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2020-07-06
Chai, Yadeng, Liu, Yong.  2019.  Natural Spoken Instructions Understanding for Robot with Dependency Parsing. 2019 IEEE 9th Annual International Conference on CYBER Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER). :866–871.
This paper presents a method based on syntactic information, which can be used for intent determination and slot filling tasks in a spoken language understanding system including the spoken instructions understanding module for robot. Some studies in recent years attempt to solve the problem of spoken language understanding via syntactic information. This research is a further extension of these approaches which is based on dependency parsing. In this model, the input for neural network are vectors generated by a dependency parsing tree, which we called window vector. This vector contains dependency features that improves performance of the syntactic-based model. The model has been evaluated on the benchmark ATIS task, and the results show that it outperforms many other syntactic-based approaches, especially in terms of slot filling, it has a performance level on par with some state of the art deep learning algorithms in recent years. Also, the model has been evaluated on FBM3, a dataset of the RoCKIn@Home competition. The overall rate of correctly understanding the instructions for robot is quite good but still not acceptable in practical use, which is caused by the small scale of FBM3.
Ben, Yongming, Han, Yanni, Cai, Ning, An, Wei, Xu, Zhen.  2019.  An Online System Dependency Graph Anomaly Detection based on Extended Weisfeiler-Lehman Kernel. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–6.
Modern operating systems are typical multitasking systems: Running multiple tasks at the same time. Therefore, a large number of system calls belonging to different processes are invoked at the same time. By associating these invocations, one can construct the system dependency graph. In rapidly evolving system dependency graphs, how to quickly find outliers is an urgent issue for intrusion detection. Clustering analysis based on graph similarity will help solve this problem. In this paper, an extended Weisfeiler-Lehman(WL) kernel is proposed. Firstly, an embedded vector with indefinite dimensions is constructed based on the original dependency graph. Then, the vector is compressed with Simhash to generate a fingerprint. Finally, anomaly detection based on clustering is carried out according to these fingerprints. Our scheme can achieve prominent detection with high efficiency. For validation, we choose StreamSpot, a relevant prior work, to act as benchmark, and use the same data set as it to carry out evaluations. Experiments show that our scheme can achieve the highest detection precision of 98% while maintaining a perfect recall performance. Moreover, both quantitative and visual comparisons demonstrate the outperforming clustering effect of our scheme than StreamSpot.
2020-07-03
Usama, Muhammad, Asim, Muhammad, Qadir, Junaid, Al-Fuqaha, Ala, Imran, Muhammad Ali.  2019.  Adversarial Machine Learning Attack on Modulation Classification. 2019 UK/ China Emerging Technologies (UCET). :1—4.

Modulation classification is an important component of cognitive self-driving networks. Recently many ML-based modulation classification methods have been proposed. We have evaluated the robustness of 9 ML-based modulation classifiers against the powerful Carlini & Wagner (C-W) attack and showed that the current ML-based modulation classifiers do not provide any deterrence against adversarial ML examples. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report the results of the application of the C-W attack for creating adversarial examples against various ML models for modulation classification.

