Power Lossy Networks). It is a source routing protocol. Due to constrained nature of resources in LLN, RPL is exposed to various attacks such as blackhole attack, wormhole attack, rank attack, version attack, etc. IDS (Intrusion Detection System) is one of the countermeasures for detection and prevention of attacks for RPL based loT. Traditional IDS techniques are not suitable for LLN due to certain characteristics like different protocol stack, standards and constrained resources. In this paper, we have presented various IDS research contribution for RPL based routing attacks. We have also classified the proposed IDS in the literature, according to the detection techniques. Therefore, this comparison will be an eye-opening stuff for future research in mitigating routing attacks for RPL based IoT.

Patel, Himanshu B., Jinwala, Devesh C..  2019.  Blackhole Detection in 6LoWPAN Based Internet of Things: An Anomaly Based Approach. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :947—954.

The Internet of things networks is vulnerable to many DOS attacks. Among them, Blackhole attack is one of the severe attacks as it hampers communication among network devices. In general, the solutions presented in the literature for Blackhole detection are not efficient. In addition, the existing approaches do not factor-in, the consumption in resources viz. energy, bandwidth and network lifetime. Further, these approaches are also insensitive to the mechanism used for selecting a parent in on Blackhole formation. Needless to say, a blackhole node if selected as parent would lead to orchestration of this attack trivially and hence it is an important factor in selection of a parent. In this paper, we propose SIEWE (Strainer based Intrusion Detection of Blackhole in 6LoWPAN for the Internet of Things) - an Intrusion detection mechanism to identify Blackhole attack on Routing protocol RPL in IoT. In contrast to the Watchdog based approaches where every node in network runs in promiscuous mode, SIEWE filters out suspicious nodes first and then verifies the behavior of those nodes only. The results that we obtain, show that SIEWE improves the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the system by blacklisting malicious Blackhole nodes.

Kapoor, Chavi.  2019.  Routing Table Management using Dynamic Information with Routing Around Connectivity Holes (RACH) for IoT Networks. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :174—177.

The internet of things (IoT) is the popular wireless network for data collection applications. The IoT networks are deployed in dense or sparse architectures, out of which the dense networks are vastly popular as these are capable of gathering the huge volumes of data. The collected data is analyzed using the historical or continuous analytical systems, which uses the back testing or time-series analytics to observe the desired patterns from the target data. The lost or bad interval data always carries the high probability to misguide the analysis reports. The data is lost due to a variety of reasons, out of which the most popular ones are associated with the node failures and connectivity holes, which occurs due to physical damage, software malfunctioning, blackhole/wormhole attacks, route poisoning, etc. In this paper, the work is carried on the new routing scheme for the IoTs to avoid the connectivity holes, which analyzes the activity of wireless nodes and takes the appropriate actions when required.

Zhang, Tianchen, Zhang, Taimin, Ji, Xiaoyu, Xu, Wenyuan.  2019.  Cuckoo-RPL: Cuckoo Filter based RPL for Defending AMI Network from Blackhole Attacks. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :8920—8925.

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is a key component in the smart grid. Transmitting data robustly and reliably between the tremendous smart meters in the AMI is one of the most crucial tasks for providing various services in smart grid. Among the many efforts for designing practical routing protocols for the AMI, the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) proposed by the IETF ROLL working group is considered the most consolidated candidate. Resent research has shown cyber attacks such as blackhole attack and version number attack can seriously damage the performance of the network implementing RPL. The main reason that RPL is vulnerable to these kinds of attacks is the lack an authentication mechanism. In this paper, we study the impact of blackhole attacks on the performance of the AMI network and proposed a new blackhole attack that can bypass the existing defense mechanism. Then, we propose a cuckoo filter based RPL to defend the AMI network from blackhole attacks. We also give the security analysis of the proposed method.

