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2019-09-09
Jim, L. E., Gregory, M. A..  2018.  AIS Reputation Mechanism in MANET. 2018 28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1-6.

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) the nodes act as a host as well as a router thereby forming a self-organizing network that does not rely upon fixed infrastructure, other than gateways to other networks. MANET provides a quick to deploy flexible networking capability with a dynamic topology due to node mobility. MANET nodes transmit, relay and receive traffic from neighbor nodes as the network topology changes. Security is important for MANET and trust computation is used to improve collaboration between nodes. MANET trust frameworks utilize real-time trust computations to maintain the trust state for nodes in the network. If the trust computation is not resilient against attack, the trust values computed could be unreliable. This paper proposes an Artificial Immune System based approach to compute trust and thereby provide a resilient reputation mechanism.

Karlsson, J., Dooley, L. S., Pulkkis, G..  2018.  Secure Routing for MANET Connected Internet of Things Systems. 2018 IEEE 6th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :114-119.

This paper presents a contemporary review of communication architectures and topographies for MANET-connected Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems. Routing protocols for multi-hop MANETs are analyzed with a focus on the standardized Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks. Various security threats and vulnerabilities in current MANET routing are described and security enhanced routing protocols and trust models presented as methodologies for supporting secure routing. Finally, the paper identifies some key research challenges in the emerging domain of MANET-IoT connectivity.

Tonane, P., Deshpande, S..  2018.  Trust Based Certificate Revocation and Attacks in MANETs. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1089-1093.

Due to the changing nature of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) security is an important concern and hence in this paper, we carryout vector-based trust mechanism, which is established on the behavior of nodes in forwarding and dropping the data packets determines the trust on each node and we are using the Enhanced Certificate Revocation scheme (ECR), which avoid the attacker by blacklisting the blackhole attacker. To enhance more security for node and network, we assign a unique key for every individual node which can avoid most of the attacks in MANET

Abdel-Fattah, F., Farhan, K. A., Al-Tarawneh, F. H., AlTamimi, F..  2019.  Security Challenges and Attacks in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :28-33.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET for short) is a new art of wireless technology that connect a group of mobile nodes in a dynamically decentralized fashion without the need of a base station, or a centralized administration, whereas each mobile node can work as a router. MANET topology changes frequently, because of the MANET dynamically formation nature, and freely to move randomly. MANET can function as standalone or can be connected to external networks. Mobile nodes are characterized with minimal human interaction, weight, less memory, and power. Despite all the pros of MANET and the widely spreading in many and critical industries, MANET has some cons and suffers from severe security issues. In this survey we emphasize on the different types of attacks at MANET protocol stack, and show how MANET is vulnerable to those attacks.

Almohaimeed, A., Asaduzzaman, A..  2019.  A Novel Moving Target Defense Technique to Secure Communication Links in Software-Defined Networks. 2019 Fifth Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–4.
Software-defined networking (SDN) is a recently developed approach to computer networking that brings a centralized orientation to network control, thereby improving network architecture and management. However, as with any communication environment that involves message transmission among users, SDN is confronted by the ongoing challenge of protecting user privacy. In this “Work in Progress (WIP)” research, we propose an SDN security model that applies the moving target defense (MTD) technique to protect communication links from sensitive data leakages. MTD is a security solution aimed at increasing complexity and uncertainty for attackers by concealing sensitive information that may serve as a gateway from which to launch different types of attacks. The proposed MTD-based security model is intended to protect user identities contained in transmitted messages in a way that prevents network intruders from identifying the real identities of senders and receivers. According to the results from preliminary experiments, the proposed MTD model has potential to protect the identities contained in transmitted messages within communication links. This work will be extended to protect sensitive data if an attacker gets access to the network device.
2019-08-26
Araujo, F., Taylor, T., Zhang, J., Stoecklin, M..  2018.  Cross-Stack Threat Sensing for Cyber Security and Resilience. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :18-21.

We propose a novel cross-stack sensor framework for realizing lightweight, context-aware, high-interaction network and endpoint deceptions for attacker disinformation, misdirection, monitoring, and analysis. In contrast to perimeter-based honeypots, the proposed method arms production workloads with deceptive attack-response capabilities via injection of booby-traps at the network, endpoint, operating system, and application layers. This provides defenders with new, potent tools for more effectively harvesting rich cyber-threat data from the myriad of attacks launched by adversaries whose identities and methodologies can be better discerned through direct engagement rather than purely passive observations of probe attempts. Our research provides new tactical deception capabilities for cyber operations, including new visibility into both enterprise and national interest networks, while equipping applications and endpoints with attack awareness and active mitigation capabilities.