Feng, Ri-Chen, Lin, Daw-Tung, Chen, Ken-Min, Lin, Yi-Yao, Liu, Chin-De.  2019.  Improving Deep Learning by Incorporating Semi-automatic Moving Object Annotation and Filtering for Vision-based Vehicle Detection*. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :2484—2489.
Deep learning has undergone tremendous advancements in computer vision studies. The training of deep learning neural networks depends on a considerable amount of ground truth datasets. However, labeling ground truth data is a labor-intensive task, particularly for large-volume video analytics applications such as video surveillance and vehicles detection for autonomous driving. This paper presents a rapid and accurate method for associative searching in big image data obtained from security monitoring systems. We developed a semi-automatic moving object annotation method for improving deep learning models. The proposed method comprises three stages, namely automatic foreground object extraction, object annotation in subsequent video frames, and dataset construction using human-in-the-loop quick selection. Furthermore, the proposed method expedites dataset collection and ground truth annotation processes. In contrast to data augmentation and data generative models, the proposed method produces a large amount of real data, which may facilitate training results and avoid adverse effects engendered by artifactual data. We applied the constructed annotation dataset to train a deep learning you-only-look-once (YOLO) model to perform vehicle detection on street intersection surveillance videos. Experimental results demonstrated that the accurate detection performance was improved from a mean average precision (mAP) of 83.99 to 88.03.
Adari, Suman Kalyan, Garcia, Washington, Butler, Kevin.  2019.  Adversarial Video Captioning. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :24—27.
In recent years, developments in the field of computer vision have allowed deep learning-based techniques to surpass human-level performance. However, these advances have also culminated in the advent of adversarial machine learning techniques, capable of launching targeted image captioning attacks that easily fool deep learning models. Although attacks in the image domain are well studied, little work has been done in the video domain. In this paper, we show it is possible to extend prior attacks in the image domain to the video captioning task, without heavily affecting the video's playback quality. We demonstrate our attack against a state-of-the-art video captioning model, by extending a prior image captioning attack known as Show and Fool. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful method for targeted attacks against a video captioning model, which is able to inject 'subliminal' perturbations into the video stream, and force the model to output a chosen caption with up to 0.981 cosine similarity, achieving near-perfect similarity to chosen target captions.
2020-06-19
Baras, John S., Liu, Xiangyang.  2019.  Trust is the Cure to Distributed Consensus with Adversaries. 2019 27th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED). :195—202.

Distributed consensus is a prototypical distributed optimization and decision making problem in social, economic and engineering networked systems. In collaborative applications investigating the effects of adversaries is a critical problem. In this paper we investigate distributed consensus problems in the presence of adversaries. We combine key ideas from distributed consensus in computer science on one hand and in control systems on the other. The main idea is to detect Byzantine adversaries in a network of collaborating agents who have as goal reaching consensus, and exclude them from the consensus process and dynamics. We describe a novel trust-aware consensus algorithm that integrates the trust evaluation mechanism into the distributed consensus algorithm and propose various local decision rules based on local evidence. To further enhance the robustness of trust evaluation itself, we also introduce a trust propagation scheme in order to take into account evidences of other nodes in the network. The resulting algorithm is flexible and extensible, and can incorporate more complex designs of decision rules and trust models. To demonstrate the power of our trust-aware algorithm, we provide new theoretical security performance results in terms of miss detection and false alarm rates for regular and general trust graphs. We demonstrate through simulations that the new trust-aware consensus algorithm can effectively detect Byzantine adversaries and can exclude them from consensus iterations even in sparse networks with connectivity less than 2f+1, where f is the number of adversaries.

2020-06-15
Gressl, Lukas, Steger, Christian, Neffe, Ulrich.  2019.  Consideration of Security Attacks in the Design Space Exploration of Embedded Systems. 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :530–537.
Designing secure systems is a complex task, particularly for designers who are no security experts. Cyber security plays a key role in embedded systems, especially for the domain of the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT systems of this kind are becoming increasingly important in daily life as they simplify various tasks. They are usually small, either embedded into bigger systems or battery driven, and perform monitoring or one shot tasks. Thus, they are subject to manifold constraints in terms of performance, power consumption, chip area, etc. As they are continuously connected to the internet and utilize our private data to perform their tasks, they are interesting for potential attackers. Cyber security thus plays an important role for the design of an IoT system. As the usage of security measures usually increases both computation time, as well as power consumption, a conflict between these constraints must be solved. For the designers of such systems, balancing these constraints constitutes a highly complex task. In this paper we propose a novel approach for considering possible security attacks on embedded systems, simplifying the consideration of security requirements immediately at the start of the design process. We introduce a security aware design space exploration framework which based on an architectural, behavioral and security attack description, finds the optimal design for IoT systems. We also demonstrate the feasibility and the benefits of our framework based on a door access system use case.
2020-06-12
Liu, Junfu, Chen, Keming, Xu, Guangluan, Li, Hao, Yan, Menglong, Diao, Wenhui, Sun, Xian.  2019.  Semi-Supervised Change Detection Based on Graphs with Generative Adversarial Networks. IGARSS 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. :74—77.