Chatterjee, Tanusree, Ruj, Sushmita, DasBit, Sipra.  2018.  Data forwarding and update propagation in grid network for NDN: A low-overhead approach. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Now-a-days Internet has become mostly content centric. Named Data Network (NDN) has emerged as a promising candidate to cope with the use of today's Internet. Several NDN features such as in-network caching, easier data forwarding, etc. in the routing method bring potential advantages over conventional networks. Despite the advantages, there are many challenges in NDN which are yet to be addressed. In this paper, we address two of such challenges in NDN routing: (1) Huge storage overhead in NDN router (2) High communication over-heads in the network during propagation of routing information updates. We propose changes in existing NDN routing with the aim to provide a low-overhead solution to these problems. Here instead of storing the Link State Data Base (LSDB) in all the routers, it is kept in selected special nodes only. The use of special nodes lowers down the overall storage and update overheads. We also provide supporting algorithms for data forwarding and update for grid network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of storage and communication overheads. The results show the overheads are reduced by almost one third as compared to the existing routing method in NDN.
Hamamreh, Rushdi A., Ayyad, Mohammad, Jamoos, Mohammad.  2019.  RAD: Reinforcement Authentication DYMO Protocol for MANET. 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET). :136–141.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) does not have fixed infrastructure centralized server which manage the connections between the nodes. Rather, the nodes in MANET move randomly. Thus, it is risky to exchange data between nodes because there is a high possibility of having malicious node in the path. In this paper, we will describe a new authentication technique using message digest 5 (MD5), hashing for dynamic MANET on demand protocol (DYMO) based on reinforcement learning. In addition, we will describe an encryption technique that can be used without the need for a third party to distribute a secret key. After implementing the suggested model, results showed a remarkable enhancement in securing the path by increasing the packet delivery ratio and average throughput. On the other hand, there was an increase in end to end delay due to time spent in cryptographic operations.
Jim, Lincy Elizebeth, Chacko, Jim.  2019.  Decision Tree based AIS strategy for Intrusion Detection in MANET. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :1191–1195.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks that are void of fixed infrastructure as the communication between nodes are dependent on the liaison of each node in the network. The efficacy of MANET in critical scenarios like battlefield communications, natural disaster require new security strategies and policies to guarantee the integrity of nodes in the network. Due to the inherent frailty of MANETs, new security measures need to be developed to defend them. Intrusion Detection strategy used in wired networks are unbefitting for wireless networks due to reasons not limited to resource constraints of participating nodes and nature of communication. Nodes in MANET utilize multi hop communication to forward packets and this result in consumption of resources like battery and memory. The intruder or cheat nodes decide to cooperate or non-cooperate with other nodes. The cheat nodes reduce the overall effectiveness of network communications such as reduced packet delivery ratio and sometimes increase the congestion of the network by forwarding the packet to wrong destination and causing packets to take more times to reach the appropriate final destination. In this paper a decision tree based artificial immune system (AIS) strategy is utilized to detect such cheat nodes thereby improving the efficiency of packet delivery.
Tripathi, Shripriya.  2019.  Performance Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of MANET under Wormhole Attack and a Suggested Trust Based Routing Algorithm for DSR. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–5.

The nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can self-assemble themselves, locomote unreservedly and can interact with one another without taking any help from a centralized authority or fixed infrastructure. Due to its continuously changing and self-organizing nature, MANET is vulnerable to a variety of attacks like spoofing attack, wormhole attack, black hole attack, etc. This paper compares and analyzes the repercussion of the wormhole attack on MANET's two common routing protocols of reactive category, specifically, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) by increasing the number of wormhole tunnels in MANET. The results received by simulation will reveal that DSR is greatly affected by this attack. So, as a solution, a routing algorithm for DSR which is based on trust is proposed to prevent the routes from caching malicious nodes.