Asati, V. K., Pilli, E. S., Vipparthi, S. K., Garg, S., Singhal, S., Pancholi, S..  2018.  RMDD: Cross Layer Attack in Internet of Things. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). :172-178.

The existing research on the Internet of Things(IoT) security mainly focuses on attack and defense on a single protocol layer. Increasing and ubiquitous use of loT also makes it vulnerable to many attacks. An attacker try to performs the intelligent, brutal and stealthy attack that can reduce the risk of being detected. In these kinds of attacks, the attackers not only restrict themselves to a single layer of protocol stack but they also try to decrease the network performance and throughput by a simultaneous and coordinated attack on different layers. A new class of attacks, termed as cross-layer attack became prominent due to lack of interaction between MAC, routing and upper layers. These attacks achieve the better effect with reduced cost. Research has been done on cross-layer attacks in other domains like Cognitive Radio Network(CRN), Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN) and ad-hoc networks. However, our proposed scheme of cross-layer attack in IoT is the first paper to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, we have proposed Rank Manipulation and Drop Delay(RMDD) cross-layer attack in loT, we have investigated how small intensity attack on Routing protocol for low power lossy networks (RPL) degrades the overall application throughput. We have exploited the Rank system of the RPL protocol to implement the attacks. Rank is given to each node in the graph, and it shows its position in the network. If the rank could be manipulated in some manner, then the network topology can be modified. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed attacks degrade network performance very much in terms of the throughput, latency, and connectivity.

Bhusari, A. A., Jawandhiya, P. M., Thakare, V. M..  2018.  Optimizing Performance of Anonymity Based Secure Routing Protocol Utilizing Cross Layer Design for Mobile Adhoc Networks. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1-6.

Cross layer based approaches are increasingly becoming popular in Manet (Mobile Adhoc Network). As Manet are constrained with issues as low battery, limited bandwidth, link breakage and dynamic topology, cross layer based designs are trying to remove such barriers and trying to make Manet more scalable. Cross layer designs are also facing attacking problem and ensuring the security of network to defend the attack is must. In this paper we discuss about technique to optimize the performance by minimizing delay and overhead of secure cross layer routing protocol. We have designed SCLPC (Secure cross layer based Power control) protocol. But when security is imposed using AASR (Authenticated and anonymous secure routing), the network metrics as end to end delay and control overhead is disturbed. To optimize the network performance here we proposed OSCLPC (Optimized secure cross layer based power control protocol). The proposed OSCLPC has been evaluated using SHORT (Self healing and optimizing route technique). The OSCLPC is simulated in ns2 and it is giving the better performance compared with SCLPC.

2019-08-05
Ghugar, U., Pradhan, J..  2018.  NL-IDS: Trust Based Intrusion Detection System for Network Layer in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :512-516.

From the last few years, security in wireless sensor network (WSN) is essential because WSN application uses important information sharing between the nodes. There are large number of issues raised related to security due to open deployment of network. The attackers disturb the security system by attacking the different protocol layers in WSN. The standard AODV routing protocol faces security issues when the route discovery process takes place. The data should be transmitted in a secure path to the destination. Therefore, to support the process we have proposed a trust based intrusion detection system (NL-IDS) for network layer in WSN to detect the Black hole attackers in the network. The sensor node trust is calculated as per the deviation of key factor at the network layer based on the Black hole attack. We use the watchdog technique where a sensor node continuously monitors the neighbor node by calculating a periodic trust value. Finally, the overall trust value of the sensor node is evaluated by the gathered values of trust metrics of the network layer (past and previous trust values). This NL-IDS scheme is efficient to identify the malicious node with respect to Black hole attack at the network layer. To analyze the performance of NL-IDS, we have simulated the model in MATLAB R2015a, and the result shows that NL-IDS is better than Wang et al. [11] as compare of detection accuracy and false alarm rate.

2019-07-01
Ha\c silo\u glu, A., Bali, A..  2018.  Central Audit Logging Mechanism in Personal Data Web Services. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1-3.

Personal data have been compiled and harnessed by a great number of establishments to execute their legal activities. Establishments are legally bound to maintain the confidentiality and security of personal data. Hence it is a requirement to provide access logs for the personal information. Depending on the needs and capacity, personal data can be opened to the users via platforms such as file system, database and web service. Web service platform is a popular alternative since it is autonomous and can isolate the data source from the user. In this paper, the way to log personal data accessed via web service method has been discussed. As an alternative to classical method in which logs were recorded and saved by client applications, a different mechanism of forming a central audit log with API manager has been investigated. By forging a model policy to exemplify central logging method, its advantages and disadvantages have been explored. It has been concluded in the end that this model could be employed in centrally recording audit logs.