In this paper, we present a semi-supervised remote sensing change detection method based on graph model with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Firstly, the multi-temporal remote sensing change detection problem is converted as a problem of semi-supervised learning on graph where a majority of unlabeled nodes and a few labeled nodes are contained. Then, GANs are adopted to generate samples in a competitive manner and help improve the classification accuracy. Finally, a binary change map is produced by classifying the unlabeled nodes to a certain class with the help of both the labeled nodes and the unlabeled nodes on graph. Experimental results carried on several very high resolution remote sensing image data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

2020-06-04
Almeida, L., Lopes, E., Yalçinkaya, B., Martins, R., Lopes, A., Menezes, P., Pires, G..  2019.  Towards natural interaction in immersive reality with a cyber-glove. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :2653—2658.

Over the past few years, virtual and mixed reality systems have evolved significantly yielding high immersive experiences. Most of the metaphors used for interaction with the virtual environment do not provide the same meaningful feedback, to which the users are used to in the real world. This paper proposes a cyber-glove to improve the immersive sensation and the degree of embodiment in virtual and mixed reality interaction tasks. In particular, we are proposing a cyber-glove system that tracks wrist movements, hand orientation and finger movements. It provides a decoupled position of the wrist and hand, which can contribute to a better embodiment in interaction and manipulation tasks. Additionally, the detection of the curvature of the fingers aims to improve the proprioceptive perception of the grasping/releasing gestures more consistent to visual feedback. The cyber-glove system is being developed for VR applications related to real estate promotion, where users have to go through divisions of the house and interact with objects and furniture. This work aims to assess if glove-based systems can contribute to a higher sense of immersion, embodiment and usability when compared to standard VR hand controller devices (typically button-based). Twenty-two participants tested the cyber-glove system against the HTC Vive controller in a 3D manipulation task, specifically the opening of a virtual door. Metric results showed that 83% of the users performed faster door pushes, and described shorter paths with their hands wearing the cyber-glove. Subjective results showed that all participants rated the cyber-glove based interactions as equally or more natural, and 90% of users experienced an equal or a significant increase in the sense of embodiment.

Asiri, Somayah, Alzahrani, Ahmad A..  2019.  The Effectiveness of Mixed Reality Environment-Based Hand Gestures in Distributed Collaboration. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.

Mixed reality (MR) technologies are widely used in distributed collaborative learning scenarios and have made learning and training more flexible and intuitive. However, there are many challenges in the use of MR due to the difficulty in creating a physical presence, particularly when a physical task is being performed collaboratively. We therefore developed a novel MR system to overcomes these limitations and enhance the distributed collaboration user experience. The primary objective of this paper is to explore the potential of a MR-based hand gestures system to enhance the conceptual architecture of MR in terms of both visualization and interaction in distributed collaboration. We propose a synchronous prototype named MRCollab as an immersive collaborative approach that allows two or more users to communicate with a peer based on the integration of several technologies such as video, audio, and hand gestures.

Briggs, Shannon, Perrone, Michael, Peveler, Matthew, Drozdal, Jaimie, Balagyozyan, Lilit, Su, Hui.  2019.  Multimodal, Multiuser Immersive Brainstorming and Scenario Planning for Intelligence Analysis. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1—4.

This paper discusses two pieces of software designed for intelligence analysis, the brainstorming tool and the Scenario Planning Advisor. These tools were developed in the Cognitive Immersive Systems Lab (CISL) in conjunction with IBM. We discuss the immersive environment the tools are situated in, and the proposed benefit for intelligence analysis.

2020-06-01
Talusan, Jose Paolo, Tiausas, Francis, Yasumoto, Keiichi, Wilbur, Michael, Pettet, Geoffrey, Dubey, Abhishek, Bhattacharjee, Shameek.  2019.  Smart Transportation Delay and Resiliency Testbed Based on Information Flow of Things Middleware. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :13–18.
Edge and Fog computing paradigms are used to process big data generated by the increasing number of IoT devices. These paradigms have enabled cities to become smarter in various aspects via real-time data-driven applications. While these have addressed some flaws of cloud computing some challenges remain particularly in terms of privacy and security. We create a testbed based on a distributed processing platform called the Information flow of Things (IFoT) middleware. We briefly describe a decentralized traffic speed query and routing service implemented on this framework testbed. We configure the testbed to test countermeasure systems that aim to address the security challenges faced by prior paradigms. Using this testbed, we investigate a novel decentralized anomaly detection approach for time-sensitive distributed smart transportation systems.
2020-05-22
Geetha, R, Rekha, Pasupuleti, Karthika, S.  2018.  Twitter Opinion Mining and Boosting Using Sentiment Analysis. 2018 International Conference on Computer, Communication, and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1—4.