Alapati, Yaswanth Kumar, Ravichandran, Suban.  2019.  Efficient Route Identification Method for Secure Packets Transfer in MANET. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :467–471.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) routing is basic and route selection ought to be made faster before the node leaves the system. MANET routing Methods are intended to work in a friendly and satisfying condition which makes them helpless against different attacks. MANET is one of the most encouraging fields for innovative work of remote system. MANET has now turned out to be one of the most lively and dynamic field of communication among systems. A MANET is a self-sufficient gathering of mobile nodes that speak with one another over remote connections and coordinate in an appropriated way so as to give the fundamental system convenience without a fixed framework. MANET has transfer speed limitations yet it permits self-ruling communication of versatile clients over it. Because of regular node mobility, and along these lines change in route topology, the architecture of the system goes unpredicted after some time. In such a decentralized situation, secured route identification is a key task for communication among nodes. Trust calculation among nodes is done for involving trusted nodes in route discovery process. In this manuscript, a novel secure routing method is proposed which identifies route among trusted nodes and update the routing table info frequently because of dynamic topology of the network. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed method takes better routing technique when compared with existing methods.
Fu, Yulong, Li, Guoquan, Mohammed, Atiquzzaman, Yan, Zheng, Cao, Jin, Li, Hui.  2019.  A Study and Enhancement to the Security of MANET AODV Protocol Against Black Hole Attacks. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1431–1436.
Mobile AdHoc Networks (MANET) can be fast implemented, and it is very popular in many specific network requirements, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Unit), Disaster Recovery and IoT (Internet of Things) etc. However, MANET is also vulnerable. AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) protocol is one type of MANET routing protocol and many attacks can be implemented to break the connections on AODV based AdHoc networks. In this article, aim of protecting the MANET security, we modeled the AODV protocol with one type of Automata and analyzed the security vulnerabilities of it; then based on the analyzing results, we proposed an enhancement to AODV protocol to against the Black Hole Attacks. We also implemented the proposed enhancement in NS3 simulator and verified the correctness, usability and efficiency.
Satav, Pravin R, Jawandhiya, Pradeep M., Thakare, Vilas M..  2018.  Secure Route Selection Mechanism in the Presence of Black Hole Attack with AOMDV Routing Algorithm. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
The research in MANET has been carried out for the development of various techniques which will increase the competency of the network only. A plenty number of proposed routing protocols are magnificent in terms of efficiency. However, proposed protocols were generally fulfilling the set of trusted network and not considered for adversarial network setting, hence there is no security mechanism has been considered. MANET is widely used in sensitive fields like battlefield, police rescue operation and many more in such type of sensitive field an attacker may try to gather information about the conversation starting from the origin node to the terminal node. Secure route selection approach for route selection in adverse environment is discussed in this article. The results shows that proposed algorithm, will resolve the single & collaborative attack by increasing the computational & storage overhead and by improving the significant PDR, achieves a noticeable enhancement in the end to end delay.
V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
Sahay, Rashmi, Geethakumari, G., Mitra, Barsha, Thejas, V..  2018.  Exponential Smoothing based Approach for Detection of Blackhole Attacks in IoT. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Low power and lossy network (LLN) comprising of constrained devices like sensors and RFIDs, is a major component in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment as these devices provide global connectivity to physical devices or “Things”. LLNs are tied to the Internet or any High Performance Computing environment via an adaptation layer called 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Personal Area Network). The routing protocol used by 6LoWPAN is RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol over LLN). Like many other routing protocols, RPL is susceptible to blackhole attacks which cause topological isolation for a subset of nodes in the LLN. A malicious node instigating the blackhole attack drops received packets from nodes in its subtree which it is supposed to forward. Thus, the malicious node successfully isolates nodes in its subtree from the rest of the network. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the concept of exponential smoothing to detect the topological isolation of nodes due to blackhole attack. Exponential smoothing is a technique for smoothing time series data using the exponential window function and is used for short, medium and long term forecasting. In our proposed algorithm, exponential smoothing is used to estimate the next arrival time of packets at the sink node from every other node in the LLN. Using this estimation, the algorithm is designed to identify the malicious nodes instigating blackhole attack in real time.