2019-06-10
Hu, Y., Li, X., Liu, J., Ding, H., Gong, Y., Fang, Y..  2018.  Mitigating Traffic Analysis Attack in Smartphones with Edge Network Assistance. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

With the growth of smartphone sales and app usage, fingerprinting and identification of smartphone apps have become a considerable threat to user security and privacy. Traffic analysis is one of the most common methods for identifying apps. Traditional countermeasures towards traffic analysis includes traffic morphing and multipath routing. The basic idea of multipath routing is to increase the difficulty for adversary to eavesdrop all traffic by splitting traffic into several subflows and transmitting them through different routes. Previous works in multipath routing mainly focus on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) or Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). In this paper, we propose a multipath routing scheme for smartphones with edge network assistance to mitigate traffic analysis attack. We consider an adversary with limited capability, that is, he can only intercept the traffic of one node following certain attack probability, and try to minimize the traffic an adversary can intercept. We formulate our design as a flow routing optimization problem. Then a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, we present the simulation results for our scheme and justify that our scheme can effectively protect smartphones from traffic analysis attack.

Hmouda, E., Li, W..  2018.  Detection and Prevention of Attacks in MANETs by Improving the EAACK Protocol. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–7.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are dynamic in nature and have no rigid or reliable network infrastructure by their very definition. They are expected to be self-governed and have dynamic wireless links which are not entirely reliable in terms of connectivity and security. Several factors could cause their degradation, such as attacks by malicious and selfish nodes which result in data carrying packets being dropped which in turn could cause breaks in communication between nodes in the network. This paper aims to address the issue of remedy and mitigation of the damage caused by packet drops. We proposed an improvement on the EAACK protocol to reduce the network overhead packet delivery ratio by using hybrid cryptography techniques DES due to its higher efficiency in block encryption, and RSA due to its management in key cipher. Comparing to the existing approaches, our simulated results show that hybrid cryptography techniques provide higher malicious behavior detection rates, and improve the performance. This research can also lead to more future efforts in using hybrid encryption based authentication techniques for attack detection/prevention in MANETs.

Basomingera, R., Choi, Y..  2019.  Route Cache Based SVM Classifier for Intrusion Detection of Control Packet Attacks in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :31–36.

For the security of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), a group of wireless mobile nodes needs to cooperate by forwarding packets, to implement an intrusion detection system (IDS). Some of the current IDS implementations in a clustered MANET have designed mobile nodes to wait until the cluster head is elected before scanning the network and thus nodes may be, unfortunately, exposed to several control packet attacks by which nodes identify falsified routes to reach other nodes. In order to detect control packet attacks such as route falsification, we design a route cache sharing mechanism for a non-clustered network where all one-hop routing data are collected by each node for a cooperative host-based detection. The cooperative host-based detection system uses a Support Vector Machine classifier and achieves a detection rate of around 95%. By successfully detecting the route falsification attacks, nodes are given the capability to avoid other attacks such as black-hole and gray-hole, which are in many cases a result of a successful route falsification attack.

Rmayti, M., Begriche, Y., Khatoun, R., Khoukhi, L., Mammeri, A..  2018.  Graph-based wormhole attack detection in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). 2018 Fourth International Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–6.

A Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of nodes that communicate together in a cooperative way using the wireless medium, and without any central administration. Due to its inherent open nature and the lack of infrastructure, security is a complicated issue compared to other networks. That is, these networks are vulnerable to a a wide range of attacks at different network layers. At the network level, malicious nodes can perform several attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interfering. Wormhole is an example of severe attack that has attracted much attention recently. It involves the redirection of traffic between two end-nodes through a Wormhole tunnel, and manipulates the routing algorithm to give illusion that nodes located far from each other are neighbors. To handle with this issue, we propose a novel detection model to allow a node to check whether a presumed shortest path contains a Wormhole tunnel or not. Our approach is based on the fact that the Wormhole tunnel reduces significantly the length of the paths passing through it.

Saifuddin, K. M., Ali, A. J. B., Ahmed, A. S., Alam, S. S., Ahmad, A. S..  2018.  Watchdog and Pathrater based Intrusion Detection System for MANET. 2018 4th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Communication Technology (iCEEiCT). :168–173.

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is pretty vulnerable to attacks because of its broad distribution and open nodes. Hence, an effective Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is vital in MANET to deter unwanted malicious attacks. An IDS has been proposed in this paper based on watchdog and pathrater method as well as evaluation of its performance has been presented using Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocols with and without considering the effect of the sinkhole attack. The results obtained justify that the proposed IDS is capable of detecting suspicious activities and identifying the malicious nodes. Moreover, it replaces the fake route with a real one in the routing table in order to mitigate the security risks. The performance appraisal also suggests that the AODV protocol has a capacity of sending more packets than DSR and yields more throughput.

Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2018.  Log-based Anomalies Detection of MANETs Routing with Reasoning and Verification. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :240–246.

Routing security plays an important role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing procedure of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them have not considered the privacy of the nodes during the anomalies detection, which depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present an approach called LAD which uses the raw logs of routers to construct control a flow graph and find the existing communication rules in MANETs. With the reasoning rules, LAD can detect both active and passive attacks launched during the routing phase. LAD can also protect the privacy of the nodes in the verification phase with the specific Merkle hash tree. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, LAD can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show that our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we deploy our experiment in NS3 as well as the practical router environment. LAD can improve the accuracy rate from 2.28% to 29.22%. The results show that LAD performs limited time and memory usages, high detection and low false positives.

Taggu, A., Mungoli, A., Taggu, A..  2018.  ReverseRoute: An Application-Layer Scheme for Detecting Blackholes in MANET Using Mobile Agents. 2018 3rd Technology Innovation Management and Engineering Science International Conference (TIMES-iCON). :1–4.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) are prone to many security attacks. One such attack is the blackhole attack. This work proposes a simple and effective application layer based intrusion detection scheme in a MANET to detect blackholes. The proposed algorithm utilizes mobile agents (MA) and wtracert (modified version of Traceroute for MANET) to detect multiple black holes in a DSR protocol based MANET. Use of MAs ensure that no modifications need to be carried out in the underlying routing algorithms or other lower layers. Simulation results show successful detection of single and multiple blackhole nodes, using the proposed detection mechanism, across varying mobility speeds of the nodes.

Ghonge, M. M., Jawandhiya, P. M., Thakare, V. M..  2018.  Reputation and trust based selfish node detection system in MANETs. 2018 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :661–667.

With the progress over technology, it is becoming viable to set up mobile ad hoc networks for non-military services as like well. Examples consist of networks of cars, law about communication facilities into faraway areas, and exploiting the solidity between urban areas about present nodes such as cellular telephones according to offload or otherwise keep away from using base stations. In such networks, there is no strong motive according to assume as the nodes cooperate. Some nodes may also be disruptive and partial may additionally attempt according to save sources (e.g. battery power, memory, CPU cycles) through “selfish” behavior. The proposed method focuses on the robustness of packet forwarding: keeping the usual packet throughput over a mobile ad hoc network in the rear regarding nodes that misbehave at the routing layer. Proposed system listen at the routing layer or function no longer try after address attacks at lower layers (eg. jamming the network channel) and passive attacks kind of eavesdropping. Moreover such functionate now not bear together with issues kind of node authentication, securing routes, or message encryption. Proposed solution addresses an orthogonal problem the encouragement concerning proper routing participation.

Alsumayt, A., Haggerty, J., Lotfi, A..  2018.  Evaluation of Detection Method to Mitigate DoS Attacks in MANETs. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–5.

A Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configure, dynamic, and non-fixed infrastructure that consists of many nodes. These nodes communicate with each other without an administrative point. However, due to its nature MANET becomes prone to many attacks such as DoS attacks. DoS attack is a severe as it prevents legitimate users from accessing to their authorised services. Monitoring, Detection, and rehabilitation (MrDR) method is proposed to detect DoS attacks. MrDR method is based on calculating different trust values as nodes can be trusted or not. In this paper, we evaluate the MrDR method which detect DoS attacks in MANET and compare it with existing method Trust Enhanced Anonymous on-demand routing Protocol (TEAP) which is also based on trust concept. We consider two factors to compare the performance of the proposed method to TEAP method: packet delivery ratio and network overhead. The results confirm that the MrDR method performs better in network performance compared to TEAP method.

Umar, M., Sabo, A., Tata, A. A..  2018.  Modified Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme for Detecting and Preventing Cooperative Blackhole and Eavesdropping Attacks in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :121–126.

Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that are dynamically self-organized in arbitrary and temporary topologies, that have received increasing interest due to their potential applicability to numerous applications. The deployment of such networks however poses several security challenging issues, due to their lack of fixed communication infrastructure, centralized administration, nodes mobility and dynamic topological changes, which make it susceptible to passive and active attacks such as single and cooperative black hole, sinkhole and eavesdropping attacks. The mentioned attacks mainly disrupt data routing processes by giving false routing information or stealing secrete information by malicious nodes in MANET. Thus, finding safe routing path by avoiding malicious nodes is a genuine challenge. This paper aims at combining the existing cooperative bait detection scheme which uses the baiting procedure to bait malicious nodes into sending fake route reply and then using a reverse tracing operation to detect the malicious nodes, with an RSA encryption technique to encode data packet before transmitting it to the destination to prevent eavesdropper and other malicious nodes from unauthorized read and write on the data packet. The proposed work out performs the existing Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (CBDS) in terms of packet delivery ratio, network throughput, end to end delay, and the routing overhead.