Social media has been one of the most efficacious and precise by speakers of public opinion. A strategy which sanctions the utilization and illustration of twitter data to conclude public conviction is discussed in this paper. Sentiments on exclusive entities with diverse strengths and intenseness are stated by public, where these sentiments are strenuously cognate to their personal mood and emotions. To examine the sentiments from natural language texts, addressing various opinions, a lot of methods and lexical resources have been propounded. A path for boosting twitter sentiment classification using various sentiment proportions as meta-level features has been proposed by this article. Analysis of tweets was done on the product iPhone 6.

Vijay, Savinu T., Pournami, P. N..  2018.  Feature Based Image Registration using Heuristic Nearest Neighbour Search. 2018 22nd International Computer Science and Engineering Conference (ICSEC). :1—3.
Image registration is the process of aligning images of the same scene taken at different instances, from different viewpoints or by heterogeneous sensors. This can be achieved either by area based or by feature based image matching techniques. Feature based image registration focuses on detecting relevant features from the input images and attaching descriptors to these features. Matching visual descriptions of two images is a major task in image registration. This feature matching is currently done using Exhaustive Search (or Brute-Force) and Nearest Neighbour Search. The traditional method used for nearest neighbour search is by representing the data as k-d trees. This nearest neighbour search can also be performed using combinatorial optimization algorithms such as Simulated Annealing. This work proposes a method to perform image feature matching by nearest neighbour search done based on Threshold Accepting, a faster version of Simulated Annealing.The experiments performed suggest that the proposed algorithm can produce better results within a minimum number of iterations than many existing algorithms.
Shah, Mujahid, Ahmed, Sheeraz, Saeed, Khalid, Junaid, Muhammad, Khan, Hamayun, Ata-ur-rehman.  2019.  Penetration Testing Active Reconnaissance Phase – Optimized Port Scanning With Nmap Tool. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1—6.

Reconnaissance might be the longest phase, sometimes take weeks or months. The black hat makes use of passive information gathering techniques. Once the attacker has sufficient statistics, then the attacker starts the technique of scanning perimeter and internal network devices seeking out open ports and related services. In this paper we are showing traffic accountability and time to complete the specific task during reconnaissance phase active scanning with nmap tool and proposed strategies that how to deal with large volumes of hosts and conserve network traffic as well as time of the specific task.