Junnarkar, Aparna A., Singh, Y. P., Deshpande, Vivek S..  2018.  SQMAA: Security, QoS and Mobility Aware ACO Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for MANET. 2018 4th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–6.
The QoS performance of MANET routing protocols is significantly affected by the mobility conditions in network. Secondly, as MANET open nature network, there is strong possibility of different types of vulnerabilities such as blackhole attack, malicious attack, DoS attacks etc. In this research work, we are designing the novel opportunistic routing protocol in order to address the challenges of network security as well as QoS improvement. There two algorithms designed in this paper. First we proposed and designed novel QoS improvement algorithm based on optimization scheme called Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) with swarm intelligence approach. This proposed method used the RSSI measurements to determine the distance between two mobile nodes in order to select efficient path for communication. This new routing protocol is named as QoS Mobility Aware ACO (QMAA) Routing Protocol. Second, we designed security algorithm for secure communication and user's authentication in MANET under the presence attackers in network. With security algorithm the QoS aware protocol is proposed named as Secure-QMAA (SQMAA). The SQMAA achieved secure communications while guaranteed QoS performance against existing routing protocols. The simulation results shows that under the presence of malicious attackers, the performance of SQMAA are efficient as compared to QMAA and state-of-art routing protocol.
Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2018.  Simulation Based Study of Blackhole Attack Under AODV Protocol. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
Mobile adhoc network are fully autonomous where the nodes act both as node as well as router. Centralization is absent in MANETs. In MANETs nodes are continuously moving and have an open access which put it at a risk of large number of attacks. Security in such networks is therefore a critical matter. In order to find solution to this issue various attacks need to be studied and analyzed. In Blackhole attack, the unauthorized node in the path of source and target nodes takes away the packets sent by the source and drops them by not heading them towards the target node. The malicious behavior launched by Blackhole attack deteriorates the network performance.
Li, Guoquan, Yan, Zheng, Fu, Yulong.  2018.  A Study and Simulation Research of Blackhole Attack on Mobile AdHoc Network. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–6.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a kind of mobile multi-hop network which can transmit data through intermediate nodes, it has been widely used and become important since the growing of the market of Internet of Things (IoT). However, the transmissions on MANET are vulnerable, it usually suffered with many internal or external attacks, and the research on security topics of MANET are becoming more and more hot recently. Blackhole Attack is one of the most famous attacks to MANET. In this paper, we focus on the Blackhole Attack in AODV protocol, and use NS-3 network simulator to study the impact of Blackhole Attack on network performance parameters, such as the Throughput, End-to-End Delay and Packet Loss Rate. We further analyze the changes in network performance by adjusting the number of blackhole nodes and total nodes, and the movement speed of mobile nodes. The experimental results not only reflect the behaviors of the Blackhole Attack and its damage to the network, but also provide the characteristics of Blackhole Attacks clearly. This is helpful to the research of Blackhole Attack feature extraction and MANET security measurement.
Sbai, Oussama, Elboukhari, Mohamed.  2018.  Simulation of MANET's Single and Multiple Blackhole Attack with NS-3. 2018 IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology (CiSt). :612–617.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained popularity both in research and in industrial fields. This is due to their ad hoc nature, easy deployment thanks to the lack of fixed infrastructure, self-organization of its components, dynamic topologies and the absence of any central authority for routing. However, MANETs suffer from several vulnerabilities such as battery power, limited memory space, and physical protection of network nodes. In addition, MANETs are sensitive to various attacks that threaten network security like Blackhole attack in its different implementation (single and multiple). In this article, we present the simulation results of single and multiple Blackhole attack in AODV and OLSR protocols on using NS-3.27 simulator. In this simulation, we took into consideration the density of the network described by the number of nodes included in the network, the speed of the nodes, the mobility model and even we chose the IEEE 802.11ac protocol for the pbysicallayer, in order to have a simulation, which deals with more general and more real scenarios. To be able to evaluate the impact of the attack on the network, the Packet delivery rate, Routing overhead, Throughput and Average End to End delay have been chosen as metrics for performance evaluation.