Zalte, S. S., Ghorpade, V. R..  2018.  Intrusion Detection System for MANET. 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–4.

In Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), we cannot predict the clear picture of the topology of a node because of its varying nature. Without notice participation and departure of nodes results in lack of trust relationship between nodes. In such circumstances, there is no guarantee that path between two nodes would be secure or free of malicious nodes. The presence of single malicious node could lead repeatedly compromised node. After providing security to route and data packets still, there is a need for the implementation of defense mechanism that is intrusion detection system(IDS) against compromised nodes. In this paper, we have implemented IDS, which defend against some routing attacks like the black hole and gray hole successfully. After measuring performance we get marginally increased Packet delivery ratio and Throughput.

Hussain, K., Hussain, S. J., Jhanjhi, N., Humayun, M..  2019.  SYN Flood Attack Detection based on Bayes Estimator (SFADBE) For MANET. 2019 International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1–4.

SYN flood attack is a very serious cause for disturbing the normal traffic in MANET. SYN flood attack takes advantage of the congestion caused by populating a specific route with unwanted traffic that results in the denial of services. In this paper, we proposed an Adaptive Detection Mechanism using Artificial Intelligence technique named as SYN Flood Attack Detection Based on Bayes Estimator (SFADBE) for Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). In SFADBE, every node will gather the current information of the available channel and the secure and congested free (Best Path) channel for the traffic is selected. Due to constant congestion, the availability of the data path can be the cause of SYN Flood attack. By using this AI technique, we experienced the SYN Flood detection probability more than the others did. Simulation results show that our proposed SFADBE algorithm is low cost and robust as compared to the other existing approaches.

2019-03-22
Obert, J., Chavez, A., Johnson, J..  2018.  Behavioral Based Trust Metrics and the Smart Grid. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :1490-1493.

To ensure reliable and predictable service in the electrical grid it is important to gauge the level of trust present within critical components and substations. Although trust throughout a smart grid is temporal and dynamically varies according to measured states, it is possible to accurately formulate communications and service level strategies based on such trust measurements. Utilizing an effective set of machine learning and statistical methods, it is shown that establishment of trust levels between substations using behavioral pattern analysis is possible. It is also shown that the establishment of such trust can facilitate simple secure communications routing between substations.

2019-03-11
Raj, R. V., Balasubramanian, K., Nandhini, T..  2018.  Establishing Trust by Detecting Malicious Nodes in Delay Tolerant Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1385–1390.
A Network consists of many nodes among which there may be a presence of misbehavior nodes. Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a network where the disconnections occur frequently. Store, carry and forward method is followed in DTN. The serious threat against routing in DTN is the selfish behavior. The main intention of selfish node is to save its own energy. Detecting the selfish node in DTN is very difficult. In this paper, a probabilistic misbehavior detection scheme called MAXTRUST has been proposed. Trusted Authority (TA) has been introduced in order to detect the behavior of the nodes periodically based on the task, forwarding history and contact history evidence. After collecting all the evidences from the nodes, the TA would check the inspection node about its behavior. The actions such as punishment or compensation would be given to that particular node based on its behavior. The TA performs probabilistic checking, in order to ensure security at a reduced cost. To further improve the efficiency, dynamic probabilistic inspection has been demonstrated using game theory analysis. The simulation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the MAXTRUST scheme.
Ghafoor, K. Z., Kong, L., Sadiq, A. S., Doukha, Z., Shareef, F. M..  2018.  Trust-aware routing protocol for mobile crowdsensing environments. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :82–87.
Link quality, trust management and energy efficiency are considered as main factors that affect the performance and lifetime of Mobile CrowdSensing (MCS). Routing packets toward the sink node can be a daunting task if aforementioned factors are considered. Correspondingly, routing packets by considering only shortest path or residual energy lead to suboptimal data forwarding. To this end, we propose a Fuzzy logic based Routing (FR) solution that incorporates social behaviour of human beings, link quality, and node quality to make the optimal routing decision. FR leverages friendship mechanism for trust management, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to assure good link quality node selection, and residual energy for long lasting sensor lifetime. Extensive simulations show that the FR solution outperforms the existing approaches in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery ratio.