2020-05-18
Bakhtin, Vadim V., Isaeva, Ekaterina V..  2019.  New TSBuilder: Shifting towards Cognition. 2019 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :179–181.
The paper reviews a project on the automation of term system construction. TSBuilder (Term System Builder) was developed in 2014 as a multilayer Rosenblatt's perceptron for supervised machine learning, namely 1-3 word terms identification in natural language texts and their rigid categorization. The program is being modified to reduce the rigidity of categorization which will bring text mining more in line with human thinking.We are expanding the range of parameters (semantical, morphological, and syntactical) for categorization, removing the restriction of the term length of three words, using convolution on a continuous sequence of terms, and present the probabilities of a term falling into different categories. The neural network will not assign a single category to a term but give N answers (where N is the number of predefined classes), each of which O ∈ [0, 1] is the probability of the term to belong to a given class.
Panahandeh, Mahnaz, Ghanbari, Shirin.  2019.  Correction of Spaces in Persian Sentences for Tokenization. 2019 5th Conference on Knowledge Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). :670–674.
The exponential growth of the Internet and its users and the emergence of Web 2.0 have caused a large volume of textual data to be created. Automatic analysis of such data can be used in making decisions. As online text is created by different producers with different styles of writing, pre-processing is a necessity prior to any processes related to natural language tasks. An essential part of textual preprocessing prior to the recognition of the word vocabulary is normalization, which includes the correction of spaces that particularly in the Persian language this includes both full-spaces between words and half-spaces. Through the review of user comments within social media services, it can be seen that in many cases users do not adhere to grammatical rules of inserting both forms of spaces, which increases the complexity of the identification of words and henceforth, reducing the accuracy of further processing on the text. In this study, current issues in the normalization and tokenization of preprocessing tools within the Persian language and essentially identifying and correcting the separation of words are and the correction of spaces are proposed. The results obtained and compared to leading preprocessing tools highlight the significance of the proposed methodology.
Chen, Long.  2019.  Assertion Detection in Clinical Natural Language Processing: A Knowledge-Poor Machine Learning Approach. 2019 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :37–40.
Natural language processing (NLP) have been recently used to extract clinical information from free text in Electronic Health Record (EHR). In clinical NLP one challenge is that the meaning of clinical entities is heavily affected by assertion modifiers such as negation, uncertain, hypothetical, experiencer and so on. Incorrect assertion assignment could cause inaccurate diagnosis of patients' condition or negatively influence following study like disease modeling. Thus, clinical NLP systems which can detect assertion status of given target medical findings (e.g. disease, symptom) in clinical context are highly demanded. Here in this work, we propose a deep-learning system based on word embedding, RNN and attention mechanism (more specifically: Attention-based Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory networks) for assertion detection in clinical notes. Unlike previous state-of-art methods which require knowledge input or feature engineering, our system is a knowledge poor machine learning system and can be easily extended or transferred to other domains. The evaluation of our system on public benchmarking corpora demonstrates that a knowledge poor deep-learning system can also achieve high performance for detecting negation and assertions comparing to state-of-the-art systems.
Kadebu, Prudence, Thada, Vikas, Chiurunge, Panashe.  2018.  Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning Towards Security Requirements Classification. 2018 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I). :135–140.
Security Requirements classification is an important area to the Software Engineering community in order to build software that is secure, robust and able to withstand attacks. This classification facilitates proper analysis of security requirements so that adequate security mechanisms are incorporated in the development process. Machine Learning techniques have been used in Security Requirements classification to aid in the process that lead to ensuring that correct security mechanisms are designed corresponding to the Security Requirements classifications made to eliminate the risk of security being incorporated in the late stages of development. However, these Machine Learning techniques have been found to have problems including, handcrafting of features, overfitting and failure to perform well with high dimensional data. In this paper we explore Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning to determine if this can be applied to Security Requirements classification.
Fahad, S.K. Ahammad, Yahya, Abdulsamad Ebrahim.  2018.  Inflectional Review of Deep Learning on Natural Language Processing. 2018 International Conference on Smart Computing and Electronic Enterprise (ICSCEE). :1–4.
In the age of knowledge, Natural Language Processing (NLP) express its demand by a huge range of utilization. Previously NLP was dealing with statically data. Contemporary time NLP is doing considerably with the corpus, lexicon database, pattern reorganization. Considering Deep Learning (DL) method recognize artificial Neural Network (NN) to nonlinear process, NLP tools become increasingly accurate and efficient that begin a debacle. Multi-Layer Neural Network obtaining the importance of the NLP for its capability including standard speed and resolute output. Hierarchical designs of data operate recurring processing layers to learn and with this arrangement of DL methods manage several practices. In this paper, this resumed striving to reach a review of the tools and the necessary methodology to present a clear understanding of the association of NLP and DL for truly understand in the training. Efficiency and execution both are improved in NLP by Part of speech tagging (POST), Morphological Analysis, Named Entity Recognition (NER), Semantic Role Labeling (SRL), Syntactic Parsing, and Coreference resolution. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Time Delay Neural Networks (TDNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Convolution Neural Networks (CNN), and Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) dealings among Dense Vector (DV), Windows Approach (WA), and Multitask learning (MTL) as a characteristic of Deep Learning. After statically methods, when DL communicate the influence of NLP, the individual form of the NLP process and DL rule collaboration was started a fundamental connection.
2020-05-15
Wang, Jihe, Zhang, Meng, Qiu, Meikang.  2018.  A Diffusional Schedule for Traffic Reducing on Network-on-Chip. 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :206—210.
pubcrawl, Network on Chip Security, Scalability, resiliency, resilience, metrics, Tasks on NoC (Network-on-Chip) are less efficient because of long-distance data synchronization. An inefficient task schedule strategy can lead to a large number of remote data accessing that ruins the speedup of parallel execution of multiple tasks. Thus, we propose an energy efficient task schedule to reduce task traffic with a diffusional pattern. The task mapping algorithm can optimize traffic distribution by limit tasks into a small area to reduce NoC activities. Comparing to application-layer optimization, our task mapping can obtain 20% energy saving and 15% latency reduction on average.
2020-05-08
Dionísio, Nuno, Alves, Fernando, Ferreira, Pedro M., Bessani, Alysson.  2019.  Cyberthreat Detection from Twitter using Deep Neural Networks. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
To be prepared against cyberattacks, most organizations resort to security information and event management systems to monitor their infrastructures. These systems depend on the timeliness and relevance of the latest updates, patches and threats provided by cyberthreat intelligence feeds. Open source intelligence platforms, namely social media networks such as Twitter, are capable of aggregating a vast amount of cybersecurity-related sources. To process such information streams, we require scalable and efficient tools capable of identifying and summarizing relevant information for specified assets. This paper presents the processing pipeline of a novel tool that uses deep neural networks to process cybersecurity information received from Twitter. A convolutional neural network identifies tweets containing security-related information relevant to assets in an IT infrastructure. Then, a bidirectional long short-term memory network extracts named entities from these tweets to form a security alert or to fill an indicator of compromise. The proposed pipeline achieves an average 94% true positive rate and 91% true negative rate for the classification task and an average F1-score of 92% for the named entity recognition task, across three case study infrastructures.
2020-05-04
Jie, Bao, Liu, Jingju, Wang, Yongjie, Zhou, Xuan.  2019.  Digital Ant Mechanism and Its Application in Network Security. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :710–714.
Digital ant technology is a new distributed and self-organization cyberspace defense paradigm. This paper describes digital ants system's developing process, characteristics, system architecture and mechanisms to illustrate its superiority, searches the possible applications of digital ants system. The summary of the paper and the trends of digital ants system are pointed out.
2020-04-24
Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel, Lenzini, Gabriele.  2018.  Experience Report: How to Extract Security Protocols' Specifications from C Libraries. 2018 IEEE 42nd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 02:719—724.

Often, analysts have to face a challenging situation when formally verifying the implementation of a security protocol: they need to build a model of the protocol from only poorly or not documented code, and with little or no help from the developers to better understand it. Security protocols implementations frequently use services provided by libraries coded in the C programming language; automatic tools for codelevel reverse engineering offer good support to comprehend the behavior of code in object-oriented languages but are ineffective to deal with libraries in C. Here we propose a systematic, yet human-dependent approach, which combines the capabilities of state-of-the-art tools in order to help the analyst to retrieve, step by step, the security protocol specifications from a library in C. Those specifications can then be used to create the formal model needed to carry out the analysis.

2020-04-20
To, Hien, Shahabi, Cyrus, Xiong, Li.  2018.  Privacy-Preserving Online Task Assignment in Spatial Crowdsourcing with Untrusted Server. 2018 IEEE 34th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :833–844.
With spatial crowdsourcing (SC), requesters outsource their spatiotemporal tasks (tasks associated with location and time) to a set of workers, who will perform the tasks by physically traveling to the tasks' locations. However, current solutions require the locations of the workers and/or the tasks to be disclosed to untrusted parties (SC server) for effective assignments of tasks to workers. In this paper we propose a framework for assigning tasks to workers in an online manner without compromising the location privacy of workers and tasks. We perturb the locations of both tasks and workers based on geo-indistinguishability and then devise techniques to quantify the probability of reachability between a task and a worker, given their perturbed locations. We investigate both analytical and empirical models for quantifying the worker-task pair reachability and propose task assignment strategies that strike a balance among various metrics such as the number of completed tasks, worker travel distance and system overhead. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets show that our proposed techniques result in minimal disclosure of task locations and no disclosure of worker locations without significantly sacrificing the total number of assigned tasks.